Conocephalinae

Conocephalus maculatus, from here.


Belongs within: Tettigonioidea.

The Conocephalinae is a diverse group of orthopterans including the snout-snosed and meadow katydids. Nymphs of the Conocephalini, the meadow katydids, are often predaceous and may act as predators of crop pests, though their value is somewhat counter-acted by the feeding of the more herbivorous adults (Rentz 1996).

Characters (from Rentz 1996): Fastigium of vertex variable. Antennal sockets not strongly rimmed. Thoracic auditory opening large, elongate. Fore tibia usually with spines not unusually lengthened and not as long as combined lengths of first two tarsal segments. Male with stridulatory organ at base of tegmen.

<==Conocephalinae [Conocephalidae]
    |  i. s.: Xiphidion K14
    |           |--X. affine K14
    |           |--X. fuscum B01
    |           `--X. modestum K14
    |         Odontoxiphidium BM76
    |         Orchelimum BM76
    |--Coniungopterini R96
    |    |--Metholce nigritarsis R96
    |    |--Coniungoptera R96
    |    `--Veria colorata R96
    |--Conocephalus [Conocephalini] R96
    |    |--C. albescens R96
    |    |--C. maculatus BM76
    |    |--C. redtenbacheri R96
    |    |--C. semivittatus R96
    |    |    |--C. s. semivittatus R96
    |    |    `--C. s. vittatus R96
    |    `--C. upoluensis R96
    |--Agraeciini [Agroeciinae] R96
    |    |--Dicranocercus R96
    |    |--Coptaspis crassinervosa R96, K14
    |    |--Paralobaspis R18
    |    |    |--*P. picta R18
    |    |    `--P. personata Rehn 1918 R18
    |    |--Salomona R96
    |    |    |--S. francoisi K14
    |    |    |--S. rouxi Karny 1914 K14
    |    |    `--S. solida [incl. S. godeffroyi] K14
    |    |--Austrosalomona R96
    |    |    |--A. falcata R96
    |    |    |--A. personafrons R96
    |    |    `--A. zentae R96
    |    `--Nicsara R96
    |         |--N. bifasciata R96
    |         |--N. cornuta R96
    |         `--N. spuria R96
    `--Copiphorini [Copiphorinae] R96
         |--Ruspolia R96
         |--Copiphora cornuta (DeGeer 1773) [=Locusta cornuta] R18
         |--Acantheremus elegans Karny 1907 R18
         |--Mygalopsis R96
         |    |--M. pauperculus R96
         |    `--M. sandowi R96
         |--Neoconocephalus R18
         |    |--N. fratellus (Griffini 1899) [=Conocephalus fratellus, C. frater Redtenbacher 1891 non Kirby 1890] R18
         |    `--N. nigropunctatus (Redtenbacher 1891) [=Conocephalus nigropunctatus] R18
         |--Homorocoryphus R18
         |    |--H. brunneri (Redtenbacher 1891) [=Conocephalus brunneri] R18
         |    `--H. cocanus (Bolivar 1881) [=Conocephalus cocanus] R18
         |--Pseudorhynchus R96
         |    |--P. lessonii R96
         |    |--P. mimeticus R96
         |    `--P. selonis R96
         `--Euconocephalus R96
              |--E. broughtoni R96
              |--E. extensor [incl. E. australis] K14
              `--E. lineatipes K14

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BM76] Bohart, R. M. & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[B01] Bolivar, I. 1901. Orthopterák [Orthoptères]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy], Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy], pp. 223-243. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[K14] Karny, H. 1914. Conocephalidae Neu-Caledoniens und der Loyalty-Inseln. In Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1, Heft IV (F. Sarasin & J. Roux, eds) pp. 447-449. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[R18] Rehn, J. A. G. 1918. On a collection of Orthoptera from the State of Pará, Brazil. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 144-236, pls 141-142.

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

Orthopteroidea

Part and counterpart of holotype of Heterologus langfordorum, from the Illinois State Museum.


Belongs within: Polyneoptera.
Contains: Holophasmatodea, Embioptera, Ischnoneuridae, Ampelipteridae, Caloneurodea, Orthoptera.

The Orthopteroidea is an insect clade supported by molecular analysis (Terry & Whiting 2005), including the grasshoppers, stick insects and webspinners.

