Nematoda

Euchromadora sp., from Nematoda do Brasil.


Belongs within: Ecdysozoa.
Contains: Dorylaimia, Enoplia, Desmoscolecida, Monhysterida, Chromadorida, Desmodorida, Araeolaimida, Plectida, Secernentea.

The Nematoda, roundworms, are a hyperdiverse group of mostly minute, vermiform animals (though some parasitic forms may reach large sizes). Free-living nematodes have a characteristically eel-like mode of swimming, as the body wall contains longitudinal muscles only and movement is by dorsoventral flexure of these muscles against the outer cuticle and internal hydrostatic pressure. The dorsoventral plane of flexure also means that most nematodes are unusual among animals in characteristically lying on one side during movement (Lorenzen 1986). An early influential classification divided the nematodes between the Secernentea, possessing sensory structures called phasmids, and the Adenophorea, lacking such structures. However, the Secernentea represent a nested clade within the 'Adenophorea', which is no longer recognised as a valid taxon.

Characters (from Eder 1986): Body usually unpigmented, long and thin (about twenty times as long as wide). Body wall with longitudinal muscles only. Usually blind; orientation performed by means of amphids, cephalic setae and bristles. Gas exchange conducted through cuticle, specialised respiratory organs absent.

<==Nematoda [Adenophorea, Aphasmidia, Ascaridatina, Nemata, Nemates]
    |--Enoplea [Penetrantia] LB02
    |    |--Dorylaimia LB02
    |    `--Enoplia LB02
    `--Chromadorea [Chromadoria, Torquentia] LB02
         |  i. s.: Desmoscolecida LB02
         |--Monhysterida LB02
         `--+--Chromadorida LB02
            `--+--Desmodorida LB02
               `--+--Araeolaimida LB02
                  `--+--Plectida LB02
                     `--Secernentea LB02

Nematoda incertae sedis:
  Cephalobellus WPT01
  Peloderma G01
  Caballeronema pseudoargumentosus Mus02
  Truttaedacnitis sphaerocephala Mus02
  Thynnascaris N02
    |--T. aduncum [=Contracaecum aduncum] N02
    `--T. habena [=Contracaecum habena] C02a
  Hysterothylacium K-M02
    |--H. aduncum K-M02
    `--H. pelagicum C02b
  Contracaecum osculatum Mun02
  Spinitectus cristatus K-M02
  Benthimermithidae [Benthimermithida] LB02
  Rhaptothyreidae [Rhaptothyreida] LB02
  Mazamastrongylus odocoilei LB02
  Placentonema gigantissimum Gubanov 1951 L86
  Strongyluris Gi02
  Histiocephalus bucorvi Gi02
  Tanqua tiara Gi02
  Cylicodontostomum purvisi Gi02
  Agriostomum Gi02
  Allodapa suctoria Gi02
  Stegophorus Gi02
  Striatofilaria Gi02
  Setaria digitata B02
  Cyathospirura seurati Gi02
  Ternidens deminutus Gi02
  Streptopharagus pigmentatus Gi02
  Gyalocephalus capitatus Gi02
  Bunostomum Railliet 1902 C92
    `--B. trigonocephalum MM02
  Hexametra Gi02
  Hyostrongylus rubidus Gi02
  Parostertagia heterospiculum Gi02
  Ashworthius pattoni Gi02
  Hoplodontophorus flagellum Gi02
  Paracooperia Gi02
  Rhabditolaimus L02a
  Ollulanus tricuspis L02a
  Probstmayria vivipara MM02
  Mesodiplogaster L02a
    |--M. biformis Ge02
    `--M. lheritieri L02a
  Labronema vulvapapillatum L02a
  Cephalenchus emarginatus L02b
  Metadasynemoides cristatus L02b
  Euchromadora MM02
    |--E. gaulica MM02
    |--E. robusta L02b
    `--E. vulgaris L02b
  Acanthonchus duplicatus L02b
  Laxus oneistus L02b
  Prooncholaimus L02b
  Chromadorina L02c
    |--C. bioculata L02b
    `--C. viridis L02c
  Oswaldocruzia leidyi L02b
  Paracanthonchus caecus L02b, MV04
  Halichoanolaimus sonorus L02b
  Aporcellaimellus L02b
  Contortylenchus grandicolli L02b
  Tachygonetria MM02
    |--T. robusta MM02
    `--T. stylosa MM02
  Halenchus fucicola MM02
  Brumptaemilius MM02
  Oxyspirura mansoni MM02
  Muellerius capillaris MM02
  Discolaimus MM02
  Dolichodorus MM02
  Gracilacus MM02
  Rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus MM02
  Hexatylus viviparus MM02
  Europlus TG02
  Folyella dolichoptera L02c
  Trichonema L02c
  Mansonella Ge02
    |--M. ozzardi A71
    `--M. perstans Ge02
  Pseudorhabdolaimus Soos 1937 E86
    `--P. limnophilus Soos 1937 E86
  Zeldia punctata GR98
  Aduncospiculum halicti GR98
  Austronema Cobb 1914 BR05
  Longistrongylus curvispiculum KC07
  Spiroptera brevisubulata P89
  Controtylenchus brevicomi A-B91
  Stomachus marinus R59
  Ackertia marmotae Webster 1967 MW69
  Acarincola hirsutus Warren 1941 S69

