Lichenostomus

White-plumed honeyeater Lichenostomus penicillatus, photographed by Aviceda.


Belongs within: Meliphagidae.

Lichenostomus is a genus of honeyeaters found in Australia and New Guinea, primarily in sclerophyll (dry woodland) habitats. Members of this genus have lined faces, and elongated ear and upper neck plumes.

<==Lichenostomus
    |--L. flavus JT12
    `--+--L. penicillatus JT12
       |    |--L. p. penicillatus M03
       |    |--L. p. carteri M03
       |    `--L. p. leilavalensis M03
       `--L. virescens JT12

Lichenostomus incertae sedis:
  L. chrysops M03
  L. cratitius M03
    |--L. c. cratitius M03
    `--L. c. halmaturina M03
  L. fasciogularis M03
  L. flavescens JF06
    |--L. f. flavescens M03
    `--L. f. melvillensis M03
  L. flavicollis M03
  L. frenatus M03
  L. fuscus M03
    |--L. f. fuscus M03
    `--L. f. subgermanus M03
  L. hindwoodi M03
  L. keartlandi M03
  L. melanops M03
    |--L. m. melanops [incl. L. m. meltoni] M03
    `--L. m. cassidix M03
  L. obscurus JT12
  L. plumulus M03
    |--L. p. plumulus M03
    |--L. p. graingeri M03
    `--L. p. planasi M03
  L. subfrenatus JT12
  L. unicolor M03
  L. versicolor M03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444-448.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149-186.

[M03] Morcombe, M. 2003. Field Guide to Australian Birds, 2nd ed. Steve Parish Publishing.

Anthochaera

Red wattlebird Anthochaera carunculata, photographed by David Stowe.


Belongs within: Meliphagidae.

The wattlebirds Anthochaera are a genus of honeyeaters endemic to Australia. The eponymous wattles are present in the red wattlebird Anthochaera carunculata and yellow wattlebird A. paradoxa only; the remaining species lack wattles.

Characters (from Schodde & Mason 1999): Palatines curved and broadly flared, with rather thick stems; interpalatine processes squared off; maxillo-palatine processes prolonged, apically broadened elliptic flaps. Both nasal bar and wing of ectethmoid massively thickened, the latter developed into a huge foot along the jugal, both together almost occluding the latero-nasal aperture; ventral face of ectethmoids grooved to accomodate the mandibular angle. Temporal fossae narrow and elongate, flanked by round-tipped postorbital and zygomatic processes.

<==Anthochaera Vigors & Horsfield 1827 B94
    |--+--A. chrysoptera (Latham 1801) JF06, WS48 (see below for synonymy)
    |  |    |--A. c. chrysoptera M03
    |  |    |--A. c. halmaturina M03
    |  |    `--A. c. tasmanica M03
    |  `--A. lunulata Gould 1838 JF06, WS48 [=A. chrysoptera lunulata M03]
    `--+--Xanthomyza phrygia JF06
       `--+--A. carunculata (White 1790) JF06, B94 [=Merops carunculata B94]
          |    |--A. c. carunculata M03
          |    |--A. c. clelandi M03
          |    `--A. c. woodwardi Mathews 1912 [incl. Coleia carunculata perthi Mathews 1923] WS48
          `--A. paradoxa JF06

Anthochaera chrysoptera (Latham 1801) JF06, WS48 [=Merops chrysopterus WS48; incl. A. chrysoptera albani Mathews 1923 WS48]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1-281.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149-186.

[M03] Morcombe, M. 2003. Field Guide to Australian Birds, 2nd ed. Steve Parish Publishing.

Schodde, R., & I. J. Mason. 1999. The Directory of Australian Birds: Passerines. CSIRO.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M. & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1-126.

Turdus

Fieldfare Turdus pilaris, photographed by Arnstein Rønning.


Belongs within: Turdidae.

Turdus, the true thrushes, is a large cosmopolitan genus of omnivorous songbirds native to all continents except Antarctica and Australia. The majority of species are mottled brown in coloration, often with streaked or spotted pale underparts, but some species are darker in coloration. These include the Eurasian blackbird Turdus merula, the males of which have all-black plumage with a yellow bill and eye-ring. Females have more typical Turdus-pattern plumage, albeit reasonably dark overall.

See also: More than four and twenty blackbirds.