<==Orthopteroidea [Gryllidea, Orthopterida]
    |  i. s.: Pteroferganella Gorokhov 1989 BN02
    |--Eukinolabia TW05
    |    |--Holophasmatodea TW05
    |    `--+--Embioptera TW05
    |       `--Brachyphyllophagus [Brachyphyllophagidae] R02c
    |            `--B. phasma R02c
    `--Archaeorthoptera BN05
         |  i. s.: Palaeomastax Handlirsch 1904 BN05
         |           `--*P. carbonis Handlirsch 1904 [=Omalia carbonis] BN05
         |         Omaliella Béthoux & Nel 2005 BN05
         |           `--*O. ramosa Béthoux & Nel 2005 BN05
         |         Ischnoptera Béthoux & Nel 2005 BN05
         |           `--*I. diaphanes Béthoux & Nel 2005 BN05
         |         Cnemidolestodea B06
         |           |  i. s.: Cnemidolestes Handlirsch 1906 BN05
         |           |           `--*C. woodwardi (Brongniart 1893) (see below for synonymy) BN05
         |           |         Bouleites Lameere 1917 B05
         |           |           `--*B. latipennis Lameere 1917 [=Buleites (l. c.) latipennis] BN05
         |           |         Amphiboliacridites Langiaux & Parriat 1974 B05
         |           |--Ischnoneuridae B05
         |           `--Narkema Handlirsch 1911 [Narkemidae] B05
         |                `--*N. taeniatum Handlirsch 1911 B05
         |         Angarohagla variegata Zherikhin 1985 BN02
         |         Gerarulus Handlirsch 1911 BN02
         |           `--G. radialis Handlirsch 1911 BN02
         |         Coselia Bolton 1922 [Coseliidae] B06
         |           `--*C. palmiformis Bolton 1922 [=Omalia (Coselia) palmiformis] BN05
         |         Omalia Van Beneden & Coemans 1867 BN05 [Omaliidae BN02]
         |           |--*O. macroptera Van Beneden & Coemans 1867 BN05
         |           `--O. anae Brauckmann et al. 2001 BN05
         |         0--Ctenoptilus Lameere 1917 B06 (see below for synonymy)
         |         |    `--C. elongatus (Brongniart 1893) (see below for synonymy) BN05
         |         `--Eoblatta Handlirsch 1906 [Eoblattidae] B06
         |              |--*E. robusta (Brongniart 1893) (see below for synonymy) BN05
         |              |--E. brongniarti Lameere 1917 BN05
         |              `--E. zeilleri Langiaux & Parriat 1974 BN05
         |         Protophasma Brongniart 1879 [Protophasmatidae] B06
         |           `--P. dumasi R02b
         |         Gerapompidae R02b
         |           |--Gerapompus R02b
         |           |--Cheliphlebia R02b
         |           |--Palaeocarria ornata R02b
         |           `--Aenigmatella Sharov 1961 BN05
         |         Cacurgidae B06
         |           |--Spilomastax oligoneurus Handlirsch 1911 BN02
         |           |--Archimastax americanus Handlirsch 1906 BN02
         |           |--Cacurgellus barryi Pruvost 1919 BN02
         |           |--Cacurgolopsis sanguinettiae BN02
         |           `--Cacurgus Handlirsch 1911 B06
         |                `--*C. spilopterus Handlirsch 1911 B06
         |         Pachytylopsidae BN02
         |           |--Symballophlebia Handlirsch 1904 R02b, BN02
         |           `--Pachytylopsis de Borre 1875 BN02
         |                `--P. persenairei de Borre 1875 BN02
         |         Tococladidae [Heteroptilidae, Nugonioneuridae] BN02
         |           |--Opisthocladus BN02
         |           |    |--O. arcuatus Carpenter 1976 BN02
         |           |    `--O. strictus Carpenter 1976 BN02
         |           `--Tococladus BN02
         |                |--T. rallus Carpenter 1966 BN02
         |                `--T. similis R02a
         |         Emphyloptera [Emphylopteridae] BN02
         |           `--E. lecrivaini Pruvost 1919 BN02
         |         Ampelipteridae BN02
         |         Bintoniellidae BN02
         |           |  i. s.: Provitimia Sharov 1968 BN02
         |           |--Bintoniellinae B N02
         |           |    |--Bintoniella Handlirsch 1939 BN02
         |           |    `--Eubintoniella Gorokhov 1987 BN02
         |           `--Oshiellinae BN02
         |                |--Probintoniella triassica Sharov 1968 BN02
         |                |--Oshiellana primaria (Sharov 1968) BN02
         |                `--Stenoshiella angusta Gorokhov 1987 BN02
         |--Hapaloptera [Hapalopteridae] BN02
         |    `--H. gracilis Handlirsch 1906 BN02
         `--+--+--Heterologopsis ruhrensis Brauckmann & Koch 1982 BN02
            |  `--Carpenteroptera [Carpenteropteridae] BN02
            |       `--C. onzii Pinto 1990 BN02
            `--Panorthoptera B05
                 |  i. s.: Anthrakoris aetherius Richardson 1956 [=Anthracoris (l. c.) aetherius] BN02
                 |         Protopachytylopsis leckwicki Laurentiaux & Laurentiaux-Vieira 1981 BN02
                 |--+--Caloneurodea B05
                 |  `--Permostridulus Béthoux, Nel et al. 2003 BN03
                 |       `--*P. brongniarti Béthoux, Nel et al. 2003 BN03
                 |--Orthoptera TW05
                 |--Heterologus [Heterologidae] BN02
                 |    `--H. langfordorum Carpenter 1944 BN02
                 |--Herdina Carpenter & Richardson 1971 [Herdinidae, Herdiniidae] BN02
                 |    `--H. mirificus Carpenter & Richardson 1971 BN02
                 `--Stenoneuridae BN05
                      |--*Stenoneura fayoli Brongniart 1893 BN05
                      `--Anegertus R02b

*Cnemidolestes woodwardi (Brongniart 1893) [=Protophasma woodwardi, Protodiamphipnoa (Protophasma) woodwardi] BN05

Ctenoptilus Lameere 1917 B06 [incl. Eoblattina Bolton 1925 BN05, Ischnoneurilla Handlirsch 1919 BN05, Ischnoneurula Handlirsch 1919 BN05]

Ctenoptilus elongatus (Brongniart 1893) [=Ischnoneura elongata, *Ischnoneurilla elongata; incl. Eoblattina complexa Bolton 1925, Homalophlebia trouessarti Meunier 1911, *Ctenoptilus trouessarti] BN05

*Eoblatta robusta (Brongniart 1893) [=Stenoneura robusta, Leptoneura robusta Brongniart 1885 (n. n.)] BN05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B05] Béthoux, O. 2005. Cnemidolestodea (Insecta): an ancient order reinstated. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 3 (4): 403-408.

[B06] Béthoux, O. 2006. Revision of Cacurgus Handlirsch, 1911, a basal Pennsylvanian Archaeorthoptera (Insecta: Neoptera). Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History 47 (1-2): 29-35.

[BN02] Béthoux, O., & A. Nel. 2002. Venation pattern and revision of Orthoptera sensu nov. and sister groups. Phylogeny of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic Orthoptera sensu nov. Zootaxa 96: 1-88.

[BN05] Béthoux, O., & A. Nel. 2005. Some Palaeozoic ‘Protorthoptera’ are ‘ancestral’ orthopteroids: major wing braces as clues to a new split among the ‘Protorthoptera’ (Insecta). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 2 (4): 285-309.

[BN03] Béthoux, O., A. Nel, J. Lapeyrie & G. Gand. 2003. The Permostridulidae fam. n. (Panorthoptera), a new enigmatic insect family from the Upper Permian of France. European Journal of Entomology 100: 581-585.

[R02a] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002a. Cohors Cimiciformes Laicharting, 1781. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 104-115. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[R02b] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002b. Infraclass Gryllones Laicharting, 1781. The grylloneans (=Polyneoptera Martynov, 1938). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 254-262. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[R02c] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002c. Order Embiida Burmeister, 1835. The webspinners (=Embioptera Shipley, 1904). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 291-293. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240-257.

Disporum

Rough-fruited fairybells Disporum trachycarpum, copyright Jason Hollinger.


Belongs within: Liliaceae.
Contains: Disporum sect. Disporum.

Disporum is a genus of rhizomatous herbs found in east Asia and North America.

Characters (from Hara 1988): Perennial herb, glabrous or pubescent. Rhizome thickened with fleshy roots, or slender and long-creeping. Stem erect, simple or branched (often dichotomously) in the upper part, with one to several sheathing bracts in the lower part, and with normal leaves in the upper part. Leaves alternate, sessile or shortly petioled, linear to roundish. Inflorescence terminal, or in appearance lateral (i.e. terminal on a short lateral branchlet opposite to a leaf). Flower solitary to umbellate, on slender inarticulate pedicel, without bract, rotate to cylindric-campanulate, drooping or spreading. Tepals 6 in two similar series, seubequal, free, oblanceolate to obovate, whitish, greenish, yellow, or dark purple, often saccate or spurred at the base, caducous with stamen. Stamens 6, included or exserted, inserted on the very base of tepal; filaments often filiform, sometimes thickened in lower part; anthers generally oblong, basifixed, extrorse, laterally dehiscent. Pollen grains usually monocolpate (in D. calcaratum 2-4-colpate), with reticulate exine, sometimes with tuberculate muri. Ovary obovoid or globose, three-celled; ovules 2-6 per locule; style filiform, three-lobed in upper part, with three stigmas. Berry subglobose or slightly 3-coccous, blue-black or red when mature. Seeds globose or ovoid, smooth, with stony endocarp.

