Wing of the stem-aphid Creaphis theodora, from Grimaldi & Engel (2005).

Belongs within: Sternorrhyncha.
Contains: Coccinea, Aphidoidea.

The clade Aphidomorpha unites the aphids (Aphidoidea) and scale insects (Coccinea). Members of this group have polymorphic individuals within a population, reduced or absent male genitalia, and winged morphs with a composite vein in the forewing comprised of R and the bases of M and Cu (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). The fossil record of the Aphidomorpha goes back to the Triassic; the Late Triassic Creaphis theodora is a stem-aphid differing from later forms in having forewings with a long stem to vein Cu, and long straight Rs and M veins (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). The Naibiidae are a group of superficially aphid-like bugs known from the mid-Triassic to the early Palaeocene. Though lacking evidence of sexual dimorphism, they share a number of features with scale insects such as a dorsoventrally flattened head and few, widely-spaced ommatidia, and are likely stem-group relatives of the Coccinea (Shcherbakov & Popov 2002).

<==Aphidomorpha [Palaeoaphidoidea]
    |  i. s.: Palaeoaphididae SP02
    |         Triassoaphididae SP02
    |         Szelegiewiczia [Shaposhnikoviidae, Szelegiewicziinae] SP02
    |           `--S. maculata SP02
    |         Essigella californica SC04
    |--Coccomorpha SP02
    |    |--Naibiidae [Naibioidea] SP02
    |    `--Coccinea GE05
    `--+--Creaphis [Creaphididae] GE05
       |    `--C. theodora GE05
       `--Aphidoidea GE05

*Type species of generic name indicated


[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[SP02] Shcherbakov, D. E., & Yu. A. Popov. 2002. Superorder Cimicidea Laicharting, 1781: Order Hemiptera Linné, 1758. The bugs, cicadas, plantlice, scale insects, etc. [=Cimicida Laicharting, 1781, =Homoptera Leach, 1815 + Heteroptera Latreille, 1810). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 143-157. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[SC04] Stone, C., & N. C. Coops. 2004. Assessment and monitoring of damage from insects in Australian eucalypt forests and commercial plantations. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 283-292.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="http://www.fieldofscience.com/">FoS</a> = FoS