Turdus Linnaeus 1758 M02 (see below for synonymy)
    |--+--Psophocichla litsipsirupa JT12
    |  `--T. mupinensis JT12
    `--+--+--*T. viscivorus Linnaeus 1758 CC10, JT12, M02
       |  `--T. philomelos Brehm 1831 JT12, M02 (see below for synonymy)
       |       |--T. p. philomelos R85
       |       `--T. p. clarkei Hartert 1909 R85
       `--+--T. lherminieri BKB15 [=Cichlherminia lherminieri JF06]
          `--+--+--T. leucops BKB15 [=Platycichla leucops JF06]
             |  `--+--T. rufopalliatus BKB15
             |     `--+--+--T. leucomelas BKB15
             |        |  `--+--T. fumigatus JT12
             |        |     `--T. hauxwelli JT12
             |        `--+--+--T. albicollis BKB15
             |           |  `--T. assimilis JT12
             |           `--+--+--T. obsoletus BKB15 [=Planesticus obsoletus S18]
             |              |  `--+--T. rufiventris BKB15
             |              |     `--+--T. nudigenis BKB15
             |              |        `--+--T. maculirostris BKB15
             |              |           `--+--T. grayi BKB15 [=Planesticus grayi S18]
             |              |              |    |--T. g. grayi FS55
             |              |              |    |--‘Planesticus’ g. casius S18
             |              |              |    `--T. g. megas FS55
             |              |              `--T. haplochrous BKB15
             |              `--+--T. lawrencii BKB15
             |                 `--+--+--T. flavipes BKB15
             |                    |  `--T. reevei BKB15
             |                    `--+--+--Nesocichla eremita BKB15
             |                       |  `--+--T. amaurochalinus JT12
             |                       |     `--+--T. ignobilis JT12
             |                       |        `--T. maranonicus JT12
             |                       `--+--T. fulviventris JT12
             |                          `--+--T. olivater BKB15
             |                             `--+--T. nigriceps BKB15
             |                                `--+--T. fuscater BKB15
             |                                   `--+--T. chiguanco BKB15
             |                                      `--T. serranus BKB15
             `--+--+--T. merula Linnaeus 1758 BKB15, M02 [=Merula merula CC10; incl. *M. nigra CC10]
                |  `--+--T. iliacus Linnaeus 1766 BKB15, M02 [=Arceuthornis iliacus L81]
                |     `--T. plebejus BKB15
                `--+--+--+-T. abyssinicus BKB15
                   |  |  `--+--T. helleri BKB15
                   |  |     `--T. roehli BKB15
                   |  `--+--T. olivaceus BKB15
                   |     `--+--T. ludoviciae BKB15
                   |        `--+--T. mandarinus BKB15 [=T. merula mandarinus VP89]
                   |           `--+--T. smithi BKB15
                   |              `--T. tephronotus BKB15
                   `--+--+--+--T. bewsheri BKB15
                      |  |  `--T. libonyanus JT12
                      |  `--+--+--T. infuscatus BKB15
                      |     |  `--T. nigrescens JT12
                      |     `--+--T. migratorius JT12 [=Planesticus migratorius S18]
                      |        `--T. rufitorques JT12
                      `--+--+--T. falcklandii BKB15
                         |  |    |--T. f. falcklandii HRS06
                         |  |    `--T. f. magellanicus (King 1851) HRS06
                         |  `--+--T. aurantius BKB15
                         |     `--T. plumbeus JT12
                         `--+--+--+--T. pelios BKB15
                            |  |  `--+--T. olivaceofuscus BKB15
                            |  |     `--T. xanthorhynchus BKB15
                            |  `--+--T. swalesi BKB15
                            |     `--+--T. jamaicensis BKB15 (see below for synonymy)
                            |        `--T. menachensis BKB15
                            `--+--+--T. niveiceps BKB15
                               |  `--+--+--T. boulboul BKB15
                               |     |  `--T. simillimus BKB15
                               |     `--+--+--T. cardis BKB15
                               |        |  `--T. hortulorum JT12
                               |        `--+--T. dissimilis JT12
                               |           `--T. unicolor JT12
                               `--+--+--T. poliocephalus Latham 1802 BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                                  |  |    |--T. p. poliocephalus (see below for synonymy) CC10
                                  |  |    `--T. p. erythropleurus Sharpe 1887 FT08
                                  |  `--+--+--T. celaenops Stejneger 1887 JT12, I92
                                  |     |  `--T. chrysolaus JT12
                                  |     `--+--T. pallidus JT12 [=Merula pallida S89]
                                  |        `--+--T. feae JT12 [=Merula feae S89]
                                  |           `--T. obscurus JT12 [=Merula obscura S89]
                                  `--+--+--T. torquatus BKB15
                                     |  `--+--T. naumanni JT12
                                     |     |    |--T. n. naumanni VP89
                                     |     |    `--T. n. eunomus VP89
                                     |     `--T. ruficollis JT12
                                     `--+--T. pilaris Linnaeus 1758 BKB15, M02
                                        `--+--+--T. albocinctus BKB15
                                           |  `--T. rubrocanus JT12
                                           `--+--T. kessleri BKB15
                                              `--T. maximus BKB15