<==Disporum Salisbury ex Don 1825 [incl. Drapiezia Blume 1827] H88
    |  i. s.: D. luzoniense Merrill 1910 H88
    |--D. sect. Prosartes (Don) Jones 1951 [=Prosartes Don 1839] H88
    |    |--D. (sect *Prosartes) lanuginosum H88
    |    `--+--D. maculatum H88
    |       `--+--D. hookeri H88
    |          `--+--D. smithii H88
    |             `--D. trachycarpum H88
    `--+--D. sect. Disporum H88
       |--D. sect. Ovalia Hara 1988 nec Ovalia Latreille in Griffith & Pidgeon 1833 (ICZN) nec Nalivkin 1937 (ICZN) H88
       |    `--D. (sect. *Ovalia) ovale Ohwi 1931 [=Streptopus ovalis (Ohwi) Wang & Tang 1978] H88
       |         |--D. o. f. ovale H88
       |         `--D. o. f. albiflorum (Lee & Lee) Hara 1988 [=D. ovale var. albiflorum Lee & Lee ex Lee 1979] H88
       `--D. sect. Paradisporum Hara 1988 H88
            `--D. (sect. *Paradisporum) acuminatum Wright 1929 H88

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[H88] Hara, H. 1988. A revision of the Asiatic species of the genus Disporum (Liliaceae). In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 163-209.

Disporum section Disporum

Disporum viridescens, copyright Qwert1234.


Belongs within: Disporum.

The section Disporum of the plant genus Disporum is found in Asia. Its species characterised by shortly petioled or subsessile leaves, tepals with acute to roundish apices, and blue to black berries (Hara 1988).

Characters (from Hara 1988): Glabrous, sometimes scabrous. Inflorescence terminal or pseudo-lateral. Flowers rotate to cylindric-campanulate, white, greenish, yellow or dark purple. Tepals lanceolate to obovate, mostly gibbose, or spurred at the base; main veins of tepal parallel with sparce transverse connecting veinlets. Style with three short stigmas at apex, or deeply 3-cleft up to the middle. Ovules ascending. Berries dark blue to black. Chromosomes 2n = 14, 16, 30, including a few pairs of larger chromosomes.

<==Disporum sect. Disporum [=D. sect. Eudisporum Jones 1951] H88
    |--D. lutescens (Maximowicz) Koidzumi 1919 [=D. smilacinum var. lutescens Maximowicz 1883] H88
    |--D. smilacinum Gray in Perry 1957 (see below for synonymy) H88
    |--D. viridescens (Maximowicz) Nakai 1911 (see below for synonymy) H88
    |--+--D. bodinieri (Léveillé & Van.) Wang & Tang 1949 (see below for synonymy) H88
    |  |--D. leschenaultianum Don 1839 (see below for synonymy) H88
    |  |    |--D. l. var. leschenaultianum H88
    |  |    `--D. l. var. angustifolium Fischer 1957 H88
    |  |--D. leucanthum Hara 1972 H88
    |  `--D. tonkinense Koyama 1958 H88
    `--+--D. austrosinense Hara 1988 H88
       |--D. hainanense Merrill 1922 [incl. D. sanpomonticolum Yamamoto 1943] H88
       |--D. longistylum (Léveillé & Van.) Hara 1984 (see below for synonymy) H88
       |--D. megalanthum Wang & Tang 1978 H88
       |--D. trabeculatum Gagnepain 1934 (se below for synonymy) H88
       |--+--D. cantoniense (Loureiro) Merrill 1920 [=Fritillaria cantoniensis Loureiro 1790] H88
       |  |    |--D. c. var. cantoniense (see below for synonymy) H88
       |  |    |    |--D. c. var. c. f. cantoniense H88
       |  |    |    |--D. c. var. c. f. brunneum (Wright) Hara 1988 (see below for synonymy) H88
       |  |    |    `--D. c. var. c. f. parviflorum (Wallich) Hara 1988 (see below for synonymy) H88
       |  |    |--D. c. var. kawakamii (Hayata) Hara 1988 [=Disporum kawakamii Hayata 1911] H88
       |  |    |--D. c. var. multiflorum (Blume) Hara 1988 (see below for synonymy) H88
       |  |    `--D. c. var. sikkimense Hara 1984 H88
       |  `--D. calcaratum Don 1839 (see below for synonymy) H88
       `--+--D. sessile Don ex Schultes 1829 [=Uvularia sessilis Thunberg 1784 (nom. illeg.)] H88
          |    |--D. s. var. sessile (see below for synonymy) H88
          |    |    |--D. s. var. s. f. sessile H88
          |    |    |--D. s. var. s. f. macrophyllum (Koidzumi) Hara 1988 (see below for synonymy) H88
          |    |    |--D. s. var. s. f. minus (Miquel) Hara 1988 (see below for synonymy) H88
          |    |    `--D. s. var. s. f. stenophyllum (Franch. & Sav.) Hayashi ex Hara 1988 (see below for synonymy) H88
          |    `--D. s. var. shimadai (Hayata) Hara 1988 [=D. shimadai Hayata 1911] H88
          |         |--D. s. var. s. f. shimadai H88
          |         `--D. s. var. s. f. intermedium Hara 1988 H88
          `--D. uniflorum Baker 1875 (see below for synonymy) H88

Disporum bodinieri (Léveillé & Van.) Wang & Tang 1949 [=Tovaria bodinieri Léveillé & Van. 1905; incl. D. brachystemon Wang & Tang 1949, D. pullum var. ovalifolium Léveillé in Fedde 1909] H88

Disporum calcaratum Don 1839 [=Uvularia calcarata Wallich 1832 (n. n.); incl. U. betua Buchanan-Ham. ex Wallich 1832 (nom. illeg.), U. hamiltoniana Wallich 1832 (n. n.), Disporum hamiltonianum Don 1839, D. calcaratum var. hamiltonianum (Don) Baker 1875, D. latipetalum Collett & Hemsley 1890, D. wallichii Don 1839] H88

Disporum cantoniense (Loureiro) Merrill 1920 var. cantoniense [incl. Uvularia chinensis Ker-Gawler 1806, D. chinense (Ker-Gawler) Kuntze 1891, Streptopus chinensis (Ker-Gawler) Smith 1818, S. peduncularis Smith 1818, Disporum pitsutum Don 1825, Uvularia pitsuta (Don) Buchanan-Hamilton ex Sprengel 1827, *D. pullum Salisbury ex Hooker 1892, U. umbellata Wallich 1820] H88

Disporum cantoniense var. cantoniense f. brunneum (Wright) Hara 1988 [=D. pullum var. brunnea Wright 1919, D. cantoniense var. brunneum (Wright) Hand.-Mazz. 1936] H88

