Larva of Nevrorthus fallax, from here.

Belongs within: Holometabola.
Contains: Hemerobiiformia, Myrmeleontiformia.

The Neuroptera, lacewings, are a group of predaceous insects. They are united by having the ninth gonocoxites associated with the gonarcus, and larvae with sucking mouthparts in which the maxillae and mandibles form a tube (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). Living neuropterans are mostly divided between two major lineages, the Hemerobiiformia and Myrmeleontiformia, with the exception of the Nevrorthidae. The Nevrorthidae are a family of small lacewings with aquatic larvae mostly found in fast-flowing streams, where they are possibly predatory on other aquatic insects (Grimaldi & Engel 2005).

Neuroptera [Myrmeleontida, Planipennia]
    |  i. s.: Paleogetes [Prohemerobiidae] P02
    |         Mesopolystoechus Martynov 1937 [Mesopolystoechotidae] REL02
    |         Archegetes neuropterum W13
    |         Megapolystoechotes Tillyard 1933 REL02
    |         Cratosisyrops gongazai Martins-Neto 1997 NM03
    |         Archicauloides dubitatis H74
    |         Grammosmylidae GE05
    |--Permithonidae GE05
    |    |--Sylvasenex lacrimabundus P02
    |    |--Permithonopsis enormis P02
    |    |--Permosisyra paurovenosa P02
    |    `--Permithone F71
    |         |--P. belmontensis Tillyard 1922 [incl. Permosmylus pincombeae Tillyard 1926] F71
    |         |--P. neoxenus Riek 1953 F71
    |         `--P. oliarcoides Tillyard 1926 F71
    `--+--+--Hemerobiiformia GE05
       |  `--Myrmeleontiformia GE05
       `--Nevrorthidae [Nevrorthiformia] GE05
            |--Austroneurorthus Nakahara 1958 NM03
            |--Nipponeurorthus Nakahara 1958 NM03
            |--Nevrorthus Costa 1863 NM03
            |    `--N. fallax (Rambur 1842) NM03
            `--Rophalis Hagen 1856 NM03
                 `--R. relicta Hagen 1856 NM03

*Type species of generic name indicated


[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H74] Helson, G. A. H. 1974. Insect Pests: Identification, life history, and control of pests of farms, horticulture, gardens, and public health. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[NM03] Nel, A., J.-J. Menier, A. Waller, G. Hodebert & G. de Ploëg. 2003. New fossil spongilla-flies from the lowermost Eocene amber of France (Insecta, Neuroptera, Sisyridae). Geodiversitas 25 (1): 109–117.

[P02] Ponomarenko, A. G. 2002. Superorder Myrmeleontidea Latreille, 1802 (=Neuropteroidea Handlirsch, 1903). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P. & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 176–189. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[REL02] Ren, D., M. S. Engel & W. Lü. 2002. New giant lacewings from the Middle Jurassic of Inner Mongolia, China (Neuroptera: Polystoechotidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 75 (3): 188–193.

[W13] Witton, M. P. 2013. Pterosaurs: Natural History, Evolution, Anatomy. Princeton University Press: Princeton (New Jersey).

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