Turdus incertae sedis:
  T. bresciensis Giebel 1847 M02
  T. daguae JT12
  T. mareensis [=Merula mareensis] S13
    |--T. m. mareensis S13
    `--‘Merula’ m. larochensis Sarasin 1913 S13
  T. pritzbueri [=Merula pritzbueri] S13
  T. ravidus FP64
  ‘Merula’ samoensis S13
  T. subalaris JT12
  T. subcinereus Sclater 1866 S66
  ‘Merula’ subobscura Salvadori 1889 S89
  T. terrestris Kittlitz 1831 I92
  T. ulietensis FP64
  ‘Merula’ vanicorensis S13
  T. xanthopus M03 [=Merula xanthopus S13]
    |--T. x. xanthopus M03
    `--T. x. vinitinctus M03 [=T. poliocephalus vinitinctus FP64]

Turdus Linnaeus 1758 M02 [incl. Ixocossyphus Kaup 1829 B94, Merula Leach 1816 B94, Planesticus Bonaparte 1854 CC10, Platycichla Baird 1864 B94; Ixocossyphinae, Merulinae]

Turdus jamaicensis BKB15 [incl. T. lereboulleti CC10, *Planesticus lereboulleti CC10]

Turdus philomelos Brehm 1831 JT12, M02 [incl. T. ericetorum Turton 1807 (nom. rej.) CC10, T. musicus Linnaeus 1766 (nom. rej.) CC10]

Turdus poliocephalus Latham 1802 BKB15, CC10 [=Geocichla poliocephala CC10, Merula poliocephala CC10]

Turdus poliocephalus poliocephalus Latham 1802 [incl. T. badius Gray 1869, T. fuliginosus Latham 1802, Planesticus fuliginosus, Merula nestor Gould 1836] CC10

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[FS55] Felten, H., & J. Steinbacher. 1955. Zur Vogelfauna von El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (1–2): 9–19.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[FT08] Framenau, V. W., & M. L. Thomas. 2008. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean): identification and distribution. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 45–85.

[HRS06] Hahn, I., U. Römer & R. P. Schlatter. 2006. Population numbers and status of land birds of the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile (Aves: Falconiformes, Columbiformes, Strigiformes, Caprimulgiformes, Passeriformes). Senckenbergiana Biologica 86 (1): 109–125.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149–186.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[M03] Morcombe, M. 2003. Field Guide to Australian Birds 2nd ed. Steve Parish Publishing.

[R85] Robertson, C. J. R. (ed.) 1985. Reader’s Digest Complete Book of New Zealand Birds. Reader’s Digest: Sydney.

[S89] Salvadori, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea nella Birmania e nelle regioni vicine. XIX.—Uccelli raccolti nei Monti Carin a nord-est di Tounghoo, nel Pegù presso Rangoon e Tounghoo e nel Tenasserim presso Malewoon. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 369–438.

[S13] Sarasin, F. 1913. Die Vögel Neu-Caledoniens und der Loyalty-Inseln. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 Heft I pp. 1–78, pl. 1–3. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[S66] Sclater, P. L. 1866. Descriptions of six new species of American Oscines. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 320–324.

[VP89] Viney, C., & K. Phillipps. 1989. Birds of Hong Kong 5th ed. Government Printer: Hong Kong.

Muscicapidae

Mocking cliff chat Myrmecocichla cinnamomeiventris, photographed by Derek Keats.


