Tholia tuberculata, copyright Ed Nieuwenhuys.

Belongs within: Tetrapulmonata.
Contains: Drassus, Arthrolycosidae, Liphistiidae, Mygalomorphae, Araneomorphae.

The Araneae, spiders, are a diverse group of arachnids in which the chelicerae are modified to bear venomous fangs. Silk is produced from an array of spinnerets at the end of the abdomen. In most living spiders, forming the clade Opisthothelae, all trace of external segmentation has been lost from the abdomen; segments are still visible on the abdomen of the remaining spiders in the Mesothelae.

Characters (from Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007): Body divided between cephalothorax (prosoma) and abdomen (opisthosoma), connected by narrow pedicel. Cephalothorax with cephalic and thoracic regions sometimes clearly demarcated by cervical groove; fovea often present behind cervical groove. Eight or fewer eyes present in cephalic region. Venter of cephalothorax with undivided sternal plate, usually marked anteriorly by labiosternal junction. Chelicerae consisting of stout basal section (paturon) and movable distal fang; fang usually resting in groove (cheliceral furrow); duct opening at tip of fang leading to venom gland in cephalothorax. Chewing mouthparts (endites) form from expansion of coxae of pedipalps; rim of endites bearing cuticular serrated ridge (serrula); promargins of endites fringed with scopulae; labium present between endites. Pedipalps six-segmented, metatarsus absent; female pedipalps simple, usually bearing single tarsal claw; male pedipalps with distal segments modified into secondary copulatory organ, with genital bulb consisting of more or less sclerotised tegulum, with winding sperm ducts, and intromittant embolus. Four pairs of seven-segmented legs present; leg tarsi bearing two or three claws. Abdomen bearing usually three pairs of spinnerets in front of anal opening. Respiratory system comprising one or two pairs of booklungs, and one or two pairs of tubular tracheae. Genitalia opening externally within epigastric groove running transversely across venter of abdomen close to pedicel.

Araneae [Arachnides, Aranea, Aranina, Artharachnae, Parallelodontes]
    |--Mesothelae [Verticulatae] S02
    |    |  i. s.: Palaeothele montceauensis SSS08
    |    `--Liphistiidae JD-S07
    `--Opisthothelae S02
         |--Mygalomorphae S02
         `--Araneomorphae S02

Araneae incertae sedis:
  Archoleptona schusteri UB02
  Blabomma UB02
  Cupiennius D01
  Bryantella smaragdus (Crane 1945) [incl. Parnaenus convexus Chickering 1946] J02
  Pterinochilus WS02
    |--P. carnivorus Strand 1917 J98
    `--P. nigrofulvus (Pocock 1898) WS02
  Lophomma punctatum RKD02
  Tholia KK90
    |--T. conifera Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK90
    |--T. mammeata Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK90
    |--T. peltata Koch in Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK90
    |--T. pilosa Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK90
    |--T. simpla Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK90
    `--T. tuberculata Koch in Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK90
  Heurodes Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK90
    `--*H. turrita Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK90
  Carepalxis Koch 1872 KK90
    |--C. bilobata Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK90
    |--C. furcula Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK90
    `--C. tuberculata Koch & Keyserling 1886 KK90
  Ulesanis Koch 1872 KK90
    `--U. sextuberculata Koch & Keyserling 1890 KK90
  Wirada Keyserling 1886 KK90
    `--W. rotunda Koch & Keyserling 1890 KK90
  Tobesoa Koch & Keyserling 1890 KK90
    `--*T. theridioides Koch & Keyserling 1890 KK90
  Diaca insulana Koch & Keyserling 1890 KK90
  Gmogala Koch & Keyserling 1890 [=Imogala (l. c.)] KK90
    `--*G. scarabaea Koch & Keyserling 1890 [=Imogala (l. c.) scarabaea] KK90
  Euro permunda B96
  Daramulunia [=Daramuliana (l. c.)] C90
  Pyritaraneidae D07
    |--Pyritaranea tubifera F04
    `--Dinopilio Fritsch 1904 D07, F04
         `--*D. gigas Fritsch 1904 F04
  Amphitrogulus sternalis Gourret 1886 D07
  Phalangillum hirsutum Gourret 1886 D07
  Tidarren sisyphoides CM07
  Novakia ‘trituberculata’ (Urquhart 1887) [=Epeira trituberculata non Lucas 1846] NS00
  Phalaea marginata Strand 1907 J98
  Barusia maheni (Kratochvíl & Miller 1939) UO05
  Hadites tegenarioides Keyserling 1862 UO05
  Drassidae K01
    |--Drassus D59
    |--Pythonissa cinerea K01
    `--Prosthesima K01
         |--P. barbata K01
         |--P. foveolata K01
         `--P. iaxartensis K01
  Ariadne Doleschall 1857 D57
    `--*A. flagellum Doleschall 1857 D57
  Sarinda linda C08
  Arthrolycosidae F04
  Hemiphrynus [Hemiphrynidae, Pleuraraneae] F04
    |--H. hofmanni F04
    `--H. longipes F04
  Perneria Fritsch 1904 F04
    `--*P. salticoides [=Arthrolycosa salticoides] F04
  Pleurolycosa Fritsch 1904 F04
    `--*P. prolifera [=Arthrolycosa prolifera] F04
  Acrosoma H99
    |--A. bifurcatum H99
    |--A. hexacanthum H99
    `--A. spinosum H99
  Plator [Platoridae] K01
    |--P. indicus Sim. 1897 K01
    `--P. insolens Simon 1880 K01
  Troglodiplura lowryi Y95

