Araneinae

Alpaida veniliae, copyright Julián Tocce.


Belongs within: Araneidae.
Contains: Araneini.

The Araneinae includes the 'typical' orb-weaving spiders, generally constructing a conventional orb-web at night and resting in a camouflaged retreat away from the web during the day (Framenau 2011).

<==Araneinae
    |--+--Perilla Thorell 1895 K02
    |  |    `--*P. teres Thorell 1895 [incl. P. cylindrogaster Simon 1909] K02
    |  `--Chorizopes O.P.-Cambridge 1870 [Chorizopinae] K02
    |       `--*C. frontalis K02
    `--+--Singafrotypa Benoit 1962 K02
       |    |--S. acanthopus (Simon 1907) K02
       |    `--S. okavango K02
       `--+--Araneini K02
          `--+--+--Enacrosoma Mello-Leitão 1932 K02, AM11
             |  `--Bertrana Keyserling 1884 K02, AM11
             `--Alpaida Pickard-Cambridge 1889 K02, AM11
                  |--A. grayi [=Aranea grayi] F09
                  |--A. leucogramma (White 1841) AM11
                  |--A. truncata (Keyserling 1865) AM11
                  `--A. veniliae (Keyserling 1865) P-GGJ08

Araneinae incertae sedis:
  Cyclosa Menge 1866 K02 [Cyclosini G76]
    |--*C. conica (Pallas 1772) [=Aranea conica] G76
    |--C. argenteoalba Bösenberg & Strand 1906 B11
    |--C. atrata Bösenberg & Strand 1906 AM11
    |--C. bifida (Doleschall 1859) AM11
    |--C. caroli E90
    |--C. confraga (Thorell 1892) AM11
    |--C. insulana (Costa 1834) Z02
    |--C. octotuberculata Karsch 1879 B11
    |--C. oculata (Walckenaer 1802) G76
    |--C. sedeculata Karsch 1879 B11
    |--C. spirifera Simon 1889 AM11
    |--C. trilobata (Urquhart 1885) [=Arachnura trilobata] NS00
    |--C. turbinata (Walckenaer 1842) Z02
    `--C. walckenaeri (Pickard-Cambridge 1889) Z02
  Mangora P.-Cambridge 1889 [Mangorini] G76
    |--*M. picta P.-Cambridge 1889 G76
    |--M. acalypha (Walckenaer 1802) G76
    `--M. placida JVHN90
  0--Lariniophora Framenau 2011 F11
  |    `--*L. ragnhildae (Strand 1917) (see below for synonymy) F11
  `--Eriophora Simon 1864 F11
       |--*E. ravilla (Koch 1844) F11
       |--E. biapicata (Koch 1871) F11
       |--E. decorosa (Urquhart 1894) [=Epeira decorosa] NS00
       |--E. fuliginea (Koch 1838) B11
       |--E. herione [incl. Epeira brounii Urquhart 1884] FF99
       |--E. pustulosa (Walckenaer 1842) F11 (see below for synonymy)
       `--E. transmarina (Keyserling 1865) B96 [=Aranea transmarina FF99]
  Larinia Simon 1874 F11
    |--L. acuticauda Simon 1906 (see below for synonymy) J98
    |--L. directa (Hentz 1847) AM11
    `--L. phthisica (Koch 1871) F11
  Verrucosa McCook 1888 F11
    `--V. arenata (Walckenaer 1842) WA02
  Backobourkia Framenau, Dupérré et al. 2010 F11
  Anepsion Strand 1929 F11
  Novakiella Court & Forster 1993 F11
  Scoloderus F11
  Acanthepeira Marx 1883 F11, AM11
    `--A. stellata BS09
  Dolophones maximus F11, B96
  Metazygia F11
    |--M. gregalis (Pickard-Cambridge 1889) P-GGJ08
    `--M. rogenhoferi (Keyserling 1878) P-GGJ08
  Colphepeira F11
  Phonognatha Simon 1894 BS09, K02
    |--P. graeffei (Rainbow 1896) B96
    |--P. melania B96
    `--P. sylvicola B96
  0--Zygiella Pickard-Cambridge 1902 F11, MG03 [=Zygia Koch 1834 non Fabricius 1775 G76; Zygiellinae]
  |    |--*Z. atrica (Koch 1845) (see below for synonymy) G76
  |    |--Z. kochi (Thorell 1870) [=Zilla kochi] G76
  |    |--Z. montana (Koch 1839) [=Zilla montana] G76
  |    |--Z. thorelli (Ausserer 1871) [=Zilla thorelli] G76
  |    `--Z. x-notata (Clerck 1757) MG03 [=Zilla x-notata] G76
  `--+--Kaira F11
     `--Metepeira F.O.P.-Cambridge 1903 F11, A02
          |--M. incrassata Pickard-Cambridge 1903 B11
          |--M. labyrinthea (Hentz 1847) B11
          `--M. spinipes Pickard-Cambridge 1903 B11
  0--Eustala Simon 1895 F11, AM11
  |    `--E. sagana (Keyserling 1893) AM11
  `--+--Wixia Pickard-Cambridge 1882 F11, AM11
     `--Acacesia Simon 1895 F11, AM11
          `--A. hamata E90