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[A-B91] Athias-Binche, F. 1991. Ecology and evolution of phoresy in mites. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 27-41. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[B02] Behm, C. A. 2002. Metabolism. In The Biology of Nematodes (D. L. Lee, ed.) pp. 261-290. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[BR05] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, J. Frýda, B. Hausdorf, W. Ponder, Á. Valdés & A. Warén. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1-2): 1-397.

[C02a] Collette, B. B. 2002a. Toadfishes. Order Batrachoididae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 261-264. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[C02b] Collette, B. B. 2002b. Dolphinfishes. Family Coryphaenidae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 409-411. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[C92] Crawford, R. L. 1992. Catalogue of the genera and type species of the harvestman superfamily Phalangioidea (Arachnida). Burke Museum Contributions in Anthropology and Natural History 8: 1-60.

[E86] Eder, R. 1986. Nematoda from continental subterranean aquatic habitats. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 125-132. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[Ge02] Gems, D. 2002. Ageing. In The Biology of Nematodes (D. L. Lee, ed.) pp. 413-455. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[Gi02] Gibbons, L. M. 2002. General organisation. In The Biology of Nematodes (D. L. Lee, ed.) pp. 31-59. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[GR98] Giribet, G., & C. Ribera. 1998. The position of arthropods in the animal kingdom: A search for a reliable outgroup for internal arthropod phylogeny. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 9: 481-488.

[G01] Gupta, S. K. 2001. A conspectus of natural enemies of phytophagous mites and mites as potential biocontrol agents of agricultural pests in India. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 484-497. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[K-M02] Klein-MacPhee, G. 2002. Cods. Family Gadidae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 223-261. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[KC07] Krausman, P. R., & A. L. Casey. 2007. Addax nasomaculatus. Mammalian Species 807: 1-4.

[L02a] Lee, D. L. 2002a. Life cycles. In The Biology of Nematodes (D. L. Lee, ed.) pp. 61-72. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[L02b] Lee, D. L. 2002b. Cuticle, moulting and exsheathment. In The Biology of Nematodes (D. L. Lee, ed.) pp. 171-209. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[L02c] Lee, D. L. 2002c. Behaviour. In The Biology of Nematodes (D. L. Lee, ed.) pp. 369-387. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[LB02] Ley, P. de, & M. Blaxter. 2002. Systematic position and phylogeny. In The Biology of Nematodes (D. L. Lee, ed.) pp. 1-30. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[L86] Lorenzen, S. 1986. Nematoda: Interstitial nematodes from marine brackish and hypersaline environments. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 133-142. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[MV04] Manylov, O. G., N. S. Vladychenskaya, I. A. Milyutina, O. S. Kedrova, N. P. Korokhov, G. A. Dvoryanchikov, V. V. Aleshin & N. B. Petrov. 2004. Analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences suggests significant molecular differences between Macrodasyida and Chaetonotida (Gastrotricha). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 30: 850-854.

[MW69] Moss, W. W. & W. A. Webster. 1969. A numerical taxonomic study of a group of selected strongylates (Nematoda). Systematic Zoology 18 (4): 423-443.

[MM02] Munn, E. A., & P. D. Munn. 2002. Feeding and digestion. In The Biology of Nematodes (D. L. Lee, ed.) pp. 211-232. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[Mun02] Munroe, T. A. 2002. Herrings. Family Clupeidae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 111-160. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[Mus02] Musick, J. A. 2002. Sturgeons. Family Acipenseridae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 83-88. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[N02] Nizinski, M. S. 2002. Sand lances. Family Ammodytidae. In Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds) 3rd ed. pp. 496-505. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[P89] Parona, C. 1889. Sopra alcuni elminti di Vertebrati birmani raccolti da Leonardo Fea. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 765-780.

[R59] Robinson, E. S. 1959. Records of cestodes from marine fishes of New Zealand. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 86 (1): 143-153.

[S69] Steyskal, G. C. 1969. The mistreatment of the Latin genitive case in forming names of parasites. Systematic Zoology 18 (3): 339-342.

[TG02] Thompson, D. P., & T. G. Geary. 2002. Excretion/secretion, ionic and osmotic regulation. In The Biology of Nematodes (D. L. Lee, ed.) pp. 291-320. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[WPT01] Wharton, D. A., R. Poulin & C. L. Tyrell. 2001. Parasites of anostostomatid insects. In The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies (L. H. Field, ed.) pp. 259-267. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

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