Belongs within: Muscicapoidea.
Contains: Cinclus, Luscinia, Muscicapa, Cercotrichas, Cyornis, Sheppardia, Ficedula, Larvivora, Phoenicurus, Monticola, Saxicola, Oenanthe.

The Muscicapidae as used herein contains the Old World flycatchers and chats, a diverse group of insectivorous birds found in Eurasia and Africa. These two groups of birds have usually been divided between the more aerial Muscicapinae (Old World flycatchers) and more terrestrial Saxicolinae (chats), with the latter previously regarded as more closely related to the thrushes (Turdidae). However, recent phylogenetic studies do not resolve these two groups separately but have them intermingled (Jetz et al. 2012, Burleigh et al. 2015). The recent phylogenetic study of birds by Burleigh et al. (2015) also places the dippers Cinclus in a basal position within the Muscicapidae close to the nightingales Luscinia. However, the integrity of this clade is rendered somewhat dubious by the further inclusion of the blue tits Cyanistes, otherwise universally regarded as true tits (Paridae).

Characters (from The Internet Bird Collection): Very small to small birds with short bill wide at base and flattened dorsoventrally, wide gape and well-developed rictal bristles, small and rather weak legs and feet, short to medium-length tail; plumage often dull, predominantly grey or brown, males in some genera brightly coloured.

