Reconstruction of Protereisma permianum, from here.

Belongs within: Pterygota.
Contains: Furcatergalia, Pisciformia.

The Ephemeroptera include the mayflies, a group of insects that spend the greater part of their life cycle as aquatic nymphs (called naiads), with the emergent stage of their life-cycle (including two instars, the sub-adult subimago and the fully mature imago) being non-feeding and short-lived.

Synapomorphies (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Costal brace present at base of forewing; anal region in hind wing reduced; juveniles as aquatic naiads, with lateral abdominal gills and three caudal filaments.

<==Ephemeroptera [Ephemerida, Ephemeropteroidea, Permoplectoptera, Protereismatina]
    |--Oboriphlebia KS02 [Oboriphlebiidae GE05]
    |--Jarmila Demoulin 1970 D70b [Jarmilidae GE05]
    |    `--*J. elongata Demoulin 1970 D70b
    |--Palingeniopsis KS02 [Palingeniopsidae GE05]
    |    `--P. praecox KS02
    |--Misthodotes KS02 [Misthodotidae GE05]
    |    `--M. sharovi KS02
    |--Protereismatidae GE05
    |    |--Phtharthus netshaevi Handlirsch 1904 D70b, KS02 [incl. P. rossicus Handlirsch 1904 KS02]
    |    |--Kukalova Demoulin 1970 KS02, D70b [Kukalovidae]
    |    |    |--*K. americana Demoulin 1970 D70b
    |    |    `--K. moravica Demoulin 1970 D70b
    |    `--Protereisma GE05
    |         |--P. americanum GE05
    |         |--P. latum KS02
    |         `--P. permianum GE05
    `--+--Thuringopteryx Kuhn 1937 GE05, KS02
       |--Mesoplectopteron KS02 [Mesoplectopteridae GE05]
       |    `--M. longipes D70b
       |--Tintorina Krzeminski & Lombardo 2001 KL01 [Tintoriniidae GE05]
       |    `--*T. meridensis Krzeminski & Lombardo 2001 [=T. triassica Krzeminski & Lombardo 2001 (n. n.)] KL01
       |--Mesephemeridae [Mesephemeroidea] GE05
       |    |--Montralia KS02
       |    `--Palinephemera KS02
       |--Litophlebiidae [Xenophlebiidae] GE05
       |    |--Litophlebia optata (Riek 1976) [=Xenophlebia oplata] KL01
       |    `--Xenophlebia Demoulin 1968 D70a
       |         `--X. aenigmatica Demoulin 1968 D70a
       `--Euplectoptera [Euephemeroptera] GE05
            |  i. s.: Turphanella Demoulin 1954 KS02
            |         Mesogenesia Tshernova 1977 KS02
            |         Clephemera Lin 1986 KS02
            |--Ephemerina [Anteriotorna, Bidentiseta] KS02
            |    |--Furcatergalia GE05
            |    `--Pisciformia GE05
            `--Baetiscina [Posteritorna] KS02
                 |--Baetisca TW05 [Baetiscidae, Baetiscoidea, Carapacea GE05]
                 `--Myanmarella [Prosopistomatidae] KS02
                      `--M. rossi KS02

Ephemeroptera incertae sedis:
  Blasturophlebia KS02
  Brevitibia KS02
  Siphoplecton KS02
  Philolimnias KS02
  Geisfeldiella KS02
  Aphelophlebodes KS02
  Siphangarus S02a
  Bolbonyx ludibriosus S02a
  Mesopalingea lerida S02a
  Cratoligoneuriella S02a
  Povilla adusta G74
  Stenonema interpunctatum M47
    |--S. i. interpunctatum M47
    |--S. i. canadense M47
    |--S. i. frontale M47
    `--S. i. heterotarsale M47
  Sharephemera Sinitshenkova 2002 [Sharephemeridae] S02b
    `--*S. cubitalis Sinitshenkova 2002 S02b
  Siphlonisca aerodromia MH96
  Bibulmena kadjina ASD05
  Neboissophlebia occidentalis ASD05
  Nyungara bunni ASD05
  Campylocia anceps D70c
  Dolania americana K-P83
  Callibaetis ferrugineus MG06
  Oligoneuriella rhenana Imhoff 1852 M86
  Ephoron virgo (Olivier 1791) M86
  Atalophlebioides aucklandensis Peters 1971 H79
  Chloeon dipterum D56

*Type species of generic name indicated


[ASD05] Armstrong, K. N., A. W. Storey & P. M. Davies. 2005. Effects of catchment clearing and sedimentation on macroinvertebrate communities of cobble habitat in freshwater streams of southwestern Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (1): 1-11.

[D56] Dawes, B. 1956. The Trematoda with special reference to British and other European forms. University Press: Cambridge.

[D70a] Demoulin, G. 1970a. Troisieme contribution a la connaisance des ephemeropteres d l'ambre Oligocene de la Baltique. Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique 46 (2): 1-11.

[D70b] Demoulin, G. 1970b. Remarques critiques sur des larves «ephemeromorphes» du Permien. Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique 46 (3): 1-10.

[D70c] Demoulin, G. 1970c. Contribution a la connaisance de ephemeropteres du Miocene. I. Siphlurites explanatus Cockerell. Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique 46 (5): 1-4.

[G74] Greenwood, P. H. 1974. The cichlid fishes of Lake Vistoria, East Africa: The biology and evolution of a species flock. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Zoology Suppl. 6: 1-134.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H79] Hubbard, M. D. 1979. On the origin of flightlessness in Ephemeroptera. Systematic Zoology 28 (2): 227.

[KS02] Kluge, N. Yu., & N. D. Sinitshenkova. 2002. Order Ephemerida Latreille, 1810. The true mayflies (=Ephemeroptera Hyatt et Arms, 1891 (s. l.); =Euephemeroptera Kluge, 2000. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 89-97. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[KL01] Krzeminski, W., & C. Lombardo. 2001. New fossil Ephemeroptera and Coleoptera from the Ladinian (Middle Triassic) of Canton Ticino (Switzerland). Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia 107 (1): 69-78.

[K-P83] Kukalová-Peck, J. 1983. Origin of the insect wing and wing articulation from the arthropodan leg. Canadian Journal of Zoology 61: 1618-1669.

[MG06] Mallatt, J., & G. Giribet. 2006. Further use of nearly complete 28S and 18S rRNA genes to classify Ecdysozoa: 37 more arthropods and a kinorhynch. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40: 772-794.

[M86] Marten, M. 1986. Drei für Deutschland neue und weitere, selten gefundene Eintagsfliegen aus der Fulda (Insecta, Ephemeroptera). Spixiana 9 (2): 169-173.

[M47] Mayr, E. 1947. Ecological factors in speciation. Evolution 1: 263-288.

[MH96] Miller, S. A., & J. P. Harley. 1996. Zoology (3rd ed.) Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).

[S02a] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002a. Ecological history of the aquatic insects. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 388-426. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[S02b] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002b. New late Mesozoic mayflies from the Shar-Teeg locality, Mongolia (Insecta, Ephemerida = Ephemeroptera). Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal 2002 (3): 43-48 (transl. Paleontological Journal 36 (3): 270-276).

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240-257.

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