Nematoda

Euchromadora sp., from Nematoda do Brasil.


Belongs within: Ecdysozoa.
Contains: Dorylaimia, Enoplia, Desmoscolecida, Monhysterida, Chromadorida, Desmodorida, Araeolaimida, Plectida, Secernentea.

The Nematoda, roundworms, are a hyperdiverse group of mostly minute, vermiform animals (though some parasitic forms may reach large sizes). Free-living nematodes have a characteristically eel-like mode of swimming, as the body wall contains longitudinal muscles only and movement is by dorsoventral flexure of these muscles against the outer cuticle and internal hydrostatic pressure. The dorsoventral plane of flexure also means that most nematodes are unusual among animals in characteristically lying on one side during movement (Lorenzen 1986). An early influential classification divided the nematodes between the Secernentea, possessing sensory structures called phasmids, and the Adenophorea, lacking such structures. However, the Secernentea represent a nested clade within the 'Adenophorea', which is no longer recognised as a valid taxon. Instead, molecular analyses strongly support three primarily clades within the nematodes, Dorylaimia, Enoplia and Chromadorea, with the Secernentea a subgroup of the last (Ley & Blaxter 2002).

Characters (from Eder 1986): Body usually unpigmented, long and thin (about twenty times as long as wide). Body wall with longitudinal muscles only. Usually blind; orientation performed by means of amphids, cephalic setae and bristles. Gas exchange conducted through cuticle, specialised respiratory organs absent.

<==Nematoda [Adenophorea, Aphasmidia, Ascaridatina, Nemata, Nematelmia, Nematelminthes, Nemates, Nemathelminthes]
    |--Enoplea [Penetrantia] LB02
    |    |--Dorylaimia LB02
    |    `--Enoplia LB02
    `--Chromadorea [Chromadoria, Torquentia] LB02
         |  i. s.: Desmoscolecida LB02
         |--Monhysterida LB02
         `--+--Chromadorida LB02
            `--+--Desmodorida LB02
               `--+--Araeolaimida LB02
                  `--+--Plectida LB02
                     `--Secernentea LB02

Nematoda incertae sedis:
  Peloderma G01
  Caballeronema pseudoargumentosus Mus02
  Truttaedacnitis sphaerocephala Mus02
  Thynnascaris N02
    |--T. aduncum [=Contracaecum aduncum] N02
    `--T. habena [=Contracaecum habena] C02a
  Hysterothylacium K-M02
    |--H. aduncum K-M02
    `--H. pelagicum C02b
  Contracaecum osculatum Mun02
  Spinitectus cristatus K-M02
  Benthimermithidae [Benthimermithida] LB02
  Rhaptothyreidae [Rhaptothyreida] LB02
  Mazamastrongylus odocoilei LB02
  Placentonema gigantissimum Gubanov 1951 L86
  Histiocephalus bucorvi Gi02
  Tanqua tiara Gi02
  Cylicodontostomum purvisi Gi02
  Agriostomum Gi02
  Allodapa suctoria Gi02
  Stegophorus Gi02
  Striatofilaria Gi02
  Setaria digitata B02
  Cyathospirura seurati Gi02
  Ternidens deminutus Gi02
  Streptopharagus pigmentatus Gi02
  Gyalocephalus capitatus Gi02
  Bunostomum Railliet 1902 C92
    `--B. trigonocephalum MM02
  Hexametra Gi02
  Hyostrongylus rubidus Gi02
  Parostertagia heterospiculum Gi02
  Ashworthius pattoni Gi02
  Hoplodontophorus flagellum Gi02
  Paracooperia Gi02
  Rhabditolaimus L02a
  Ollulanus tricuspis L02a
  Probstmayria vivipara MM02
  Mesodiplogaster L02a
    |--M. biformis Ge02
    `--M. lheritieri L02a
  Labronema vulvapapillatum L02a
  Metadasynemoides cristatus L02b
  Euchromadora MM02
    |--E. gaulica MM02
    |--E. robusta L02b
    `--E. vulgaris L02b
  Acanthonchus duplicatus L02b
  Laxus oneistus L02b
  Prooncholaimus L02b
  Chromadorina L02c
    |--C. bioculata L02b
    `--C. viridis L02c
  Oswaldocruzia leidyi L02b
  Paracanthonchus caecus L02b, MV04
  Halichoanolaimus sonorus L02b
  Aporcellaimellus L02b
  Tachygonetria MM02
    |--T. robusta MM02
    `--T. stylosa MM02
  Brumptaemilius MM02
  Oxyspirura mansoni MM02
  Muellerius capillaris MM02
  Discolaimus MM02
  Rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus MM02
  Folyella dolichoptera L02c
  Mansonella Ge02
    |--M. ozzardi A71
    `--M. perstans Ge02
  Pseudorhabdolaimus Soos 1937 E86
    `--P. limnophilus Soos 1937 E86
  Zeldia punctata GR98
  Aduncospiculum halicti GR98
  Austronema Cobb 1914 BR05
  Longistrongylus curvispiculum KC07
  Spiroptera brevisubulata P89
  Controtylenchus brevicomi A-B91
  Stomachus marinus R59
  Ackertia marmotae Webster 1967 MW69
  Acarincola hirsutus Warren 1941 S69
  Nemavermes mackeei Schram 1973 G88
  Cyathostomum Molin 1861 [incl. Trichonema Cobbold 1874 non Ker Gawl. 1802 (ICBN)] C-SCL16
  Dorylaimopsis rabalaisi WXH10
  Vasostoma longispicula WXH10
  Stenolaimus lepturus PP64
  Scorpiophagus Størmer 1963 W93
    |--S. baculiformis Størmer 1963 W93
    `--S. latus Størmer 1963 W93

