Johnstoniana parva, photographed by Andreas Wohltmann.

Belongs within: Prostigmata.
Contains: Erythraeoidea, Trombidioidea, Trombiculidae, Trombellidae.

The Trombidia include the terrestrial representatives of the Parasitengona mites. Adults of this group are hairy, often relatively large predatory mites that are often bright red in colouration. In members of the Erythraiae, the movable digit of the chelicera is styletiform and retractable; members of the Trombidiae retain a blade-like, non-retractable cheliceral digit (Walter et al. 2009).

Characters (from Witte 1991, Walter et al. 2009 [as Trombidiae + Erythraiae]): Terrestrial. Adults with idiosoma and appendages hypertrichous; idiosoma without glandularia, subcuticular glands present that release secretions in a space between epidermis and cuticle; crista metopica located within prodorsal shield; capitulum retractor 3 divided into two rami, which insert at capitulum base and orginate on the endosternite; two pairs of cheliceral retractors, with one inserting at posterior end of chelicera; intercalary segment of coxal glands located in longitudinal furrow of proximal tubercle; copulatory organ provided with a furca, with furca-proctractor inserting at proximal end and originating on anterior keel, furca-retractor originating on apodemes and on proximal chamber sclerite adjacent to apodemes; stalk of spermatophore provided with three apical rami, basal part of spermatophore droplet containing a dome of large secretion droplets which are provided with peripheral secretion filaments. Larvae with palpgenu usually bearing one seta, rarely two to four setae.

<==Trombidia We91
    |--Erythraiae [Apobolostigmata, Erythraeina] LKW09
    |    |--Erythraeoidea We91
    |    `--Calyptostoma Cambridge 1875 S61 (see below for synonymy)
    |         |--C. expalpe (Hermann 1804) S61 (see below for synonymy)
    |         |--C. lyncaea (Berlese 1887) [=Smaris lyncaea; incl. S. impressa Canestrini 1882 non Koch 1837] S61
    |         `--C. velutinum (Müller 1776) [=Acarus velutinus] S61
    `--Trombidiae [Trombidiina] LKW09
         |--Tanaupodidae [Tanaupodoidea] We91
         |    |--Lassenia Newell 1957 [Lasseniinae] We91
         |    |--Polydiscia Methlagl 1928 [Polydisciinae] We91
         |    |--Rhinothrombium nemoricola WL09, S51
         |    |--Amphotrombium jenseni WL09
         |    |--Tanaupodus Haller 1882 [Tanaupodinae] We91
         |    |    |--*T. steudeli Haller 1882 SB63
         |    |    `--T. passimpilosus Berlese 1910 SB63
         |    `--Eothrombium WL09
         |         |--E. lasseni WL09
         |         `--E. nemoricola WL09
         `--+--Chyzeriidae [Chyzerioidea] We91
            |    |--Cretessenia leoni WL09
            |    |--Napassenia aginapaica WL09
            |    |--Perumaropta [Perumaroptinae] WL09
            |    |    `--P. mirsadi WL09
            |    |--Pteridopus Newell & Vercammen-Grandjean 1964 [Pteridopodinae] We91
            |    |    |--P. auditor WL09
            |    |    `--P. pseudhannemania WL09
            |    |--Ralphaudyana Vercammen-Grandjean et al. 1974 [Ralphaudyaninae] We91
            |    |    |--R. amamiensis WL09
            |    |    `--R. iranensis WL09
            |    `--Chyzeria Canestrini 1897 S61 [Chyzeriinae We91]
            |         |--C. derricki WL09
            |         |--C. hirsti WL09
            |         |--C. novaezealandiae Hirst 1924
            |         `--C. poivrei WL09
            `--+--Trombidioidea We91
               `--Trombiculoidea We91
                    |--Trombiculidae We91
                    |--Trombellidae We91
                    |--Audyana [Audyanidae] WL09
                    |    `--A. thompsoni WL09
                    |--Leeuwenhoekiidae We91
                    |    |  i. s.: Shunsennia K90
                    |    |         Hannemania K90
                    |    |--Apoloniinae We91
                    |    `--Leeuwenhoekia Oudemans 1911 S61 [Leeuwenhoekiinae We91]
                    |         `--L. americana WL09
                    |--Neotrombidiidae We91
                    |    |  i. s.: Discotrombidium villasiense Feider 1977 WL09, DC91
                    |    |         Monunguis streblida WL09
                    |    |--Anomalothrombiinae WL09
                    |    `--Neotrombidium Leonardi 1901 S61 [Neotrombidiinae]
                    |         |--N. anuroporum WL09
                    |         |--N. barringunense WL09
                    |         |--N. beeri WWO01
                    |         |--N. neptunium Southcott 1961 (see below for synonymy) S61
                    |         |--N. samsinaki WL09
                    |         `--N. tridentifer (Ewing 1909) [=Rhyncholophus tridentifer] S61
                    `--Johnstonianidae We91
                         |--Charadracarus K90 [Charadracarinae We91]
                         |--Polydiscus [Polydiscinae] K90
                         `--Johnstonianinae SB63
                              |--Centrotrombidium Kramer 1896 SB63
                              |    `--*C. schneideri Kramer 1896 (see below for synonymy) SB63
                              |--Diplothrombium Berlese 1910 SB63
                              |    |--*D. longipalpe (Berlese 1887) [=Trombidium longipalpe] SB63
                              |    |--D. eximium S22
                              |    |--D. micidium WL09
                              |    `--D. monoense WL09
                              `--Johnstoniana George 1909 S61 [incl. Rohaultia Oudemans 1911 SB63]
                                   |--*J. errans (Johnston 1852) [=Rhyncholophus errans] SB63
                                   |--J. dubiosa Schweizer 1951 SB63
                                   |--J. insignia (Berlese 1916) (see below for synonymy) SB63
                                   |--J. parva WWO01
                                   |--J. rapax WWO01
                                   |--J. tuberculata Schweizer 1951 [=J. tuberculatua] SB63
                                   `--J. ventripilosa Wi91

