Platypus Ornithorhynchus anatinus, photographed by Dave Watts.

Belongs within: Mammalia.

The Australosphenida was defined by Luo et al. (2002) as including all taxa more closely related to living monotremes than to the fossil Shuotherium or living therians. As such, they regarded it as uniting the monotremes with a group of Mesozoic mammals known from South America, Madagascar and Australia. Members of this clade are united by the presence of a shelf−like mesial cingulid wrapping around the antero−lingual corner of the lower molar (Luo et al. 2002), though the teeth have been reduced or lost in living monotremes.

    |--+--Asfaltomylos Rauhut, Martin et al. 2002 RM02
    |  |    `--*A. patagonicus Rauhut, Martin et al. 2002 RM02
    |  `--Henosferus RAG11
    `--+--Ambondro Flynn, Parrish et al. 1999 RM02, A02
       |    `--*A. mahabo Flynn, Parrish et al. 1999 FP99
       `--+--Ausktribosphenidae [Ausktribosphenida] LA02
          |    |--Bishops Rich, Flannery et al. 2001 LA02
          |    |    `--*B. whitmorei Rich, Flannery et al. 2001 LA02
          |    `--Ausktribosphenos Rich, Vickers-Rich et al. 1997 RM02, LA02
          |         `--*A. nyktos Rich, Vickers-Rich et al. 1997 LA02
          `--Monotremata [Ornithodelphia, Steropodontidae] LK-JC02
               |  i. s.: Echidna F71
               |           |--E. gigantea Roger 1887 F71
               |           |--E. owenii Krefft 1868 F71
               |           |--E. ramsayi Owen 1884 F71
               |           `--E. (Proechidna) robusta Dun 1895 F71
               |--Kollikodon Flannery, Archer et al. 1995 [Kollikodontidae] LA02
               |    `--*K. ritchiei Flannery, Archer et al. 1995 LA02
               `--+--Steropodon Archer, Flannery et al. 1985 LC07, LA02
                  |    `--*S. galmani Archer, Flannery et al. 1985 LA02
                  `--+--Teinolophos Rich, Vickers-Rich et al. 1999 LC07, LA02
                     |    `--*T. trusleri Rich, Vickers-Rich et al. 1999 LA02
                     `--+--Ornithorhynchidae LA02
                        |    |--Ornithorhynchus LC07
                        |    |    |--O. anatinus LK-JC02
                        |    |    |--O. maximus Dun 1895 F71
                        |    |    `--O. novaehollandiae Lacépède 1800 R64
                        |    `--+--Monotrematum sudamericum LA02, LK-JC02
                        |       `--Obdurodon Woodburne & Tedford 1975 LA02
                        |            |--*O. insignis Woodburne & Tedford 1975 LA02
                        |            `--O. dicksoni Archer, Jenkins et al. 1992 LA02
                        `--Tachyglossidae LA02
                             |--Megalibgwilia Griffiths, Wells & Barrie 1991 LA02
                             |    |--*M. ramsayi (Owen 1884) LA02
                             |    `--M. robusta (Dun 1896) LA02
                             `--+--Tachyglossus LC07
                                |    |--T. aculeatus (Shaw & Nodder 1792) BD-D09
                                |    `--T. setosus GM71
                                `--Zaglossus Gill 1877 LA02
                                     |--Z. bruijnii (Peters & Doria 1876) LA02
                                     `--Z. hacketti Glauert 1914 LA02

Inorganic: Ornithorhynchus anatinus minilorientalus Okamura 1987 O87
           Tachyglossus aculeatus minilorientalis Okamura 1987 O87

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A02] Averianov, A. O. 2002. Early Cretaceous “symmetrodont” mammal Gobiotheriodon from Mongolia and the classification of “Symmetrodonta”. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 47 (4): 705-716.

[BD-D09] Beveridge, I. & M.-C. Durette-Desset. 2009. A new species of the nematode genus Copemania (Nematoda: Trichostrongylida), parasitic in the western quoll, Dasyurus geoffroii and short-nosed bandicoot, Isoodon obesulus from south-western Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (3): 345-349.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1-167.

[FP99] Flynn, J. J., J. M. Parrish, B. Rakotosamimanana, W. F. Simpson & A. R. Wyss. 1999. A Middle Jurassic mammal from Madagascar. Nature 401: 57-60.

[GM71] Goodman, M., & G. W. Moore. 1971. Immunodiffusion systematics of the primates I. The Catarrhini. Systematic Zoology 20 (1): 19-62.

[LA02] Long, J., M. Archer, T. Flannery & S. Hand. 2002. Prehistoric Mammals of Australia and New Guinea: One Hundred Million Years of Evolution. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[LC07] Luo, Z.-X., P. Chen, G. Li & M. Chen. 2007. A new eutriconodont mammal and evolutionary development in early mammals. Nature 446: 288-293.

[LK-JC02] Luo, Z.-X., Z. Kielan-Jaworowska & R. L. Cifelli. 2002. In quest for a phylogeny of Mesozoic mammals. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 47: 1-78.

[O87] Okamura, C. 1987. New facts: Homo and all Vertebrata were born simultaneously in the former Paleozoic in Japan. Original Report of the Okamura Fossil Laboratory 15: 347-573.

[RM02] Rauhut, O. W. M., T. Martin, E. Ortiz-Jaureguizar & P. Puerta. 2002. A Jurassic mammal from South America. Nature 416: 165-168.

[R64] Ride, W. D. L. 1964. A list of mammals described from Australia between the years 1933 and 1963 (comprising newly proposed names and additions to the Australian faunal list). Australian Mammal Society Bulletin 7 (Suppl.): 1-15.

[RAG11] Rougier, G. W., S. Apesteguía & L. C. Gaetano. 2011. Highly specialized mammalian skulls from the Late Cretaceous of South America. Nature 479: 98-102.

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