<==Muscicapidae [Muscicapinae, Saxicolinae]
    |--+--Muscicapella hodgsoni BKB15
    |  `--+--+--+--Cyanistes caeruleus Linnaeus 1758 BKB15, M02 [=Parus caeruleus CC10]
    |     |  |  `--‘Parus’ cyanus JF06
    |     |  `--Cinclus BKB15
    |     `--Luscinia BKB15
    `--+--+--‘Ficedula’ nigrorufa JT12
       |  `--+--+--Alethe JT12
       |     |  |    |--A. castanea JF06
       |     |  |    `--A. diademata JF06
       |     |  `--+--Vauriella goodfellowi BKB15
       |     |     `--+--+--Bradornis BKB15
       |     |        |  |    |--B. infuscatus JT12
       |     |        |  |    `--B. pallidus JT12 [=Melaenornis pallidus JF06]
       |     |        |  `--+--+--+--Empidornis semipartitus JT12
       |     |        |     |  |  `--Sigelus silens JT12 [=Melaenornis silens JF06]
       |     |        |     |  `--Melaenornis Gray 1840 BKB15, B94 [Melaenornithinae]
       |     |        |     |       |--M. annamarulae JT12
       |     |        |     |       |--M. ardesiacus JT12
       |     |        |     |       |--M. edolioides JT12
       |     |        |     |       |--M. mariquensis [=Bradornis mariquensis] JF06
       |     |        |     |       `--M. pammelaina KC02
       |     |        |     `--+--Fraseria cinerascens BKB15
       |     |        |        `--+--+--‘Muscicapa’ caerulescens BKB15
       |     |        |           |  `--‘Muscicapa’ olivascens JT12
       |     |        |           `--+--Fraseria ocreata BKB15
       |     |        |              `--Myioparus BKB15
       |     |        |                   |--M. griseigularis JF06
       |     |        |                   `--M. plumbeus JT12
       |     |        `--+--Namibornis herero BKB15
       |     |           `--+--Humblotia flavirostris JF06
       |     |              `--Muscicapa BKB15
       |     `--Cercotrichas BKB15
       `--+--+--+--Myiomela JT12
          |  |  |    |--M. albiventris JT12 [=Brachypteryx albiventris BKB15]
          |  |  |    `--M. major JT12 [=Brachypteryx major BKB15]
          |  |  `--+--Cyanoptila cyanomelana BKB15
          |  |     |    |--C. c. cyanomelana VP89
          |  |     |    `--C. c. cumatilis VP89
          |  |     `--Eumyias JT12
          |  |          |  i. s.: E. albicaudatus JT12
          |  |          |         E. sordidus JT12
          |  |          |--E. indigo JT12
          |  |          `--+--E. thalassinus JT12
          |  |             `--+--E. additus BKB15 [=Rhinomyias additus JT12]
          |  |                `--E. panayensis JT12
          |  `--+--+--‘Ficedula’ monileger JT12
          |     |  `--Cyornis JT12
          |     `--+--Anthipes BKB15
          |        |    |--A. leucops [incl. Digenea albifrons Sharpe 1888, A. albifrons, D. leucops Sharpe 1888] S89
          |        |    `--A. moniliger Wald. in Blyth 1875 BKB15, S89 [=Digenea moniliger S89]
          |        `--Niltava Hodgson 1837 JT12, M87
          |             |  i. s.: N. oatesi S89
          |             |         N. ruecki FP64
          |             |         N. sumatrana JT12
          |             |--+--N. macgrigoriae BKB15
          |             |  `--N. vivida BKB15
          |             `--+--N. grandis BKB15
          |                `--+--N. davidi BKB15
          |                   `--N. sundara JT12
          `--+--+--+--+--Erithacus Cuvier 1800 BKB15, M02 (see below for synonymy)
             |  |  |  |    |--E. cyane VP89
             |  |  |  |    |--E. rubecula (Linnaeus 1758) [=Motacilla rubecula, E. rubeculus] CC10
             |  |  |  |    `--E. sibilans VP89
             |  |  |  `--‘Cossypha’ humeralis BKB15
             |  |  `--+--+--Pseudalethe BKB15
             |  |     |  |    |--+--P. choloensis JF06 [=Alethe choloensis JT12]
             |  |     |  |    |  `--P. fuelleborni [=Alethe fuelleborni] JF06
             |  |     |  |    `--+--P. poliocephala [=Alethe poliocephala] JF06
             |  |     |  |       `--P. poliophrys [=Alethe poliophrys] JF06
             |  |     |  `--Cossypha Vigors 1825 JT12, B94 [Cossyphinae]
             |  |     |       |  i. s.: C. heinrichi JT12
             |  |     |       |         C. natalensis KC02
             |  |     |       |--C. cyanocampter JT12
             |  |     |       `--+--C. albicapilla JT12
             |  |     |          `--+--+--C. dichroa BKB15
             |  |     |             |  `--C. heuglini BKB15
             |  |     |             `--+--C. niveicapilla BKB15
             |  |     |                `--C. semirufa (Rüppell 1840) BKB15, S05 [=Petrocincla semirufa S05]
             |  |     `--+--+--+--Cossyphicula roberti BKB15
             |  |        |  |  `--Swynnertonia swynnertoni BKB15
             |  |        |  `--+--Oreocossypha isabellae JF06 [=Cossypha isabellae BKB15]
             |  |        |     `--Pogonocichla stellata BKB15
             |  |        `--+--Cichladusa BKB15
             |  |           |    |--C. arquata JF06
             |  |           |    |--C. guttata JT12
             |  |           |    `--C. ruficauda JT12
             |  |           `--Stiphrornis BKB15
             |  |                |--S. erythrothorax BKB15
             |  |                `--+--S. gabonensis BKB15
             |  |                   `--+--S. sanghensis BKB15
             |  |                      `--S. xanthogaster JF06
             |  `--+--+--‘Cossypha’ anomala BKB15
             |     |  `--+--‘Cossypha’ archeri JT12
             |     |     `--‘Cossypha’ caffra JT12
             |     `--Sheppardia BKB15
             `--+--+--+--+--Vauriella insignis BKB15
                |  |  |  `--Calliope BKB15
                |  |  |       |--C. calliope (Pall. 1776) (see below for synonymy) M01
                |  |  |       `--C. pectoralis BKB15
                |  |  `--+--‘Cinclidium’ frontale BKB15
                |  |     `--Myiophoneus Temminck 1822 JT12, B94 (see below for synonymy)
                |  |          |  i. s.: M. blighi JT12
                |  |          |         M. borneensis JT12
                |  |          |         M. eugenei S89
                |  |          |         M. horsfieldii RD02
                |  |          |         M. insularis JT12
                |  |          |         M. robinsoni JT12
                |  |          |--M. melanurus JT12
                |  |          `--+--M. caeruleus JT12
                |  |             `--M. glaucinus JT12
                |  `--+--Enicurus Temminck 1822 BKB15, B94 [=Henicurus (l. c.) B94; Enicurinae, Henicurinae]
                |     |    |  i. s.: E. immaculatus JT12
                |     |    |         E. sinensis Gould 1865 (see below for synonymy) S89
                |     |    |         E. velatus JT12
                |     |    |--+--E. schistaceus JT12
                |     |    |  `--E. scouleri JT12
                |     |    `--+--E. ruficapillus JT12
                |     |       `--+--E. leschenaulti JT12
                |     |          `--E. maculatus JT12
                |     `--+--+--+--+--‘Rhinomyias’ insignis JT12
                |        |  |  |  `--Heinrichia calligyna JT12
                |        |  |  `--Cinclidium BKB15
                |        |  |       |--C. diana JT12
                |        |  |       `--C. leucurum JT12
                |        |  `--Ficedula BKB15
                |        `--+--Tarsiger BKB15
                |           |    |--+--T. cyanurus JT12 [=Erithacus cyanurus T89]
                |           |    |  `--T. hyperythrus JT12
                |           |    `--+--T. indicus JT12
                |           |       `--+--T. chrysaeus JT12
                |           |          `--T. johnstoniae JT12
                |           `--+--Brachypteryx Horsfield 1822 BKB15, B94 [Brachypteryginae]
                |              |    |--B. hyperythra JT12
                |              |    |--B. leucophrys JF06
                |              |    |--B. montana VP89
                |              |    `--B. stellata JT12
                |              `--Larvivora BKB15
                `--+--+--‘Luscinia’ calliope JT12
                   |  `--‘Luscinia’ pectoralis JT12
                   `--+--Phoenicurus BKB15
                      `--+--Monticola JT12
                         `--+--Saxicola JT12
                            `--+--Oenanthe BKB15
                               `--+--+--*Campicoloides bifasciatus B93 (see below for synonymy)
                                  |  `--Cercomela BKB15
                                  |       |--C. schlegelii JT12
                                  |       |    |--C. s. schlegelii B93
                                  |       |    `--C. s. pollux (Hartlaub 1865) [=Saxicola pollux] B93
                                  |       `--+--C. sinuata JT12
                                  |          `--C. tractrac JT12
                                  `--+--+--‘Myrmecocichla’ cinnamomeiventris JT12
                                     |  `--‘Cercomela’ sordida BKB15
                                     `--+--Thamnolaea BKB15
                                        |    |--T. cinnamomeiventris JF06
                                        |    |    |--T. c. cinnamomeiventris S05
                                        |    |    `--T. c. albiscapulata (Rüppell 1837) (see below for synonymy) S05
                                        |    `--T. leucocephalus VP89
                                        `--Myrmecocichla BKB15
                                             |  i. s.: M. formicivora JF06
                                             |         M. tholloni JT12
                                             |--+--M. aethiops JT12
                                             |  `--‘Oenanthe’ monticola JT12 [incl. Saxicola castor Hartlaub 1865 B93]
                                             `--+--M. nigra JT12 (see below for synonymy)
                                                `--+--M. arnotti BKB15
                                                   `--M. melaena JT12

