Lycosoidea

Cambridgea foliata, copyright Liam Grange.


Belongs within: Amaurobioidea.
Contains: Ctenidae, Zoridae, Miturgidae, Pisauridae, Lycosidae, Oxyopidae.

The Lycosoidea are a clade of mostly actively hunting spiders.

Synapomorphies (from Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007): Secondary eyes with grate-shaped tapetum; posterior eye row recurved.

Lycosoidea [Citigradae]
    |--Ctenoidea JD-S07
    |    |--Ctenidae GC99
    |    `--Zoropsidae [Zoropsoidea] GC99
    |         |--Akamasia Bosselaers 2002 JD-S07
    |         |--Huntia Gray & Thompson 2001 JD-S07
    |         |--Kilyana Raven & Stumkat 2005 JD-S07
    |         |--Megateg Raven & Stumkat 2005 JD-S07
    |         |--Takeoa Lehtinen 1967 JD-S07
    |         |--Uliodon Koch 1873 JD-S07
    |         |--Devendra Lehtinen 1967 JD-S07
    |         |--Griswoldia Dippenaar-Schoeman & Jocqué 1997 [Griswoldiinae] JD-S07
    |         |--Phanotea Simon 1896 JD-S07
    |         `--Zoropsis Simon 1878 [Zoropsinae] JD-S07
    |              |--Z. bilineata JD-S07
    |              |--Z. lutea (Thorell 1875) PO08
    |              `--Z. media JD-S07
    `--+--+--+--Zoridae JD-S07
       |  |  `--Miturgidae JD-S07
       |  `--Lycosaeformia JD-S07
       |       |--Pisauridae JD-S07
       |       `--+--Lycosidae JD-S07
       |          `--Trechaleidae JD-S07
       |               |--Syntrechalea brasilia Carico 2008 FM11
       |               |--Enna JD-S07
       |               `--Trechalea Thorell 1870 JD-S07
       |                    |--T. biocellata MC05
       |                    `--T. keyserlingi CM07
       `--+--Psechridae JD-S07
          |    |--Poaka graminicola FF99
          |    |--Fecenia Simon 1887 JD-S07
          |    |    `--F. oblonga Rainbow 1913 R13
          |    `--Psechrus Thorell 1878 [incl. Lancaria Karsch 1879] K92
          |         |--P. argentatus (Dol. 1857) [=Tegenaria argentata; incl. T. torva Cambr. 1870, Lancaria torva] K92
          |         `--P. singaporensis JD-S07
          `--+--+--Senoculus Taczanowski 1875 [Senoculidae] JD-S07
             |  `--Oxyopidae JD-S07
             `--Stiphidiidae [Stiphidiinae] JD-S07
                  |--Corasoides australis FF99
                  |--Nanocambridgea gracilipes FF99
                  |--Ischalea spinipes (Koch 1872) FF99, NS00 [incl. Tetragnatha tenella Urquhart 1893 NS00]
                  |--Baiami GC99
                  |--Tartarus JD-S07
                  |--Stiphidion Simon 1902 JD-S07
                  |    `--S. facetum (Simon 1902) B96 [incl. Amarara fera FF99]
                  `--Cambridgea Koch 1872 JD-S07, S02
                       |--C. antipodiana H09
                       |--C. arboricola FF99
                       `--C. foliata FF99

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CM07] Cokendolpher, J. C., & P. G. Mitov. 2007. Natural enemies. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 339–373. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[FF99] Forster, R., & L. Forster. 1999. Spiders of New Zealand and their World-wide Kin. University of Otago Press: Dunedin (New Zealand).

[FM11] Freire-Jr, G. de B., & P. C. Motta. 2011. Effects of experimental fire regimes on the abundance and diversity of cursorial arachnids of Brazilian savannah (cerrado biome). Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 263–272.

[GC99] Griswold, C. E., J. A. Coddington, N. I. Platnick & R. R. Forster. 1999. Towards a phylogeny of entelegyne spiders (Araneae, Araneomorphae, Entelegynae). Journal of Arachnology 27: 53–63.

[H09] Hogg, H. R. 1909. Some New Zealand and Tasmanian Arachnidae. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 42: 273–283.

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[K92] Karsch, F. 1892. Arachniden von Ceylon und von Minikoy gesammelt von den Herren Doctoren P. und F. Sarasin. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 36 (2): 267–310.

[MC05] Machado, G., P. C. Carrera, A. M. Pomini & A. J. Marsaioli. 2005. Chemical defense in harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones): do benzoquinone secretions deter invertebrate and vertebrate predators? Journal of Chemical Ecology 31 (11): 2519–2539.

[NS00] Nicholls, D. C., P. J. Sirvid, S. D. Pollard & M. Walker. 2000. A list of arachnid primary types held in Canterbury Museum. Records of the Canterbury Museum 14: 37–48.

[PO08] Pluess, T., I. Opatovsky, E. Gavish-Regev, Y. Lubin & M. H. Schmidt. 2008. Spiders in wheat fields and semi-desert in the Negev (Israel). Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 368–373.

[R13] Rainbow, W. J. 1913. Arachnida from the Solomon Islands. Records of the Australian Museum 10 (1): 1–16.

[S02] Selden, P. A. 2002. Missing links between Argyroneta and Cybaeidae revealed by fossil spiders. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 189–200.

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