Disporum cantoniense var. cantoniense f. parviflorum (Wallich) Hara 1988 [=Uvularia parvifloa Wallich 1820, D. cantoniense var. parviflorum (Wallich) Hara 1966, D. parviflorum (Wallich) Don 1825, D. pullum var. parviflorum (Wallich) Baker 1875] H88

Disporum cantoniense var. multiflorum (Blume) Hara 1988 [=Drapiezia multiflora Blume 1827, Di. multiflorum (Blume) Don 1841, Di. pullum var. multiflorum (Blume) Rindley 1909, Streptopus multiflorus (Blume) Dietrich 1840, Uvularia multiflora Reinw. 1823 (n. n.); incl. Disporum chinense var. albidum Kuntze 1891, Drapiezia multiflora var. albiflora Zoll. 1854, Di. horsfieldii Don 1839, Di. chinense var. longipedunculatum Kuntze 1891, Di. chinense var. purpurascence Kuntze 1891] H88

Disporum leschenaultianum Don 1839 [=Uvularia leschenaultiana Wallich 1832 (n. n.); incl. D. ceylanicum Wight 1853, D. mysorense Wight 1853] H88

Disporum longistylum (Léveillé & Van.) Hara 1984 [=Tovaria longistyla Léveillé & Van. 1905; incl. D. cavaleriei Léveillé in Fedde 1909] H88

Disporum sessile var. sessile Don ex Schultes 1829 [incl. Tovaria hallaisanensis Léveillé 1909, D. hallaisanense (Léveillé) Ohwi 1932, D. sessile var. micranthum Hatusima 1971, D. taquetii Léveillé 1912] H88

Disporum sessile var. sessile f. macrophyllum (Koidzumi) Hara 1988 [=D. sessile var. macrophyllum Koidzumi 1916; incl. D. sessile var. dolichocarpum Honda 1938, D. sessile var. latifolia Miquel 1870 (n. n.)] H88

Disporum sessile var. sessile f. minus (Miquel) Hara 1988 [=D. sessile var. minus Miquel 1867, D. hallaisanense f. minus (Miquel) Nakai 1942, D. sessile var. minor Miquel 1870; incl. D. sessile var. inobeanum Honda 1936] H88

Disporum sessile var. sessile f. stenophyllum (Franch. & Sav.) Hayashi ex Hara 1988 [=D. sessile var. stenophyllum Franch. & Sav. 1877, D. hallaisanense var. stenophyllum (Franch. & Sav.) Nakai 1942; incl. D. hallaisanense var. stenophyllum f. cupreum Nakai 1942] H88

Disporum smilacinum Gray in Perry 1957 [incl. D. smilacinum var. album Maximowicz 1883, D. smilacinum var. ramosum Nakai 1931, D. smilacinum var. rotundatum Satake 1941, D. smilacinum var. variegatum Nakai ex Satake 1941] H88

Disporum trabeculatum Gagnepain 1934 [incl. Tovaria esquirolii Léveillé 1909 non Disporum esquirolii Léveillé 1907] H88

Disporum uniflorum Baker 1875 [incl. D. flavens Kitagawa 1934, D. sessile ssp. flavens (Kitagawa) Kitagawa 1939, D. sessile var. pachyrrhizum Hand.-Mazz. 1936] H88

Disporum viridescens (Maximowicz) Nakai 1911 [=Uvularia viridescens Maximowicz 1859, Disporum smilacinum var. viridescens (Maximowicz) Maximowicz 1883, Prosartes viridescens (Maximowicz) Regel 1861] H88

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[H88] Hara, H. 1988. A revision of the Asiatic species of the genus Disporum (Liliaceae). In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 163-209.

Ensifera

Forewing of Raphogla rubra, from Béthoux et al. (2002).


Belongs within: Orthoptera.
Contains: Anostostomatidae, Rhaphidophoridae, Stenopelmatidae, Haglida.

The Ensifera include the long-horned orthopterans: the crickets, katydids and related taxa. Living members of this clade mostly retain many-segmented antennae that are generally longer than the main body length.

Synapomorphies (from Béthoux & Nel 2002): Forewing with branches of ScP with one or several secondary veins between them, forming two rows of regularly disposed cells; base of RP closer to third fifth of wing length than to mid length; MP basally curved; CuA long basad of its fusion with CuPaα; CuA + CuPaα with its first branc posteriorly directed, second branch anteriorly directed, following branches variable.

<==Ensifera
    |--Raphogla Bethoux, Nel et al. 2002 BN02, BNL02 [Raphoglidae]
    |    `--*R. rubra Béthoux, Nel et al. 2002 BNL02
    `--Mesohaglida [Hagloidea, Tettigoniidea] BN02
         |  i. s.: Stenopelmatoidea [Gryllacridoidea] G01
         |           |--Anostostomatidae G01
         |           `--+--Rhaphidophoridae G01
         |              `--Stenopelmatidae G01
         |         Modihagla Gorokhov 1986 BNL02
         |         Cantohagla Gorokhov 1986 BNL02
         |         Phonovoliopus musicus Gorokhov 1986 BNL02
         |         Platyvoliopus maximus Gorokhov 1986 BNL02
         |         Zeunerophlebia gigas Sharov 1968 BNL02
         |--Haglida BN02
         `--Hagloedischiidae GR02
              |--Voltziahagla GR02
              `--Hagloedischia primitiva Gorokhov 1986 BN02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BN02] Béthoux, O., & A. Nel. 2002. Venation pattern and revision of Orthoptera sensu nov. and sister groups. Phylogeny of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic Orthoptera sensu nov. Zootaxa 96: 1-88.

[BNL02] Béthoux, O., A. Nel, J. Lapeyrie, G. Gand & J. Galtier. 2002. Raphogla rubra gen. n., sp. n., the oldest representative of the clade of modern Ensifera (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidea, Gryllidea). European Journal of Entomology 99: 111-116.

[G01] Gorochov, A. V. 2001. The higher classification, phylogeny and evolution of the superfamily Stenopelmatoidea. In The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies (L. H. Field, ed.) pp. 3-33. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[GR02] Gorochov, A. V., & A. P. Rasnitsyn. 2002. Superorder Gryllidea Laicharting, 1781 (=Orthopteroidea Handlirsch, 1903). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 293-303. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

Geraridae


Reconstruction of Gerarus danielsi from Burnham (1983).


Belongs within: Orthoptera.

The Geraridae are a group of insects known from the Upper Carboniferous. Members of the type genus, Gerarus, had an expanded spinose prothorax; prothoraces of other genera are unknown (and the monophyly of the larger Geraridae was regarded as questionable by Béthoux & Nel, 2002).

See also: All about Gerarus.