Muscicapidae incertae sedis:
  Xenocopsychus ansorgei MS55
  Pinarornis plumosus JT12
  Dioptrornis JT12
    |--D. brunneus JT12
    |--D. chocolatinus JT12
    `--D. fischeri JT12
  Oedon luscinia (Linnaeus 1758) [=Motacilla luscinia, Daulias luscinia] CC10
  Rhinomyias JT12
    |--R. albigularis JT12
    |--R. brunneatus JT12
    |--R. colonus JT12
    |--R. goodfellowi JF06
    |--R. gularis JT12
    `--R. oscillans JT12

Calliope calliope (Pall. 1776) [=Motacilla calliope, Erithacus calliope; incl. Calliope camtschatkensis Strickl. 1841] M01

*Campicoloides bifasciatus B93 [=Saxicola bifasciatus BKB15, Oenanthe bifasciata B93; incl. S. spectabilis Hartlaub 1865 B93]

Enicurus sinensis Gould 1865 [=E. chinensis, Henicurus chinensis, H. sinensis; incl. H. speciosus Swinh. 1861 (preoc.)] S89

Erithacus Cuvier 1800 BKB15, M02 [incl. Aedon Forster 1814 B94, Cyanecula Brehm 1828 B94, Philomela Swainson 1831 non Link 1806 B94; Aedoninae, Cyaneculinae, Erithacinae, Philomelinae]

Myiophoneus Temminck 1822 JT12, B94 [=Myophoneus (l. c.) B94, Myophonus (l. c.) B94; Myiophoneinae, Myophoneinae, Myophoninae]

Myrmecocichla nigra JT12 [incl. M. stoehri Sclater ex Brooke 1993 (n. n.) B93]

Thamnolaea cinnamomeiventris albiscapulata (Rüppell 1837) [=Saxicola albiscapulata; incl. S. humeralis ms, S. rufiventris ms] S05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[B93] Brooke, R. K. 1993. Annotated catalogue of the Aves type specimens in the South African Museum. Annals of the South African Museum 102 (10): 327–349.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149–186.

