Buccinidae

Kennicott's neptune Beringius kennicottii, copyright L. Schroeder.


Belongs within: Muricoidea.
Contains: Engina, Buccinulini, Cominella, Volutopsius, Colini, Buccinum.

The Buccinidae, whelks, are a diverse family of carnivorous gastropods that is particularly speciose in temperate waters. Females lay egg capsules either singly or in masses, with development being direct or via a planktonic larval stage (Wilson & Gillett 1971). The Busyconinae, a group endemic to shallow waters along the Atlantic coast of North America, lay their eggs as capsule strings anchored in sand.

Beringius is a genus of large, solid whelks found in the northern Pacific, usually with a strong sculpture (Oldroyd 1927).

<==Buccinidae [Cominellidae, Cominellinae]
    |--Syntagma Iredale 1918 P66 (see below for synonymy)
    |    `--*S. minimum Montagu 1803 [=Buccinum minimum, *Donovania minima; incl. B. brunneum Donovan 1804] P66
    |--Busyconinae [Busyconidae] BR05
    |    |--Busycotypus Wenz 1943 [Busycotypinae, Busycotypini] BR05
    |    `--Busycon Röding 1798 [incl. Fulgur Montfort 1810; Busyconini, Fulguridae, Fulgurinae] BR05
    |         |--B. carica KS89
    |         |--B. echinatum [=Echinofulgur echinatus] C60
    |         `--B. laeostomum Kent 1982 BC01
    |--Siphonaliinae [Siphonaliidae] BR05
    |    |--Siphonalia Adams 1863 BR05
    |    |    `--S. gracillima (Adams & Reeve 1850) [=Fusus gracillimus] H09
    |    `--Austrosipho Cossmann 1906 [Austrosiphonidae] BR05
    |         |--*A. roblini [=Siphonalia roblini] F27b
    |         |--A. asperulus (Tate 1888) [=Sipho asperulus, Siphonalia tatei] F27b
    |         |--A. excelsa (Suter 1917) [=Siphonalia excelsa] F27b
    |         |--A. longirostris F27b
    |         |--A. marwicki M49
    |         |--A. maxima [=Siphonalia maxima] F27b
    |         `--A. oligostira [=Siphonalia oligostira] F27b
    |--Beringius Dall 1887 [Beringiidae, Beringiinae, Beringioidea] BR05
    |    |--*B. crebricostatus (Dall 1887) [=Chrysodomus crebricostatus] O27
    |    |    |--B. c. crebricostatus O27
    |    |    `--B. c. undatus Dall 1919 O27
    |    |--B. aleuticus Dall 1894 O27
    |    |--B. frielei Dall 1894 O27
    |    |--B. indentatus Dall 1919 O27
    |    |--B. kennicottii Dall 1907 O27
    |    |    |--B. k. kennicottii O27
    |    |    `--B. k. incisus Dall 1907 O27
    |    |--B. malleatus Dall 1884 O27
    |    |--B. marshalli Dall 1919 O27
    |    `--B. stimpsoni (Gould 1860) [=Buccinum stimpsoni] O27
    `--Buccininae [Buccinidia] BR05
         |  i. s.: Buccinulini BR05
         |         Cominella BR05
         |         Volutopsius BR05
         |         Parancistrolepidini [Parancistrolepididae, Parancistrolepidinae, Parancistrolepisinae] BR05
         |           |--Parancistrolepis Azuma 1965 BR05
         |           `--Brevisiphonia Lus 1973 [Brevisiphoniinae] BR05
         |         Prosipho Thiele 1912 [Prosiphiinae, Prosiphoninae, Prosiphonini] BR05
         |           |--*P. gaussianus P61
         |           |--P. cassandra F27a
         |           |--P. pallidula F27a
         |           `--P. tomlini Powell 1957 [incl. P. madigani Tomlin 1948 non Hedley 1916] P61
         |         Ancistrolepis Dall 1895 [Ancistrolepidinae, Ancistrolepidini, Ancistrolepisinae] BR05
         |           |--*A. eucosmius Dall 1891 O27
         |           |    |--A. e. eucosmius O27
         |           |    `--A. e. bicinctus Dall 1919 O27
         |           |--A. beringianus Dall 1919 O27
         |           |--A. californicus Dall 1919 O27
         |           `--A. magnus Dall 1895 O27
         |         Liomesini [Liomesidae, Liomesinae] BR05
         |           |--‘Buccinopsis’ Jeffreys 1867 non Conrad 1857 [Buccinopsidae] BR05
         |           `--Liomesus Stimpson 1865 BR05
         |                |--*L. dalei [=Buccinum dalei] O27
         |                |--L. nassula Dall 1901 O27
         |                |--L. nux Dall 1877 O27
         |                `--L. ooides Middendorff 1848 O27
         |                     |--L. o. ooides O27
         |                     `--L. o. canaliculatus (Dall 1874) [=Buccinopsis canaliculatus] O27
         |--Colini ZLK11
         `--+--+--Buccinum ZLK11
            |  `--Volutharpa Fischer 1856 ZLK11, O27 [Volutharpinae]
            |       `--*V. ampullacea Middendorff 1848 O27
            |            |--V. a. ampullacea BC01
            |            `--V. a. perryi (Jay 1856) [=Bullia perryi] BC01
            `--+--Japelion latus ZLK11
               `--Pareuthria Strebel 1905 ZLK11, F27
                    |--*P. fuscata P61 [=Buccinum fuscatum P61, Cominella fuscata F27]
                    |--P. campbelli (Filhol 1880) [=Cominella campbelli] F27
                    |--P. magellanica [=Cominella magellanica] F27
                    |--P. plumbea [=Cominella plumbea] F27
                    |--P. rosea [=Cominella rosea] F27
                    `--P. valdiviae Thiele 1925 [incl. Probuccinum tenerum Tomlin 1948 non Smith 1907] P61