Eriophora pustulosa (Walckenaer 1842) F11 [=Araneus pustulosus FF99, Aranea pustulosa M54; incl. Epeira blattea Urquhart 1893 NS00, Ep. helveoguttata Urquhart 1888 NS00, Ep. ostribrunnea Urquhart 1890 NS00]

Larinia acuticauda Simon 1906 [=Drexelia acuticauda; incl. D. camerunica Strand 1908, Larinia camerunica] J98

*Lariniophora ragnhildae (Strand 1917) [=Araneus ragnhildae; incl. Epeira gracilis Hogg 1896 nec Walckenaer 1805 nec Keyserling 1865 nec Menge 1879, A. gracilis] F11

*Zygiella atrica (Koch 1845) [=Eucharia atrica, Zilla atrica, Zygia calophylla non Aranea calophylla Walckenaer 1802] G76

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A02] Agnarsson, I. 2002. Sharing a web—on the relation of sociality and kleptoparasitism in theridiid spiders (Theridiidae, Araneae). Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 181–188.

[AM11] Araujo, D., V. F. Mattos, A. M. Giroti, M. G. Kraeski, L. S. Carvalho & A. D. Brescovit. 2011. Cytogenetical characterization of six orb-weaver species and review of cytogenetical data for Araneidae. Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 337–344.

[B11] Blackledge, T. A. 2011. Prey capture in orb weaving spiders: are we using the best metric? Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 205–210.

[BS09] Blackledge, T. A., N. Scharff, J. A. Coddington, T. Szüts, J. W. Wenzel, C. Y. Hayashi & I. Agnarsson. 2009. Reconstructing web evolution and spider diversification in the molecular era. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (13): 5229–5234.

[B96] Brunet, B. 1996. Spiderwatch: A Guide to Australian Spiders. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

[E90] Eberhard, W. G. 1990. Early stages of orb construction by Philoponella vicinia, Leucauge mariana, and Nephila clavipes (Araneae, Uloboridae and Tetragnathidae), and their phylogenetic implications. Journal of Arachnology 18: 205–234.

[F09] Fisher, E. M. 2009. Asilidae (robber flies, assassin flies, moscas cazadoras, moscas ladronas). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1, pp. 585–632. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[FF99] Forster, R., & L. Forster. 1999. Spiders of New Zealand and their World-wide Kin. University of Otago Press: Dunedin (New Zealand).

[F11] Framenau, V. W. 2011. Lariniophora, a new monotypic orb-weaving spider genus from Australia (Araneae: Araneidae: Araneinae). Records of the Western Australian Museum 26 (2): 191–201.

[G76] Grasshoff, M. 1976. Zur Taxonomie und Nomenklatur mitteleuropäischer Radnetzspinnen der Familie Araneidae (Arachnida: Araneae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1–3): 143–154.

[J98] Jäger, P. 1998. Das Typenmaterial der Spinnentiere (Arachnida: Acari, Amblypygi, Araneae, Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones, Scorpiones, Uropygi) aus dem Museum Wiesbaden. Jahrbuecher des Nassauischen Vereins fuer Naturkunde 119: 81–91.

[JVHN90] Jennings, D. T., W. M. Vander Haegen & A. M. Narahara. 1990. A sampling of forest-floor spiders (Araneae) by expellant, Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge, Maine. Journal of Arachnology 18: 173–180.

[K02] Kuntner, M. 2002. The placement of Perilla (Araneae, Araneidae) with comments on araneid phylogeny. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 281–287.

[M54] Main, B. Y. 1954. Spiders and Opiliones. In: Willis, J. H. (ed.) The Archipelago of the Recherche pp. 37–53. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

[MG03] Marusik, Yu. M., & E. F. Guseinov. 2003. Spiders (Arachnida: Aranei) of Azerbaijan. 1. New family and genus records. Arthropoda Selecta 12 (1): 29–46.

[NS00] Nicholls, D. C., P. J. Sirvid, S. D. Pollard & M. Walker. 2000. A list of arachnid primary types held in Canterbury Museum. Records of the Canterbury Museum 14: 37–48.

[P-GGJ08] Penna-Gonçalves, V., C. R. M. Garcia & H. F. Japyassú. 2008. Homology in a context dependent predatory behavior in spiders (Araneae). Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 352–359.

[WA02] Whitehouse, M., I. Agnarsson, T. Miyashita, D. Smith, K. Cangialosi, T. Matsumoto, D. Li & Y. Henaut. 2002. Argyrodes: Phylogeny, sociality and interspecific interactions—a report on the Argyrodes symposium, Badplaas 2001. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 238–245.

[Z02] Zschokke, S. 2002. Ultraviolet reflectance of spiders and their webs. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 246–254.

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