[KC02] Kuiper, S. M., & M. I. Cherry. 2002. Brood parasitism and egg matching in the red-chested cuckoo Cuculus solitarius in southern Africa. Ibis 144: 632–639.

[M01] Madarász, J. 1901. Madarak [Vögel]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 21–39. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[M87] Mayr, E. 1987. The status of subjective junior homonyms. Systematic Zoology 36 (1): 85–86.

[MS55] Mertens, R., & J. Steinbacher. 1955. Die im Senckenberg-Museum vorhandenen Arten ausgestorbener, aussterbender oder seltener Vögel. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (3–4): 241–265.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[RD02] Robin, V. V., & P. Davidar. 2002. The vertical stratification of birds in mixed species flocks at Parambikulam, south India: a comparison between two habitats. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 389–399.

[S89] Salvadori, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea nella Birmania e nelle regioni vicine. XIX.—Uccelli raccolti nei Monti Carin a nord-est di Tounghoo, nel Pegù presso Rangoon e Tounghoo e nel Tenasserim presso Malewoon. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 369–438.

[S05] Steinheimer, F. D. 2005. Eduard Rüppel’s avian types at the Natural History Museum, Tring (Aves). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (2): 233–264.

[T89] Takeshita, N. 1989. Nihon no Yachoo. Kogakukan: Tokyo.

[VP89] Viney, C., & K. Phillipps. 1989. Birds of Hong Kong 5th ed. Government Printer: Hong Kong.

Aplonis

Metallic starling Aplonis metallica, photographed by Ian Montgomery.


Belongs within: Sturninae.

Aplonis is a genus of starlings found primarily on islands in south-east Asia, Australasia and Oceania. Members of this genus are uniformly dark-coloured as adults (juveniles may have pale underparts), often with a metallic gloss.

Aplonis JF06
    |--+--A. cantoroides JF06
    |  `--+--A. minor Sarasin 1913 JF06, S13 [=A. atronitens minor S13]
    |     `--A. panayensis JF06
    |          |--A. p. panayensis R02
    |          `--A. p. sanghirensis R02
    `--+--A. grandis JF06
       `--+--+--A. brunneicapillus JT12
          |  `--+--A. metallica JT12
          |     |    |--A. m. metallica M03
          |     |    `--A. m. circumscripta M03
          |     `--A. pelzelni JT12
          `--+--A. insularis JT12
             `--+--A. cinerascens JT12
                `--A. tabuensis JT12

Aplonis incertae sedis:
  A. atrifusca JT12
  A. atronitens S13
  A. caledonica [incl. A. viridigrisea] S13
  A. corvina FP64
  A. crassa JT12
  A. dichroa JT12
  A. feadensis JT12
  A. fusca Gould 1836 WH02
    |--A. f. fusca M03
    `--A. f. hullianus M03
  A. magna JT12
  A. mavornata FP64
  A. mysolensis JT12
  A. mystacea JT12
  A. opaca FR98
  A. santovestris JT12
  A. striata JT12
  A. zelandica JT12

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[FR64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[FR98] Fritts, T. H., & G. H. Rodda. 1998. The role of introduced species in the degradation of island ecosystems: a case history of Guam. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 113-140.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444-448.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149-186.

[M03] Morcombe, M. 2003. Field Guide to Australian Birds, 2nd ed. Steve Parish Publishing.

[R02] Riley, J. 2002. Population sizes and the status of endemic and restricted-range bird species on Sangihe Island, Indonesia. Bird Conservation International 12: 53-78.

[S13] Sarasin, F. 1913. Die Vögel Neu-Caledoniens und der Loyalty-Inseln. In Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1, Heft I (F. Sarasin & J. Roux, eds) pp. 1-78, pl. 1-3. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[WH02] Worthy, T. H., & R. N. Holdaway. 2002. The Lost World of the Moa: Prehistoric life of New Zealand. Indiana University Press: Bloomington (Indiana).