Buccinidae incertae sedis:
  Manaria kuroharai Azuma 1960 AV03, MG-H11
  Eosipho AV03
  Anna Risso 1826 P66
    `--*A. massena Risso 1826 P66
  Chauvetia Monterosato 1884 P66, BR05 (see below for synonymy)
    |--*C. candidissima [=Buccinum candidissima, *Nesaea candidissima] P66
    |--‘Buccinum’ folineaea [=*Folineaea folineaea] P66
    `--‘Buccinum’ lefebvrei Maravigna 1840 P66
  Savatieria Rochebrune & Mabille 1885 P66
    `--*S. frigida Rochebrune & Mabille 1885 P66
  Troschelia berniciensis (King 1846) OT04
  Neocola Finlay 1926 F27a
    |--*N. beta [=Austrofusus beta] F27a
    `--N. cliftonensis (Marwick 1926) [=Aethocola cliftonensis] F27a
  Zelandiella Finlay 1926 F27a
    |--*Z. subnodosa [=Neptunea subnodosa] F27a
    `--Z. fatua Finlay 1926 DK10
  Nassicola Finlay 1926 F27a
    `--*N. costata [=Neptunea costata] F27a
  Zeapollia Finlay 1927 F27a
    |--*Z. acuticingulata (Suter 1917) [=Tritonidea acuticingulata] F27a
    |--Z. colensoi [=Tritonidea colensoi] F27a
    `--Z. purpuroides (Johnston 1879) [=Ricinula purpuroides] F27a
  Tritonidea fusiformis Martin 1883 F27b
  Tasmeuthria Iredale 1925 F27b
    |--*T. clarkei [=Siphonalia clarkei] F27b
    `--T. glirina (Blainv. 1832) (see below for synonymy) F27b
  Josepha tasmanica M54
  Engina BW09
  Nassaria MG-H11
    |--N. acuminata (Reeve 1844) MG-H11
    |--N. bitubercularis (Adams 1855) [=Hindsia bitubercularis] H09
    |--N. problematica (Iredale 1936) MG-H11
    `--N. solida Kuroda & Habe 1961 MG-H11
  Dolicholatirus Bellardi 1883 MG-H11, F27b
    `--*D. bronni [=Turbinella bronni] F27b
  Granulifusus kiranus Shuto 1958 MG-H11
  Pseudolatirus pallidus Kuroda & Habe 1961 MG-H11
  Bailya Smith 1944 BC01
    |  i. s.: B. milleri Usticke 1959 BC01
    `--B. (Parabailya Watters & Finlay 1989) BC01
         `--B. (*P.) weberi (Watters 1983) [=Caducifer (Monostiolium) weberi] BC01
  Caducifer decapitata (Reeve 1844) [incl. Pisania englerti Hertlein 1960] BC01
  Monostiolum BC01
    |--M. biliratum (Reeve 1846) [=Caducifer (Monostiolum) biliratus] PP78
    `--M. rosewateri Watters & Finlay 1989 BC01
  ‘Paradoxa’ Fernandes & Rolán 1990 non Marshall 1896 BC01
    |--*P. confirmata Fernandes & Rolán 1990 BC01
    `--P. thomensis Fernandes & Rolán 1990 BC01
  Antimitra Iredale 1917 BK11, P66 [incl. Mitromorpha Adams 1865 non Carpenter 1865 P66]
    |--*A. aegrota (Reeve 1845) [=Pleurotoma aegrota] P66
    |--A. crenulata (Pease 1867) [=Daphnella crenulata] P66
    |--‘Mitromorpha’ filosa Carpenter 1865 non Columbella filosa Dujardin 1837 (not preoc. as in homonymous gen.) O27
    |--‘Mitromorpha’ gracilior Hemphill 1884 O27
    |    |--M. g. gracilior O27
    |    `--M. g. intermedia Arnold 1903 O27
    |--*Mitromorpha’ gracilis O27
    `--A. lirata (Adams 1865) [=Mitromorpha lirata] P66
  Bathyclionella Kobelt 1905 BK11, P66 [incl. Cryptomitra Dall 1924 P66]
    |--*B. quadruplex (Watson 1882) [=Pleurotoma (Clionella) quadruplex] P66
    |--B. brachytoma (Schepman 1913) [=Surcula brachytoma] P66
    |--B. climacella (Dall 1895) [=Pleurotoma climacella, Pleurotomella climacella] P66
    `--B. paschalis (Thiele 1925) [=Mangelia paschalis] P66
  Belomitra Fischer 1882 BK11, P66 [incl. Pleurobela Monterosato in Locard 1897 P66]
    |--*B. paradoxa Fischer 1882 P66
    |--B. delicatulina (Locard 1897) [=Clionella delicatulina] P66
    |--B. fischeri Locard 1897 P66
    |--B. lyrata Locard 1897 [=Pleurobela lyrata] P66
    `--B. spelta (Locard 1897) [=Pleurotoma spelta, *Pleurobela spelta] P66
  Jumala BK11
  Trachypollia Woodring 1928 BD12
    `--*T. sclera Woodring 1928 RA75
  Fax Iredale 1925 P61
    |--*F. tabidus [=Phos tabidus] P61
    |--F. mirabilis (Powell 1929) P61
    |    |--F. m. mirabilis P61
    |    |--F. m. canturiensis Dell 1951 P61
    |    |--F. m. nuptialis Dell 1953 P61
    |    `--F. m. powelli Fleming 1948 P61
    |--F. otagoensis (Finlay 1927) P61
    `--F. tenuicostatus F27a
  Clea (Anentome) cambodjensis G88

