Entelegynae

Female Leptodrassus femineus, copyright Jørgen Lissner.



Belongs within: Araneomorphae.
Contains: Argyronetidae, Hahniidae, Cycloctenidae, Palpimanoidea, Phyxelididae, Dictynidae, Amaurobioidea, Sparassidae, Philodromidae, Thomisidae, Anyphaenidae, Corinnidae, Liocranidae, Salticidae, Gnaphosoidea, Clubiona, Plectana, Deinopoidea, Nicodamidae, Araneoidea, Eresidae, Oecobiidae, Hersiliidae.

The Entelegynae is a clade of spiders ancestrally characterised by an entelegyne female reproductive system, with an epigyne bearing separate pairs of ducts for sperm transport during insemination and fertilisation, though some subgroups have reverted to a plesiomorphic 'haplogyne' system with a single pair of ducts (Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007). Entelegynes with the exception of the Eresoidea and Palpimanoidea form a clade characterised by a cane-shaped tapetum in the secondary eyes (Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007).

Synapomorphies (from Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007): Labium and sternum separated; cylindrical gland spigots present on spinnerets; epigyne a flow-through system with separate fertilisation ducts.

<==Entelegynae [Dictynoidea] GC99
    |  i. s.: Argyronetidae S02
    |         Hahniidae S02
    |         Cycloctenidae GC99
    |         Eurocoelotes inermis (Koch 1855) SL14
    |         Homalonychus Marx 1891 [Homalonychidae] JD-S07
    |           `--H. theologus JD-S07
    |--+--Palpimanoidea GC99
    |  `--+--+--Titanoecoidea JD-S07
    |     |  |    |--Phyxelididae GC99
    |     |  |    `--Titanoecidae GC99
    |     |  |         |--Goeldia Keyserling 1891 JD-S07
    |     |  |         |--Anuvinda Lehtinen 1967 JD-S07
    |     |  |         |--Nurscia Simon 1874 JD-S07
    |     |  |         |--Pandava Lehtinen 1967 JD-S07
    |     |  |         `--Titanoeca Thorell 1869 JD-S07
    |     |  |              `--T. obscura JD-S07
    |     |  `--+--Dictynidae BS09
    |     |     `--+--Amaurobioidea JD-S07
    |     |        `--Dionycha [Laterigradae] JD-S07
    |     |             |  i. s.: Botryogaster Doleschall 1859 D59
    |     |             |           `--*B. coerulescens Doleschall 1859 D59
    |     |             |--Sparassidae JD-S07
    |     |             |--Philodromidae D59
    |     |             |--Thomisidae BS09
    |     |             |--Anyphaenidae JD-S07
    |     |             |--Corinnidae JD-S07
    |     |             |--Liocranidae JD-S07
    |     |             |--Salticidae JD-S07
    |     |             |--Gnaphosoidea JD-S07
    |     |             |--Selenopidae [Selenopinae] JD-S07
    |     |             |    |--Anyphops Benoit 1968 JD-S07
    |     |             |    |--Hovops Benoit 1968 JD-S07
    |     |             |    |--Garcorops Cotronca 2003 JD-S07
    |     |             |    |    `--G. jadis JD-S07
    |     |             |    |--Selenops Latreille 1819 M54
    |     |             |    |    |--S. aissus B06
    |     |             |    |    `--S. australiensis Koch 1871 M54
    |     |             |    `--Karaops burbidgei Crews & Harvey 2011 T13
    |     |             `--Clubionidae [Clubionoidea] JD-S07
    |     |                  |--Clubiona J98
    |     |                  |--Phrurotimpus alarius JVHN90
    |     |                  |--Wulfila ventralis Banks 1906 B06
    |     |                  |--Clastes freycineti S10
    |     |                  |--Scotinella D90
    |     |                  |--Clubionoides D90
    |     |                  |--Zatapina Karsch 1892 K92
    |     |                  |    `--*Z. plumipes (Doleschall 1859) [=Delena plumipes, Tychicus plumipes] K92
    |     |                  |--Onychocryptus Karsch 1892 K92
    |     |                  |    `--*O. mutillarius Karsch 1892 K92
    |     |                  |--Pandercetes Koch 1875 S10, J08
    |     |                  |    `--P. isopus S10
    |     |                  |--Tychichus S10
    |     |                  |    |--T. genitalis Strand 1910 S10
    |     |                  |    `--T. longipes K92
    |     |                  |--Prychia S10
    |     |                  |    |--P. gracilis K. 1875 R13
    |     |                  |    `--P. pallidula Strand 1910 S10
    |     |                  |--Matidia Thorell 1878 CH12
    |     |                  |    |--*M. virens (Thorell 1878) CH12
    |     |                  |    `--M. spatulata Chen & Huang 2006 CH12
    |     |                  `--Leptodrassus Simon 1878 K92
    |     |                       |--*L. femineus K92
    |     |                       |--L. scutatus K92
    |     |                       `--L. seriatus Karsch 1892 K92
    |     `--Orbiculariae [Euetrioidae, Orbitelae, Orbitelariae] BS09
    |          |  i. s.: Plectana D59
    |          |         Argyroepeira Em. 1884 T94
    |          |           |--A. culta K92
    |          |           |--A. nigrotrivittata (Doleschall 1859) [=Epeira nigrotrivittata] T94
    |          |           `--A. ventralis K92
    |          |         Notocentria Thorell 1894 T94
    |          |           `--*N. sexspinosa Thorell 1894 T94
    |          |         Talthybia depressa Thorell 1898 GA11
    |          |--Deinopoidea BS09
    |          `--+--Nicodamidae BS09
    |             `--Araneoidea BS09
    `--Eresoidea GC99
         |--Eresidae JD-S07
         `--+--Oecobiidae JD-S07
            `--Hersiliidae JD-S07