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B96] Brunet, B. 1996. Spiderwatch: A Guide to Australian Spiders. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

[C08] Ceccarelli, F. S. 2008. Behavioral mimicry in Myrmarachne species (Araneae, Salticidae) from north Queensland, Australia. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 344–351.

[C90] Coddington, J. A. 1990. Book review: Advances in spider taxonomy 1981–1987: a supplement to Brignoli’s A catalogue of the Araneae described between 1940 and 1981 (edited by P. Merrett), by Norman I. Platnick. Journal of Arachnology 18: 245–248.

[CM07] Cokendolpher, J. C., & P. G. Mitov. 2007. Natural enemies. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 339–373. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[D01] Dohle, W. 2001. Are the insects terrestrial crustaceans? A discussion of some new facts and arguments and the proposal of the proper name ‘Tetraconata’ for the monophyletic unit Crustacea + Hexapoda. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (N.S.) 37 (1–2): 85–103.

[D57] Doleschall, C. L. 1857. Bijdrage tot de kennis der Arachniden van den Indischen Archipel. Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië, series 3, 3 (5–6): 399–434, pls 1–2.

[D59] Doleschall, C. L. 1859. Tweede Bijdrage tot de kennis der Arachniden van den Indischen Archipel. Verhandelingen der Natuurkundige Vereeniging in Nederlandsch Indie [Acta Societatis Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae] 5 (5): 1–60, pls 1–18.

[D07] Dunlop, J. A. 2007. Paleontology. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 247–265. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[F04] Fritsch, A. 1904. Palaeozoische Arachniden. Selestverlag: Prague.

[H99] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[J98] Jäger, P. 1998. Das Typenmaterial der Spinnentiere (Arachnida: Acari, Amblypygi, Araneae, Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones, Scorpiones, Uropygi) aus dem Museum Wiesbaden. Jahrbuecher des Nassauischen Vereins fuer Naturkunde 119: 81–91.

[J02] Jocqué, R. 2002. Genitalic polymorphism—a challenge for taxonomy. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 298–306.

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[KK90] Koch, L., & E. Keyserling. 1884–1890. Die Arachniden Australiens nach der Natur beschrieben und abgebildet vol. 2. Bauer & Raspe: Nürnberg.

[K01] Kulczyński, V. 1901. Arachnoideák [Arachnoidea]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 311–369. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[NS00] Nicholls, D. C., P. J. Sirvid, S. D. Pollard & M. Walker. 2000. A list of arachnid primary types held in Canterbury Museum. Records of the Canterbury Museum 14: 37–48.

[RKD02] Relys, V., S. Koponen & D. Dapkus. 2002. Annual differences and species turnover in peat bog spider communities. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 416–424.

[S02] Selden, P. A. 2002. First British Mesozoic spider, from Cretaceous amber of the Isle of Wight, southern England. Palaeontology 45 (5): 973–983.

[SSS08] Selden, P. A., W. A. Shear & M. D. Sutton. 2008. Fossil evidence for the origin of spider spinnerets, and a proposed arachnid order. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 105 (52): 20781–20785.

[UB02] Ubick, D., & T. S. Briggs. 2002. The harvestman family Phalangodidae 4. A review of the genus Banksula (Opiliones, Laniatores). Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 435–451.

[UO05] Ubick, D., & R. Ozimec. 2005. On the harvestman genus Lola Kratochvíl (Opiliones: Laniatores). Natura Croatica 14 (3): 161–174.

[WS02] Whitmore, C., R. Slotov, T. E. Crouch & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2002. Diversity of spiders (Araneae) in a savanna reserve, Northern Province, South Africa. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 344–356.

[Y95] Yen, A. L. 1995. Australian spiders: an opportunity for conservation. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 52: 39–47.

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