Chauvetia Monterosato 1884 P66, BR05 [=Nesaea Risso 1826 non Leach 1814 P66; incl. Folineaea Monterosato 1884 P66; Chauvetiinae]

Syntagma Iredale 1918 P66 [=Donovania Bucquoy, Dautzenberg & Dollfus 1883 non Leach 1814 BR05, Lachesis Risso 1826 non Daudin 1803 BR05; Donovaniinae BR05, Donovaniini, Lachesinae]

Tasmeuthria glirina (Blainv. 1832) [=Purpura glirina; incl. Pisania bednalli, Buccinum discolor Kiener 1834, Tritonidea fusiformis Verco 1896 non Martin 1883, T. fusiformis adcocki Verco 1896, T. subrubiginosa Smith 1879] F27b

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AV03] Amano, K., & G. J. Vermeij. 2003. Evolutionary adaptation and geographic spread of the Cenozoic buccinid genus Lirabuccinum in the North Pacific. Journal of Paleontology 77 (5): 863–872.

[BD12] Bandel, K., & D. T. Dockery III. 2012. Protoconch characters of Late Cretaceous Latrogastropoda (Neogastropoda and Neomesogastropoda) as an aid in the reconstruction of the phylogeny of the Neogastropoda. Freiberger Forschungshefte C542 (psf 20): 93–128.

[BK11] Bouchet, P., Y. I. Kantor, A. Sysoev & N. Puillandre. 2011. A new operational classification of the Conoidea (Gastropoda). Journal of Molluscan Studies 77: 273–308.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[C60] Cox, L. R. 1960. Gastropoda: general characteristics of Gastropoda. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia pp. I84–I169. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[DK10] Darragh, T. A., & G. W. Kendrick. 2010. Eocene molluscs from the Merlinleigh Sandstone, Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 26 (1): 23–41.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[KS89] Karlson, R. H., & J. A. Sullivan. 1989. Effects of pagurid density and size on the behavior of Crepidula convexa Say. Nautilus 103 (3): 85–88.

[M54] Macpherson, J. H. 1954. Molluscs (sea shells and snails). In: Willis, J. M. (ed.) The Archipelago of the Recherche pp. 55–63. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[M49] Mason, B. 1949. The geology of Mandamus-Pahau district, north Canterbury. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (3): 403–428.

[OT04] Olabarria, C., & M. H. Thurston. 2004. Patterns of morphological variation of the deep-sea gastropod Troschelia berniciensis (King, 1846) (Buccinidae) from the northeastern Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Molluscan Studies 70: 59–66.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. II pt I. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[PP78] Poorman, F. L., & L. H. Poorman. 1978. Additional molluscan records from Bahía de Los Angeles, Baja California Norte. Veliger 20 (4): 369–374.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[P66] Powell, A. W. B. 1966. The molluscan families Speightiidae and Turridae: an evaluation of the valid taxa, both Recent and fossil, with lists of characteristic species. Bulletin of the Auckland Institute and Museum 5: 1–184, pls 1–23.

[RA75] Radwin, G. E., & A. D’Attilio. 1975. A catalogue of muricacean generic taxa. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 17 (20): 279–292.

Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

[ZLK11] Zou, S., Q. Li & L. Kong. 2011. Additional gene data and increased sampling give new insights into the phylogenetic relationships of Neogastropoda, within the caenogastropod phylogenetic framework. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61: 425–435.

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