Holonota

SEM of Eulohmannia ribagai, from here.


Belongs within: Sarcoptiformes.
Contains: Perlohmanniidae, Epilohmanniidae, Euphthiracaroidea, Phthiracaridae, Desmonomata.

The Holonota are a major division of the oribatid mites in which the notogaster (dorsum of the hysterosoma) is fused into a single sclerite, without transverse scissures. Members of this group have previously been divided between the Mixonomata, Desmonomata and Circumdehiscentiae (or Brachypylina). However, the Desmonomata are paraphyletic with regard to the Circumdehiscentiae, and the Mixonomata are in turn paraphyletic to the Desmonomata. In members of the 'Mixonomata', the body is dichoid, with the sejugal furrow separating the proterosoma and hysterosoma remaining soft and articulate both dorsally and ventrally. The Ptyctima, box mites, have this articulation further modified to allow the proterosoma (aspis) to be folded downwards against the hysterosoma, with the legs being withdrawn into the body cavity (Norton & Beha-Pelletier 2009).

The genus Nehypochthonius includes two species of colourless, weakly sclerotised mites known from litter and moss in North America and Japan; the apparent absence of males in large populations suggests that they are parthenogenetic. Members of this genus have the rostral tectum weakly developed, so that the chelicerae are mostly exposed dorsally. The light yellow, elongate Eulohmannia ribagai is also asexual; this species is found in forest humus throughout the Holarctic (Norton & Behan-Pelletier 2009).

See also: Mite-in-a-box.

<==Holonota [Dichosomata, Mixonomata, Mixonomatides] MH04
    |  i. s.: Perlohmanniidae NB-P09
    |--Eulohmannia Berlese 1910 S04 [incl. Arthronothrus Trägardh 1910 S04; Eulohmanniidae, Eulohmannioidea MH04]
    |    `--*E. ribagai (Berlese 1910) (see below for synonymy) S04
    `--+--Epilohmanniidae MH04
       `--+--Ptyctima [Euptyctima] DA07
          |    |--Euphthiracaroidea DW10
          |    `--Phthiracaridae DW10
          `--+--Desmonomata DW10
             `--Nehypochthonius Norton & Metz 1980 DW10, S04 [Nehypochthoniidae, Nehypochthonoidea]
                  |--*N. porosus Norton & Metz 1980 S04
                  `--N. yanoi Aoki 2002 S04

*Eulohmannia ribagai (Berlese 1910) [=Lohmannia (*Eulohmannia) ribagai; incl. Arthronothrus biunguiculatus Trägardh 1910] S04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[DW10] Dabert, M., W. Witalinski, A. Kazmierski, Z. Olszanowski & J. Dabert. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of acariform mites (Acari, Arachnida): strong conflict between phylogenetic signal and long-branch attraction artifacts. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 56 (1): 222–241.

[DA07] Domes, K., M. Althammer, R. A. Norton, S. Scheu & M. Maraun. 2007. The phylogenetic relationship between Astigmata and Oribatida (Acari) as indicated by molecular markers. Experimental and Applied Acarology 42 (3): 159–171.

[MH04] Maraun, M., M. Heethoff, K. Schneider, S. Scheu, G. Weigmann, J. Cianciolo, R. H. Thomas & R. A. Norton. 2004. Molecular phylogeny of oribatid mites (Oribatida, Acari): evidence for multiple radiations of parthenogenetic lineages. Experimental and Applied Acarology 33 (3): 183–201.

[NB-P09] Norton, R. A., & V. M. Behan-Pelletier. 2009. Suborder Oribatida. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 430–564. Texas Tech University Press.

[S04] Subías, L. S. 2004. Listado sistemático, sinonímico y biogeográfico de los ácaros oribátidos (Acariformes, Oribatida) del mundo (1758–2002). Graellsia 60 (número extraordinario): 3–305.

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