Calyptostoma Cambridge 1875 S61 [Calyptostomatidae We91, Calyptostomatoidea, Calyptostomidae, Calyptostomidoidea]

Calyptostoma expalpe (Hermann 1804) S61 [=Trombidium expalpe S61, Smaris expalpis S61; incl. *C. hardii Cambridge 1875 S61, C. hardyi S61, Smaris impressa Koch 1837 S61, S. plana Koch 1879 T04]

*Centrotrombidium schneideri Kramer 1896 [incl. Diplothrombium walteri Schweizer 1922, C. walteri] SB63

Johnstoniana insignia (Berlese 1916) [=Diplothrombium eximium insignius; incl. D. longipes Schweizer 1922] SB63

Neotrombidium neptunium Southcott 1961 [=N. tridentifer Southcott 1957 non Rhyncholophus tridentifer Ewing 1909] S61

*Type species of generic name indicated


[DC91] Daniel, M., V. Černý, J. Štěrba & J. de la Cruz. 1991. Morphological study of adults of trombiculid mites from Cuban hot caves. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 261-263. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[K90] Kethley, J. 1990. Acarina: Prostigmata (Actinedida). In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 667-756. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[LKW09] Lindquist, E. E., G. W. Krantz & D. E. Walter. 2009. Classification. In: Krantz, G. W. & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology, 3rd ed., pp. 97-103. Texas Tech University Press.

[S22] Schweizer, J. 1922. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der terrestrischen Milbenfauna der Schweiz. Verhandl. Naturf. Ges. Basel 33: 23-112, 4 pls.

[S51] Schweizer, J. 1951. Die Landmilben des schweizerischen Nationalparkes. 2. Teil: Trombidiformes. Ergebnisse der wissenschaftlichen Untersuchung des schweizerischen Nationalparks [Résultats des recherches scientifiques entreprises au Parc National Suisse] 3 (Neue Folge): 51-172.

[SB63] Schweizer, J. & C. Bader. 1963. Die Landmilben der Schweiz (Mittelland, Jura und Alpen): Trombidiformes Reuter, mit 217 Arten und Unterarten und 193 Originalzeichnungen. Denkschriften der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft [Mémoires de la Société Helvétique des Sciences Naturelles] 84 (2): i-vi, 209-378.

[S61] Southcott, R. V. 1961. Studies on the systematics and biology of the Erythraeoidea (Acarina), with a critical revision of the genera and subfamilies. Australian Journal of Zoology 9: 367-610.

[T04] Trägårdh, I. 1904. Fauna Arctica: Eine Zusammenstellung der arktischen Tierformen, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung des Spitzbergen-Gebietes auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer im Jahre 1898. Band IV, Lieferung I. Monographie der arktischen Acariden. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W. & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology, 3rd ed., pp. 233-420. Texas Tech University Press.

[We91] Welbourn, W. C. 1991. Phylogenetic studies of the terrestrial Parasitengona. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 163-170. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[Wi91] Witte, H. 1991. The phylogenetic relationships within the Parasitengonae. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 171-182. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[WWO01] Wohltmann, A., H. Witte & R. Olomski. 2001. Organismal patterns causing high potential for adaptive radiation in Parasitengonae (Acari: Prostigmata). In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 83-99. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

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