Characters (from Burnham 1983): Head small and probably mobile; antennae filamentous. Prothorax elongate, flask-shaped, and distinctively spinose. Fore and hind wings similar in size and shape, but markedly different in venation. Forewing length 35-55 mm, apparently not coriaceous; costal area broad in basal region, SC simple, terminating in C; R parallel to SC, terminating at wing apex; RS originating from base of R near midpoint of wing; M either anastomosing with RS for a short distance or connecting to it by a cross-vein; CUA strongly developed, arising from base of M; CUP forked, arising independently from wing base. Hind wing length 30-48 mm; costal area not as broad as in forewing; SC simple, terminating in C; R parallel to SC, terminating at wing apex; RS pectinate, arising from R near wing base; M forked, arising near base of RS; CUA and CUP simple and parallel to one another; CUA arising from base of RS near M, CUP arising independently from wing base; anal area unusually reduced; cross veins abundant in both fore and hind wings. Legs cursorial; tarsi five-segmented. Abdomen cylindrical.

<==Geraridae [Gerarina, Gerarodea]
    |--Genentomum Scudder 1885 R02, BN02
    |    `--G. validum Scudder 1885 BN02
    |--Progenentomum Handlirsch 1906 R02, BN02
    |    `--P. carbonis Handlirsch 1906 BN02
    |--Nacekomia Richardson 1956 R02, BN02
    |    `--N. rossae Richardson 1956 BN02
    |--Anepitedius Handlirsch 1911 R02, BN02
    |    `--A. giraffa Handlirsch 1911 BN02
    |--Osnogerarus Kukalová-Peck & Brauckmann 1992 BN02
    |    `--*O. trecwithiensis Kukalová-Peck & Brauckmann 1992 BN02
    |--Cantabrala Kukalová-Peck & Brauckmann 1992 R02, BN02
    |    `--C. gandli Kukalová-Peck & Brauckmann 1992 BN02
    `--Gerarus Scudder 1885 BN02
         |--*G. vetus Scudder 1885 BN02
         |--G. bruesi (Meunier 1909) [=Archaeacridites bruesi, Sthenaropoda bruesi] BN02
         |--G. collaris Handlirsch 1906 BN02
         |--G. danielsi Handlirsch 1906 BN02
         `--G. fisheri (Brongniart 1885) BN02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BN02] Béthoux, O., & A. Nel. 2002. Venation pattern and revision of Orthoptera sensu nov. and sister groups. Phylogeny of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic Orthoptera sensu nov. Zootaxa 96: 1-88.

Burnham, L. 1983. Studies on Upper Carboniferous insects: I. The Geraridae (order Protorthoptera). Psyche 90 (1-2): 1-57.

[R02] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002. Infraclass Gryllones Laicharting, 1781. The grylloneans (=Polyneoptera Martynov, 1938). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 254-262. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

Rhaphidophoridae

Ceuthophilus conicaudus, copyright James C. Cokendolpher.


Belongs within: Ensifera.

The Rhaphidophoridae, including the camel crickets and cave weta, are a group of wingless orthopterans. Members of this group often have markedly long legs and antennae, though they also include short-legged forms such as the genus Gammarotettix (Gorochov 2001).

Characters (from Gorochov 2001): Wings always absent. Tarsi usually with four segments, very rarely with three, with non-widened pulvilli, first segment with only one pulvillus unless two proximal segments fused. Femoro-abdominal stridulatory apparatus absent. Ovipositor always developed, with lower part of upper valvae partly (sometimes almost completely) covering lower valvae on outside.

<==Rhaphidophoridae
    |--Macropathinae G01
    |    |--Heteromallus G01
    |    |--Macropathus [Macropathini] G01
    |    |    `--M. filifer G01
    |    |--Talitopsis [Talitropsini] G01
    |    |    `--T. crassicruris G01
    |    |--Pallidotettix nullarborensis R96
    |    |--Cavernotettix wyanbenensis R96
    |    `--Australotettix R96
    `--+--+--Protroglophilinae G01
       |  |    |--Protroglophilus G01
       |  |    `--Prorhaphidophora G01
       |  |--+--Troglophilus [Troglophilinae] G01
       |  |  `--Dolichopoda araneiformis (Burmeister 1838) G01, UO05
       |  `--+--Aemodogryllinae G01
       |     |    |  i. s.: Diestrammena G01
       |     |    |--Aemodogryllini G01
       |     |    `--Diestramima [Diestramimini] G01
       |     `--Rhaphidophorinae G01
       |          |--Stonychophora G01
       |          |--Eurhaphidophora G01
       |          |--Pararhaphidophora G01
       |          `--Neorhaphidophora G01
       `--+--Gammarotettix [Gammarotettiginae] G01
          |    `--G. bovis G01
          `--Ceuthophilinae G01
               |  i. s.: Macrobaenetes velgum G01, C90
               |         Geotettix G01
               |--Pristoceutophilini G01
               |--Argyrtes [Argyrtini] G01
               |--Daihinia [Daihiniini] G01
               |    `--D. brevipes G01
               |--Hadenoecus [Hadenoecini] G01
               |    `--H. subterraneus HR01
               `--Ceuthophilus [Ceuthophilini] G01
                    |--C. carlsbadensis Z94
                    |--C. conicaudus Z94
                    |--C. fusiformis BM76
                    |--C. guttulosus E70
                    |    |--C. g. guttulosus E70
                    |    |--C. g. angulosus E70
                    |    `--C. g. thomasi E70
                    |--C. longipes Z94
                    |--C. paucispinosus Z94
                    |--C. pima Z94
                    |--C. utahensis TW05
                    `--C. variegatus C90

Rhaphidophoridae incertae sedis:
  Anoplophilinae G01
    |--Anoplophilus G01
    `--Alpinanoplophilus G01
  Gymnoplectron G01
    |--G. edwardsi M01
    |--G. giganteum S01
    `--G. longipes S01
  Gigantettix G01
  Tropidischia [Tropidischiinae] G01
  Daihinibaenetes arizonensis W01
  Pallidoplectron turneri R60
  Daihinoides larvale C90

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BM76] Bohart, R. M. & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[C90] Crawford, C. S. 1990. Scorpiones, Solifugae, and associated desert taxa. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 421-475. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[E70] Eades, D. C. 1970. Theoretical and procedural aspects of numerical phyletics. Systematic Zoology 19 (2): 142-171.

[G01] Gorochov, A. V. 2001. The higher classification, phylogeny and evolution of the superfamily Stenopelmatoidea. In The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies (L. H. Field, ed.) pp. 3-33. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[HR01] Hale, R. J., & D. C. F. Rentz. 2001. The Gryllacrididae: An overview of the world fauna with emphasis on Australian examples. In The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies (L. H. Field, ed.) pp. 95-110. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[M01] McIntyre, M. 2001. The ecology of some large weta species in New Zealand. In The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies (L. H. Field, ed.) pp. 225-242. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[R60] Richards, A. M. 1960. Observations on the New Zealand glow-worm Arachnocampa luminosa (Skuse) 1890. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 559-574.

