Astigmata

Nymph of Hypodectes propus, from here.


Belongs within: Desmonomata.
Contains: Acaroidea, Histiostomatidae, Canestrinioidea, Psoroptidia, Glycyphagidae, Hemisarcoptoidea.

The Astigmata are a group of soft-bodied mites lacking respiratory tracheae (Philips 1990). Many have rapid life cycles, and may be significant scavengers of decomposing matter. Most astigmatans (excluding the vertebrate-associated Psoroptidia) have a modified non-feeding deutonymph (hypopus) stage in the life cycle that is adapted for phoretic dispersal or diapause during adverse conditions. However, if conditions are suitable, protonymphs may moult directly to the tritonymphal stage of the life cycle and bypass the deutonymph instar (OConnor 2009).

See also: Life in the fast lane.

Characters (from Philips 1990): Weakly sclerotised, slow-moving, pale; respiratory stigmata and tracheae absent, respiration occuring through cuticle. Chelicerae mostly chelate-dentate. Palps two-segmented. Idiosoma usually divided into propodosoma and hysterosoma by sejugal furrow. Hysterosoma with laterodorsal hysterosomal gland openings normally visible. Primary genital opening of both sexes occuring ventrally between the legs, flanked by two pairs of genital papillae. Oviposition occuring through this opening (oviporus) in female, but sperm received through small circular opening (bursa copulatrix) at posterior end of body. Male aedeagus supported by struts; male anal opening often flanked by pair of copulatory suckers.

<==Astigmata [Acaridei, Acaridiae, Acaridida, Astigmatina]
    |  i. s.: Myrmolichus greimae W01
    |         Naidacarus arboricolus A-B91
    |         Amphicalvolia hurdi O09
    |--Schizoglyphus [Schizoglyphidae, Schizoglyphoidea] O09
    |    `--S. biroi O09
    `--+--+--Acaroidea DW10
       |  `--Histiostomatoidea O09
       |       |--Histiostomatidae DW10
       |       `--Guanolichidae O09
       |            |--Neoguanolichus P90
       |            `--Guanolichus gabonensis O09
       `--+--+--+--Canestrinioidea DW10
          |  |  `--Psoroptidia DW10
          |  `--Hypoderatidae [Hypoderatoidea] DW10
          |       |--Phalacrodectes gaudi DW10
          |       |--Acotylopus [incl. Muridectes] O09
          |       |--Dipodomydectes O09
          |       |--Hypodectes De Filippi 1861 WP99, CF77
          |       |    |--H. carpophagae Baraldi 1875 CF77
          |       |    `--H. propus WP99
          |       |--Neottialges DW10
          |       |    |--N. evansi DW10
          |       |    `--N. plegadicola O09
          |       `--Tytodectes O09
          |            |--T. falconis O09
          |            `--T. strigis O09
          `--Glycyphagoidea O09
               |  i. s.: Aeroglyphidae O09
               |           |--Aeroglyphus robustus O09
               |           `--Glycycometus [incl. Austroglycyphagus] O09
               |                |--G. geniculatus [=Austroglycyphagus geniculatus] DA07
               |                |--G. lukoschusi O09
               |                |--G. malaysiensis C-R02
               |                |--‘Austroglycyphagus’ orientalis SH01
               |                `--‘Austroglycyphagus’ thailandicus SH01
               |         Rosensteiniidae O09
               |           |--Rosensteinia sieversi O09
               |           |--Mydopholeus O09
               |           |--Chiroptoglyphus americanus O09
               |           |--Micronychites postverrucosus O09
               |           |--Cheiromelicus trochanteralis O09
               |           |--Troglotacarus [Troglotacaridae] O09
               |           |    `--T. hauseri O09
               |           |--Lophonotacarus [Lophonotacaridae] O09
               |           |    `--L. minutus O09
               |           `--Nycteriglyphus O09
               |                |--N. bifolium O09
               |                |--N. pterophorus O09
               |                `--N. vespertilio O09
               |         Euglycyphagidae O09
               |           |--Euglycyphagus intercalatus O09
               |           `--Lomelacarus O09
               |         Pedetopus [Pedetopodidae] O09
               |           `--P. zumpti O09
               |         Echimyopodidae O09
               |           |--Echimyopus dasypus O09
               |           |--Blomia tropicalis O09
               |           |--Marsupiopus zyzomys O09
               |           `--Marmosopus mesoamericanus O09
               |--Glycyphagidae DW10
               `--+--Hemisarcoptoidea DW10
                  `--Chortoglyphidae DW10
                       |--Chortoglyphus arcuatus MR01
                       |--Alabidopus asiaticus O09
                       `--Aplodontopus O09
                            |--A. marmotae O09
                            `--A. sciuricola Hyland & Fain 1968 M-PV-G01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A-B91] Athias-Binche, F. 1991. Ecology and evolution of phoresy in mites. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 27-41. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[CF77] Canestrini, G. & F. Fanzago. 1877. Intorno agli Acari Italiani. Atti del Reale Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, Serie 5, 4: 69-208, pls 202-207.

[C-R02] Corpuz-Raros, L. A. 2002. Philippine acarine biological control agents: Status, bioecology and research prospects. Philippine Agricultural Scientist 85 (2): 137-154.

[DW10] Dabert, M., W. Witalinski, A. Kazmierski, Z. Olszanowski & J. Dabert. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of acariform mites (Acari, Arachnida): strong conflict between phylogenetic signal and long-branch attraction artifacts. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 56 (1): 222-241.

[DA07] Domes, K., M. Althammer, R. A. Norton, S. Scheu & M. Maraun. 2007. The phylogenetic relationship between Astigmata and Oribatida (Acari) as indicated by molecular markers. Experimental and Applied Acarology 42 (3): 159-171.

[M-PV-G01] Montiel-Parra, G., G. A. Villegas-Guzman, M. Vargas & O. J. Polaco. 2001. Mites associated with nests of Neotoma albigula Hartley, 1894 (Rodentia: Muridae) in Durango, México. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 586-593. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[MR01] Morris, M. J. A., & J. Rimmer. 2001. Allergenicity of the predator dust mite Cheyletus tenuipilis (Acari: Cheyletidae): A preliminary study. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 558-564. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[O09] OConnor, B. M. 2009. Cohort Astigmatina. In: Krantz, G. W. & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology, 3rd ed., pp. 565-657. Texas Tech University Press.

[P90] Philips, J. R. 1990. Acarina: Astigmata (Acaridida). In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 757-778. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[SH01] Sumangala, K., & M. A. Haq. 2001. Survey of the mite fauna associated with Apis spp. in Kerala, southern India. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 565-568. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[WP99] Walter, D. E. & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[W01] Wurst, E. 2001. The life cycle of Lemanniella minotauri n. sp. and the erection of the new family Lemanniellidae (Acari: Astigmata). Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde Serie A (Biologie) 621: 1-34.

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