Spotted sea hare Aplysia dactylomela, copyright Mike Tickle.

Belongs within: Opisthobranchia.

The Aplysiomorpha, sea hares and related taxa, are a group of soft-bodied marine gastropods with a reduced shell (external in Akeridae, internal in Aplysiidae). They are characterised by the presence of the defensive opaline and purple glands in the mantle cavity, and an oesophageal gizzard containing an anterior chamber with large chitinous plates and a posterior chamber with numerous fine spines (Sea Slug Forum.

<==Aplysiomorpha [Aplysiacea, Aplysiida, Aplysiina]
    |  i. s.: Phyllaplysia CG99
    |           |--P. engeli CG99
    |           `--P. smaragda CG99
    |--Akeridae [Akeroidea] BR05
    |    |--Akera Müller 1776 [=Acera (l. c.); Akerinae] BR05
    |    |    `--A. bullata C60
    |    `--Clistaxis [=Cryptaxis (preoc.)] O27
    |         |--*C. parvula O27
    |         |--C. crebripunctatus O27
    |         `--C. polystrigma Dall 1908 O27
    `--Aplysiidae [Aplysioidea, Laplysiana, Laplysinia, Tetracea] BR05
         |  i. s.: Sympterus BR05
         |--Dolabrifera Gray 1847 [Dolabriferidae, Dolabriferinae] BR05
         |    `--D. dolabrifera KC11
         |--Dolabella Lamarck 1801 [Dolabellidae, Dolabellinae] BR05
         |    |--D. auricularia (Lightfoot 1786) BW09
         |    |--D. ecaudata (Rang. 1828) [=Aplysia ecaudata] H09
         |    `--D. scapula (Martyn 1786) [=Patella scapula] H09
         |--Notarchinae [Brevicommisuratae, Notarchidae] BR05
         |    |--Busiris Risso 1826 [Busiridae] BR05
         |    `--Notarchus Cuvier 1817 BR05
         |         `--N. indicus Schweigger 1820 BD86
         |--Bursatella Blainville 1817 BD86, BR05 [Bursatellinae]
         |    `--B. leachi de Blainville 1817 BD86
         |         |--B. l. leachi BD86
         |         `--B. l. savigniana Audouin 1826 BD86
         `--Aplysia Linnaeus 1767 [=Laplysia; Aplysiinae, Longicommisurata] BR05
              |  i. s.: A. braziliana Rang 1828 S11
              |         A. californica Cooper 1863 TN03 [=Tethys (Neaplysia) californica O27]
              |         A. parvula HS01
              |         A. rosea [incl. A. rosea var. punctata] M62
              `--A. (Varria) W86
                   |--A. (V.) dactylomela Rang 1828 W86
                   |--A. (V.) denisoni Smith 1884 W86 [=Tethys denisoni H09]
                   |--A. (V.) gigantea Sowerby 1869 W86
                   |--A. (V.) oculifera Adams & Reeve 1850 W86
                   |--A. (V.) reticulata Eales 1960 W86
                   `--A. (V.) sydneyensis Sowerby 1869 [incl. A. tasmanica Tenison Woods 1876] W86

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BD86] Barash, A., & Z. Danin. 1986. Further additions to the knowledge of Indo-Pacific Mollusca in the Mediterranean Sea (Lessepsian migrants). Spixiana 9 (2): 117–141.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1-2): 1–397.

[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[CG99] Carlton, J. T., J. B. Geller, M. L. Reaka-Kudla & E. A. Norse. 1999. Historical extinctions in the sea. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 30: 315–338.

[C60] Cox, L. R. 1960. Gastropoda: general characteristics of Gastropoda. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia, pp. I84–I169. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45–80.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[KC11] Kocot, K. M., J. T. Cannon, C. Todt, M. R. Citarella, A. B. Kohn, A. Meyer, S. R. Santos, C. Schander, L. L. Moroz, B. Lieb & K. M. Halanych. 2011. Phylogenomics reveals deep molluscan relationships. Nature 477: 452–456.

[M62] Monniot, F. 1962. Recherches sur les graviers a Amphioxus de la région de Banyuls-sur-Mer. Vie et Milieu 13: 231–322.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. II pt I. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[TN03] Thollesson, M., & J. L. Norenburg. 2003. Ribbon worm relationships: A phylogeny of the phylum Nemertea. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences 270: 407–415.

[W86] Wells, F. E. 1986. A redescription of the sea hare Aplysia gigantea Sowerby, 1869. J. Malac. Soc. Aust. 7 (3-4): 173–180.

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