[S01] Sherley, G. 2001. Conservation of threatened species of weta (Orthoptera: Anastostomatidae) in New Zealand. In The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies (L. H. Field, ed.) pp. 521-527. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240-257.

[UO05] Ubick, D., & R. Ozimec. 2005. On the harvestman genus Lola Kratochvíl (Opiliones: Laniatores). Natura Croatica 14 (3): 161-174.

[W01] Weissman, D. B. 2001. Communication and reproductive behaviour in Noth American Jerusalem crickets (Stenopelmatus) (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatidae). In The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies (L. H. Field, ed.) pp. 351-375. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[Z94] Zhang, Z.-Q. 1994. Neothrombiidae (Acari: Trombidioidea) of the world: systematic review with a phylogenetic analysis and descriptions of two new genera. Oriental Insects 28: 205-237.

Deinacridinae

Cook Strait giant weta Deinacrida rugosa, copyright Peter Reese.


Belongs within: Anostostomatidae.

The Deinacridinae is a group of orthopterans endemic to New Zealand, including the tree wetas (Hemideina) and giant wetas (Deinacrida).

Characters (from Gorochov 2001): Mandibles of male with sexual specialisation (increased length) or without it as well as those of female. Wings absent. Upper side of hind tibiae with large subapical spines; fore and mid tibiae without subapical spines. Tympana and femoro-abdominal stridulatory apparatus developed; abdominal stridulatory areas with ridges. Male genital plate with styles, paraprocts with specialised processes. Ovipositor developed.

<==Deinacridinae
    |--Hemideina Go01
    |    |--H. broughi Gi01
    |    |--H. crassidens (Blanchard 1851) H04
    |    |    |--H. c. crassidens M-RKT01
    |    |    `--H. c. crassicruris M-RKT01
    |    |--H. femorata Hutton 1897 H82
    |    |--H. maori H04
    |    |--H. ricta Gi01
    |    |--H. thoracica (White 1845) H04 (see below for synonymy)
    |    `--H. trewicki Morgan-Richards 1995 H04
    `--Deinacrida Gi01
         |--D. carinata Gi01
         |--D. connectens (Ander 1939) [=D. connectans (l. c.); incl. D. sonitospina (Salmon 1950)] Gi01
         |--D. elegans Gi01
         |--D. fallai Gi01
         |--D. heteracantha Gi01
         |--D. mahoenui Gi01
         |--D. parva (Buller 1895) Gi01
         |--D. pluvialis Gi01
         |--D. rugosa Buller 1871 H82
         |--D. talpa Gi01
         `--D. tibiospina Gi01

Hemideina thoracica (White 1845) H04 [=Deinacrida thoracica M27; incl. D. ligata Brunner 1888 M27, D. megacephala Buller 1867 M27, Hemideina megacephala M27]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[Gi01] Gibbs, G. W. 2001. Habitats and biogeography of New Zealand’s deinacridine and tusked weta species. In The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies (L. H. Field, ed.) pp. 35-55. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[Go01] Gorochov, A. V. 2001. The higher classification, phylogeny and evolution of the superfamily Stenopelmatoidea. In The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies (L. H. Field, ed.) pp. 3-33. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[H04] Harris, A. C. 2004. Hemideina crassidens (Blanchard) and not Hemideina maori (Pictet & Saussure) (Anostostomatidae: Deinacridinae) established at Anderson’s Bay, Dunedin. Weta 27: 41-42.

[H82] Helmore, D. W. 1982. Drawings of New Zealand insects. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of New Zealand 8: 1-52.

[M27] Maskell, F. G. 1927. The anatomy of Hemideina thoracica. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 637-670.

[M-RKT01] Morgan-Richards, M., T. King & S. Trewick. 2001. The evolutionary history of tree weta: A genetic approach. In The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies (L. H. Field, ed.) pp. 111-124. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

Grylloidea

Female Myrmecophila acervorum, copyright Gunter Tschuch.


Belongs within: Apohaglida.
Contains: Gryllinae, Nemobiinae, Eneopterinae, Oecanthinae, Gryllotalpinae, Mogoplistinae, Anaxipha, Trigonidium, Laupala.

The Grylloidea include the crickets, a mostly dorsoventrally flattened, terrestrial group of orthopterans that are usually omnivorous. Authors have differed as to whether all living grylloids should be included in a single family Gryllidae, or whether distinctive groups such as the Gryllotalpinae and Myrmecophilinae should be placed in their own families. The Myrmecophilinae, ant crickets, are a group of very small, humpbacked crickets specialised for living in ant nests (Rentz 1996). The Baissogryllidae and Protogryllidae are two fossil families related to modern crickets known from the Late Jurassic (Gorochov & Rasnitsyn 2002).

Characters (from Gorochov & Rasnitsyn 2002): Fore wing with fan-like pleating intercalary triangle; RA, RS and 1MA1 fused completely or at least in part.

<==Grylloidea
    |--Baissogryllus [Baissogryllidae] GR02
    |    `--B. sibiricus GR02
    |--Angarogryllus [Protogryllidae] GR02
    |    `--A. angaricus GR02
    `--Gryllidae O94
         |  i. s.: Scobia FD01
         |         Coiblemmus FD01
         |         Conoblemmus FD01
         |         Homaloblemmus FD01
         |         Scapsipedus FD01
         |           |--S. limbatus RH15
         |           |    |--S. l. limbatus RH15
         |           |    `--S. l. africanus RH15
         |           `--S. saussurei FD01
         |         Velarifictorus FD01
         |           |--V. aspersus FD01
         |           |--V. horridus FD01
         |           `--V. sulcifrons FD01
         |         Petaloptila Pantel 1890 B04
         |           |  i. s.: P. andreini B04
         |           `--P. (Zapetaloptila Gorochov & Llorente 2001) B04
         |                |--P. (Z.) baenai Barranco 2004 B04
         |                |--P. (Z.) bolivari (Cazurro 1888) B04
         |                |--P. (Z.) carabajali Barranco 2004 B04
         |                |--P. (Z.) llorenteae Barranco 2004 B04
         |                |--P. (Z.) mogon Barranco 2004 B04
         |                `--P. (Z.) venosa Gorochov & Llorente 2001 B04
         |         Liogryllus campestris B01
         |         Phylloscyrtus canotus R15
         |--Gryllinae O94
         |--Nemobiinae O94
         |--Eneopterinae O94
         |--Oecanthinae O94
         |--Cachoplistinae R91
         |--Pentacentrus [Pentacentrinae] O94
         |    `--P. velutinus R96
         |--Pteroplistinae O94
         |    |--Pteroplistini O94
         |    `--Landrevini O94
         |         |--Mjobergella R91
         |         `--Copholandrevus R91
         |--Phalangopsinae [Phalangopsidae] O94
         |    |--Strinatia brevipenis M02
         |    |--Tathra R96
         |    |--Nesitathra philipensis R96
         |    |--Endotaria R96
         |    `--Endacusta R96
         |         |--E. major R96
         |         `--E. pindana R96
         |--Myrmecophilinae [Myrmecophilidae] O94
         |    |--Myrmecophilellus R96
         |    `--Myrmecophila O94
         |         |--M. acervorum K09
         |         |--M. americana Saussure 1877 O94
         |         |--M. keyi [incl. M. tindalei] R96
         |         |--M. manni TW05
         |         |--M. quadrispina Perkins 1899 O94
         |         `--M. testaceus R96
         |--Gryllotalpinae O94
         |--Mogoplistinae O94
         `--Trigonidiinae O94
              |--Anaxipha R96
              |--Trigonidium O94
              |--Parametioche R96
              |--Homeoxipha lycoides R96
              |--Trigonidomorpha sjostedti Chopard 1925 O94
              |--Laupala O94
              |--*Paratrigonidium nitidum O94
              |--Falcicula hebardi O94
              |--Metiochodes O94
              |--Cyrtoxiphoides O94
              |--Nudilla Gorochov 1988 (n. d.) O94
              |    `--*N. pacifica (n. d.) [=Paratrigonidium pacificum] O94
              |--Amusurgus R96
              |    |--A. kanyakis R91
              |    `--A. mubboonis R96
              |--Balamara R96
              |    |--B. albovittata R91
              |    `--B. gidya R96
              |--Metioche R96
              |    |--M. albovittata K70
              |    |--M. maoricum M83
              |    `--M. vittaticollis R96
              |--Cyrtoxipha O94
              |    |--C. columbiana O94
              |    `--C. gundlachi O94
              `--Prolaupala Otte 1994 O94
                   |--*P. kaalensis Otte 1994 O94
                   |--P. kukui Otte 1994 O94
                   `--P. perkinsi Otte 1994 O94