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B06] Banks, N. 1906. Arachnida from the Bahamas. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 22: 185–189.

[BS09] Blackledge, T. A., N. Scharff, J. A. Coddington, T. Szüts, J. W. Wenzel, C. Y. Hayashi & I. Agnarsson. 2009. Reconstructing web evolution and spider diversification in the molecular era. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (13): 5229–5234.

[CH12] Chen, S.-H. & W.-J. Huang. 2012. The Spider Fauna of Taiwan—Araneae: Miturgidae, Anyphaenidae, Clubionidae. National Taiwan Normal University.

[D59] Doleschall, C. L. 1859. Tweede Bijdrage tot de kennis der Arachniden van den Indischen Archipel. Verhandelingen der Natuurkundige Vereeniging in Nederlandsch Indie [Acta Societatis Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae] 5 (5): 1–60, pls 1–18.

[D90] Dondale, C. D. 1990. Litter Araneae (Araneida). In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 477–502. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[GA11] Gregorič, M., I. Agnarsson, T. A. Blackledge & M. Kuntner. 2011. Darwin's bark spider: giant prey in giant orb webs (Caerostris darwini, Araneae: Araneidae)? Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 287–295.

[GC99] Griswold, C. E., J. A. Coddington, N. I. Platnick & R. R. Forster. 1999. Towards a phylogeny of entelegyne spiders (Araneae, Araneomorphae, Entelegynae). Journal of Arachnology 27: 53–63.

[J98] Jäger, P. 1998. Das Typenmaterial der Spinnentiere (Arachnida: Acari, Amblypygi, Araneae, Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones, Scorpiones, Uropygi) aus dem Museum Wiesbaden. Jahrbuecher des Nassauischen Vereins fuer Naturkunde 119: 81–91.

[J08] Jäger, P. 2008. Revision of the huntsman spider genus Heteropoda Latreille 1804: species with exceptional male palpal conformations from southeast Asia and Australia (Arachnida, Araneae, Sparassidae, Heteropodinae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (2): 239–310.

[JVHN90] Jennings, D. T., W. M. Vander Haegen & A. M. Narahara. 1990. A sampling of forest-floor spiders (Araneae) by expellant, Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge, Maine. Journal of Arachnology 18: 173–180.

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[K92] Karsch, F. 1892. Arachniden von Ceylon und von Minikoy gesammelt von den Herren Doctoren P. und F. Sarasin. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 36 (2): 267–310.

[M54] Main, B. Y. 1954. Spiders and Opiliones. In: Willis, J. H. (ed.) The Archipelago of the Recherche pp. 37–53. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

[R13] Rainbow, W. J. 1913. Arachnida from the Solomon Islands. Records of the Australian Museum 10 (1): 1–16.

[SL14] Samu, F., G. Lengyel, É. Szita, A. Bidló & P. Ódor. 2014. The effect of forest stand characteristics on spider diversity and species composition in deciduous-coniferous mixed forests. Journal of Arachnology 42 (2): 135–141.

[S02] Selden, P. A. 2002. Missing links between Argyroneta and Cybaeidae revealed by fossil spiders. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 189–200.

[S10] Strand, E. 1910. Spinnentiere aus Neuguinea (Opiliones, Psechridae und Clubionidae) gesammelt von Dr. Schlaginhaufen. Abhandlungen und Berichte des Königl. Zoologischen und Anthropologisch-Ethnographischen Museums zu Dresden 13 (5): 1–16.

[T13] Taylor, C. K. 2013. Annotated bibliography for Barrow Island terrestrial invertebrates. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 135–144.

[T94] Thorell, T. 1894. Förteckning öfver Arachnider från Java och närgränsande öar, insamlade af docenten D:r Carl Aurivillius; jemte beskrifingar å några sydasiatiska och sydamerikanska Spindlar. Bihang till K. Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar 20 pt. 4 (4): 1–63.

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