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[A-B91] Athias-Binche, F. 1991. Ecology and evolution of phoresy in mites. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 27–41. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[B02] Behm, C. A. 2002. Metabolism. In: Lee, D. L. (ed.) The Biology of Nematodes pp. 261–290. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[C-SCL16] Cavalier-Smith, T., E. E. Chao & R. Lewis. 2016. 187-gene phylogeny of protozoan phylum Amoebozoa reveals a new class (Cutosea) of deep-branching, ultrastructurally unique, enveloped marine Lobosa and clarifies amoeba evolution. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 99: 275–296.

[C02a] Collette, B. B. 2002a. Toadfishes. Order Batrachoididae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 261–264. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[C02b] Collette, B. B. 2002b. Dolphinfishes. Family Coryphaenidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 409–411. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[C92] Crawford, R. L. 1992. Catalogue of the genera and type species of the harvestman superfamily Phalangioidea (Arachnida). Burke Museum Contributions in Anthropology and Natural History 8: 1–60.

[E86] Eder, R. 1986. Nematoda from continental subterranean aquatic habitats. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 125–132. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[Ge02] Gems, D. 2002. Ageing. In: Lee, D. L. (ed.) The Biology of Nematodes pp. 413–455. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[Gi02] Gibbons, L. M. 2002. General organisation. In: Lee, D. L. (ed.) The Biology of Nematodes pp. 31–59. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[GR98] Giribet, G., & C. Ribera. 1998. The position of arthropods in the animal kingdom: a search for a reliable outgroup for internal arthropod phylogeny. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 9: 481–488.

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[G01] Gupta, S. K. 2001. A conspectus of natural enemies of phytophagous mites and mites as potential biocontrol agents of agricultural pests in India. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 484–497. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[K-M02] Klein-MacPhee, G. 2002. Cods. Family Gadidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 223–261. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[KC07] Krausman, P. R., & A. L. Casey. 2007. Addax nasomaculatus. Mammalian Species 807: 1–4.

[L02a] Lee, D. L. 2002a. Life cycles. In: Lee, D. L. (ed.) The Biology of Nematodes pp. 61–72. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[L02b] Lee, D. L. 2002b. Cuticle, moulting and exsheathment. In: Lee, D. L. (ed.) The Biology of Nematodes pp. 171–209. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[L02c] Lee, D. L. 2002c. Behaviour. In: Lee, D. L. (ed.) The Biology of Nematodes pp. 369–387. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[LB02] Ley, P. de, & M. Blaxter. 2002. Systematic position and phylogeny. In: Lee, D. L. (ed.) The Biology of Nematodes pp. 1–30. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[L86] Lorenzen, S. 1986. Nematoda: Interstitial nematodes from marine brackish and hypersaline environments. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 133–142. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[MV04] Manylov, O. G., N. S. Vladychenskaya, I. A. Milyutina, O. S. Kedrova, N. P. Korokhov, G. A. Dvoryanchikov, V. V. Aleshin & N. B. Petrov. 2004. Analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences suggests significant molecular differences between Macrodasyida and Chaetonotida (Gastrotricha). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 30: 850–854.

[MW69] Moss, W. W., & W. A. Webster. 1969. A numerical taxonomic study of a group of selected strongylates (Nematoda). Systematic Zoology 18 (4): 423–443.

[MM02] Munn, E. A., & P. D. Munn. 2002. Feeding and digestion. In: Lee, D. L. (ed.) The Biology of Nematodes pp. 211–232. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[Mun02] Munroe, T. A. 2002. Herrings. Family Clupeidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 111–160. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[Mus02] Musick, J. A. 2002. Sturgeons. Family Acipenseridae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 83–88. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[N02] Nizinski, M. S. 2002. Sand lances. Family Ammodytidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 496–505. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[P89] Parona, C. 1889. Sopra alcuni elminti di Vertebrati birmani raccolti da Leonardo Fea. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 765–780.

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d'Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[R59] Robinson, E. S. 1959. Records of cestodes from marine fishes of New Zealand. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 86 (1): 143–153.

[S69] Steyskal, G. C. 1969. The mistreatment of the Latin genitive case in forming names of parasites. Systematic Zoology 18 (3): 339–342.

[W93] Wills, M. A. 1993. Miscellania. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 555–560. Chapman & Hall: London.

[WXH10] Wu, X., K. Xu & Y. Huang. 2010. Community structure and spatial distribution of marine benthic nematodes at the late stage of the Yellow Sea macroalgal bloom in 2008. In: China-Russia Bilateral Symposium: Proceedings of the China-Russia Bilateral Symposium of "Comparison on Marine Biodiversity in the Northwest Pacific Ocean", 10–11 October 2010, Qingdao (China) pp. 147–148. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; A. V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Last updated: 25 April 2019.

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