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B04] Barranco, P. 2004. Estudio del subgénero Zapetaloptila Gorochov & Llorente, 2001 y descripción de cuatro nuevas especies (Petaloptila Pantel, 1890, Orthoptera, Gryllidae). Graellsia 60 (1): 81–93.

[B01] Bolivar, I. 1901. Orthopterák [Orthoptères]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 223–243. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[FD01] Field, L. H., & N. A. Deans. 2001. Sexual selection and secondary sexual characters of wetas and king crickets. In: Field, L. H. (ed.) The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies pp. 179–204. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[GR02] Gorochov, A. V., & A. P. Rasnitsyn. 2002. Superorder Gryllidea Laicharting, 1781 (=Orthopteroidea Handlirsch, 1903). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 293–303. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[K70] Key, K. H. L. 1970. Orthoptera (grasshoppers, locusts, crickets). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 323–347. Melbourne University Press.

[K09] Köhler, G. 2009. Heuschrecken (Saltatoria) und Ohrwürmner (Dermaptera) im Immissionsgebiet des Düngemittelwerkes Steudnitz/Thüringen—eine Langzeitstudie (1978–2001). Mauritiana 20 (3): 601–646.

[M02] Machado, G. 2002. Maternal care, defensive behavior, and sociality in Neotropical Goniosoma harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones). Insectes Sociaux 49: 388–393.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[O94] Otte, D. 1994. The Crickets of Hawaii: origin, systematics and evolution. The Orthopterists' Society: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.

[R15] Rehn, J. A. G. 1915. A further contribution to the knowledge of the Orthoptera of Argentina. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (2): 270–292.

[RH15] Rehn, J. A. G., & M. Hebard. 1915. The genus Gryllus (Orthoptera) as found in America. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (2): 293–322.

[R91] Rentz, D. C. F. 1991. Orthoptera (grasshoppers, locusts, katydids, crickets). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 369–393. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240–257.

Gryllacridinae

Female Chauliogryllacris, copyright David Rentz.


Belongs within: Stenopelmatidae.

The Gryllacridinae are a group of mostly robust but relatively soft-bodied nocturnal orthopterans that stridulate by rubbing a rasp of pegs on the hind femur against hairs or tubercles on the side of the abdomen. They are often known as 'leaf-rolling crickets' due to the practice of some species of tying leaves together with silk produced by the mouthparts, but not all species engage in this behaviour. Rentz (1996) suggested the alternative vernacular name of 'raspy crickets' as more representative.

Characters (from Gorochov 2001; Hale & Rentz 2001): Generally robust, 1 to 15 cm in length; usually winged (occasionally brachypterous or apterous). Antennae filamentous, generally as long as or longer than body. Rostrum of head between antennae usually rather wide, not tubercle-like. Fore thoracic stigmata with distinct rudiment of third lobule and rather large hind projection. Tarsi depressed, soft, with three pairs of prominent lateral lobes of more or less widened pulvilli; fore coxae with spine; fore tibiae lacking spines or auditory organs; hind femur with pegs on inner surface, rubbing against tubercles or hairs on opposing sides of abdominal tergites. Male abdominal apex with enlarged ninth tergite. Ovipositor usually well developed.

<==Gryllacridinae [Gryllacrididae, Gryllacrinae]
    |--Gryllacris G01
    |    |--G. cruenta Brunner 1888 R18
    |    |--G. harpistylata Rehn 1918 R18
    |    `--G. laevigata R18
    |--Hadrogryllacris HR01
    |--Ametrus tibialis HR01
    |--Paragryllacris combusta HR01
    |--Craspedogryllacris atrofrons HR01, R96
    |--Cooraboorama canberrae HR01
    |--Pararemus callabonnensis [=Eonius callabonnensis] HR01
    |--Australogryllacris HR01
    |--Xanthogryllacris punctipennis HR01
    |--Hyalogryllacris HR01
    |--Mooracra canobolas HR01
    |--Pteropotrechus HR01
    |--Wirritina brevipes HR01
    |--Nullanullia maitlia HR01
    |--Camptonotus carolinensis TW05
    |--Kinemania ambulans R96
    |--Nunkeria HR01
    |    |--N. brochis HR01
    |    `--N. feehami R96
    |--Apotrechus HR01
    |    |--A. illawarra R96
    |    `--A. unicolor HR01
    |--Chauliogryllacris HR01
    |    |--C. grahami HR01
    |    `--C. lobata R96
    |--Bothriogryllacris HR01
    |    |--B. brevicauda HR01
    |    |--B. pinguipes HR01
    |    `--B. turris HR01
    `--Arrolla HR01
         |--A. lewisi HR01
         |--A. longicauda HR01
         |--A. platystyla HR01
         |--A. rotamah HR01
         |--A. tibialis HR01
         |--A. turramurrae HR01
         `--A. weiri HR01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[G01] Gorochov, A. V. 2001. The higher classification, phylogeny and evolution of the superfamily Stenopelmatoidea. In The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies (L. H. Field, ed.) pp. 3-33. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[HR01] Hale, R. J., & D. C. F. Rentz. 2001. The Gryllacrididae: An overview of the world fauna with emphasis on Australian examples. In The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies (L. H. Field, ed.) pp. 95-110. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[R18] Rehn, J. A. G. 1918. On a collection of Orthoptera from the State of Pará, Brazil. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 144-236, pls 141-142.

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240-257.

Caelifera

Hooded pygmy grasshopper Paratettix cucullatus, copyright Stephen Cresswell.


Belongs within: Panelcanida.
Contains: Eumastacoidea, Pyrgomorphidae, Acridoidea, Tridactyloidea.

The Caelifera, including the short-horned grasshoppers, are a clade of orthopterans characterised by the reduction of the antennae. As well as the true grasshoppers of the Acridomorpha, this clade includes the pygmy grasshoppers of the Tetrigidae, small and camouflaged grasshoppers characterised by the posterior extension of the pronotum to the extent that it overlaps with the dorsal surface of the abdomen (Rentz 1996).

Characters (from Rentz 1996): Antennae rather robust, thread-like, rarely with more than 30 segments, usually shorter than body length. Mandibles chewing-type, usually symmetrical, with greatly enlarged, heavy molar teeth. Thoracic segments generally not concealed by pronotum. Tarsi typically with three or fewer segments; fore tibiae lacking auditory receptors. Fan of hind wing confined to anal lobe. Base of abdomen with lateral auditory tympana. Ovipositor short, usually stout, composed of four main independent valves. Male subgenital plate formed from ninth sternum, lacking styles; phallic structures including aedeagus. Three pairs of gastric caeca present at junction of fore- and mid-gut.

<==Caelifera [Acridina]
    |  i. s.: Eolocustopsis Riek 1976 BN02
    |         Gomphocerippus rufus K09
    |--+--Acridomorpha E00
    |  |    |  i. s.: Omalotettix E00
    |  |    |--Eumastacoidea E00
    |  |    `--+--Tanaoceridae [Tanaoceroidea] E00
    |  |       |--Trigonopterygoidea E00
    |  |       |    |--Trigonopterygidae GE05
    |  |       |    `--Xyronotidae GE05
    |  |       |         |--Xyronotus aztecus E00
    |  |       |         `--Azyronotus cantralli E00
    |  |       `--+--Pneumoridae [Pneumoroidea] E00
    |  |          `--+--Pyrgomorphidae E00
    |  |             `--Acridoidea GR02
    |  |--Locustopsoidea GR02
    |  |    |--Locustavidae GR02
    |  |    |    |--Mesacridites Riek 1954 BR05
    |  |    |    |    `--*M. elongata Riek 1954 BR05
    |  |    |    |--Locustavus Sharov 1968 BR05
    |  |    |    `--Ferganopsis Sharov 1968 BR05
    |  |    |         `--F. lanceolatus Sharov 1968 BR05
    |  |    `--Locustopsidae GR02
    |  |         |  i. s.: Araripelocustinae GR02
    |  |         |--Praelocustopsis mirabilis Sharov 1968 BN02
    |  |         `--+--Plesioschwinzia thalassophila Zessin 1988 BN02
    |  |            `--Locustopsis [Locustopsinae] BN02
    |  |                 `--L. karatavica Sharov 1968 BN02
    |  `--Tetrigidae [Tetrigoidea] GR02
    |       |  i. s.: Prototetrix reducta GR02
    |       |--Cladonotinae R96
    |       |--Scelimeninae R96
    |       |--Metrodorinae R96
    |       |--Batrachideinae P03
    |       |    |--Tettigidea P03
    |       |    |    |--T. hancocki Bruner 1910 R18
    |       |    |    `--T. lateralis P03
    |       |    `--Saussurella Bolivar 1887 [incl. Cassitettix Yin 1984, Cassitettinae, Cassitettini] P03
    |       |         |--S. cucullifera P03
    |       |         |--S. inelevata P03
    |       |         `--*Cassitettix’ longiptera Yin 1984 P03
    |       `--Tetriginae P03
    |            |--Mishtshenkotetrix transsylvanica P03
    |            |--Coptotettix gibbus R96
    |            |--Tetrix P03
    |            |    |--T. ornata P03
    |            |    |--T. subulata [incl. Acrydium granulatum] P03
    |            |    |--T. tenuicornis K09
    |            |    `--T. undulata K08
    |            `--Paratettix P03
    |                 |--P. albolimbatus R96
    |                 |--P. cucullatus P03
    |                 |--P. femoralis Z94
    |                 |--P. nigrescens K90
    |                 `--P. texanus D51
    `--+--Dzhajloutshellidae GR02
       `--Tridactyloidea GR02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BN02] Béthoux, O., & A. Nel. 2002. Venation pattern and revision of Orthoptera sensu nov. and sister groups. Phylogeny of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic Orthoptera sensu nov. Zootaxa 96: 1-88.

[BR05] Béthoux, O. & A. J. Ross. 2005. Mesacridites Riek, 1954 (Middle Triassic; Australia) transferred from Protorthoptera to Orthoptera: Locustavidae. Journal of Paleontology 79 (3): 607-610.

[D51] Dobzhansky, T. 1951. Genetics and the Origin of Species, 3rd ed. Columbia University Press: New York.

[E00] Eades, D. C. 2000. Evolutionary relationships of phallic structures of Acridomorpha (Orthoptera). Journal of Orthoptera Research 9: 181-210.

[GR02] Gorochov, A. V., & A. P. Rasnitsyn. 2002. Superorder Gryllidea Laicharting, 1781 (=Orthopteroidea Handlirsch, 1903). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 293-303. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[K90] Key, K. H. L. 1990. Host relations and distribution of species of Caeculisoma (Acarina: Erythraeidae) parasitising grasshoppers in Australia, with supplementary information for the genus Trombella (Trombellidae). Australian Journal of Zoology 38: 11-18.

[K08] Köhler, G. 2008. Populationsstudien aus Gemeinen Grashüpfer, Chorthippus parallelus (Zetterstedt), entlang eines Höhengradienten im Mittleren Erzgebirge. Mauritiana 20 (2): 349-370.

[K09] Köhler, G. 2009. Heuschrecken (Saltatoria) und Ohrwürmner (Dermaptera) im Immissionsgebiet des Düngemittelwerkes Steudnitz/Thüringen—eine Langzeitstudie (1978–2001). Mauritiana 20 (3): 601-646.

[P03] Podgornaya, L. I. 2003. Morphology of the male genitalia in tetrigids (Orthoptera, Tetrigidae) and change of rank of the subfamily Cassitettinae Yin, 1984. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 82 (1): 86-89 (transl. Entomological Review 83 (1): 1-3).

[R18] Rehn, J. A. G. 1918. On a collection of Orthoptera from the State of Pará, Brazil. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 144-236, pls 141-142.

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[Z94] Zhang, Z.-Q. 1994. Neothrombiidae (Acari: Trombidioidea) of the world: systematic review with a phylogenetic analysis and descriptions of two new genera. Oriental Insects 28: 205-237.