Lonchura

Chestnut-breasted mannikins Lonchura castaneothorax, photographed by Duncan McCaskill.


Belongs within: Estrildidae.

Lonchura, the mannikins or munias, is a genus of finch-like birds found in Africa, southern Asia and Australia. Members of this genus have stout, large bills, medium to relatively long tails, and lack bright primary or secondary colours in their plumage, being generally coloured with browns, greys, whites and blacks. The Java sparrow Padda oryzivora is a distinctive species with a relatively large red bill that has sometimes been placed in a separate genus Padda.

<==Lonchura Sykes 1832 B94
    |--L. nana BKB15 [=Spermestes nana S66]
    `--+--+--L. castaneothorax (Gould 1837) BKB15, WS48 (see below for synonymy)
       |  `--L. oryzivora (Linnaeus 1758) BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
       `--+--L. punctulata BKB15
          |    |--L. p. punctulata L81
          |    |--L. p. cabanisi L81
          |    `--L. p. topela L81
          `--+--+--L. leucogastroides JT12
             |  `--+--L. kelaarti JT12
             |     `--L. striata BKB15
             `--+--L. quinticolor BKB15
                `--+--L. malacca BKB15
                   |    |--L. m. malacca L81
                   |    |--L. m. ferruginosa L81
                   |    `--L. m. jagori L81
                   `--+--L. maja (Linnaeus 1776) JT12, WS48 [=Loxia maja WS48]
                      `--L. pallida JT12

Lonchura incertae sedis:
  L. atricapilla JT12 [=L. malacca atricapilla VP89]
  L. flaviprymna (Gould 1845) JT12, WS48 [=Donacola flaviprymna WS48, L. maja flaviprymna WS48]
  L. forbesi JT12
  L. fuscans JT12
  ‘Padda’ fuscata JT12
  L. grandis JT12
  L. hunsteini JT12
  L. leucogastra L81
  L. leucosticta JT12 [=L. tristissima leucosticta M03]
  L. melaena JT12
  L. molucca JT12
  L. montana JT12
  L. monticola JT12
  L. nevermanni JT12
  L. nigerrima JT12
  L. spectabilis JT12
  L. stygia JT12
  L. teerinki JT12
  L. tristissima M03
  L. vana JT12

Lonchura castaneothorax (Gould 1837) BKB15, WS48 [=Amadina castaneothorax WS48, Donacola castaneothorax CC10, Munia castaneithorax (l. c.) CC10; incl. Munia castaneothorax gangi Mathews 1912 WS48, Lonchura thorpei Mathews 1913 WS48]

Lonchura oryzivora (Linnaeus 1758) BKB15, CC10 [=Loxia oryzivora CC10, Munia orizyvora (l. c.) CC10, M. oryzivora CC10, Padda oryzivora CC10]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

[M03] Morcombe, M. 2003. Field Guide to Australian Birds 2nd ed. Steve Parish Publishing.

[S66] Schlegel, H. 1866. Communication from, on mammals and birds collected in Madagascar. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 419–426.

[VP89] Viney, C., & K. Phillipps. 1989. Birds of Hong Kong 5th ed. Government Printer: Hong Kong.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M., & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1–126.

Poephilinae

Long-tailed finches Poephila acuticauda, photographed by Hans & Judy Beste.

Belongs within: Estrildidae.

The Poephilinae includes the grass-finches of Australia and New Guinea. Members of this group are united by their courtship behaviour, including an extended introductory 'waltz'. The zebra finches of the genus Taeniopyga are popular cage birds around the world, and have been introduced to parts of the Americas.

<==Poephilinae B94
    |--Neochmia phaeton BKB15
    |    |--N. p. phaeton [incl. N. p. iredalei] M03
    |    `--N. p. evangelinae M03
    `--+--Taeniopygia BKB15
       |    |--T. bichenovii BKB15 [=Stizoptera bichenovii JF06]
       |    `--T. castanotis (Gould 1837) BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
       `--+--Bathilda ruficauda JF06 [=Neochmia ruficauda BKB15]
          |    |--B. r. ruficauda M03
          |    `--‘Neochmia’ r. clarescens M03
          `--+--+--Emblema Gould 1842 BKB15, B94 [incl. Zonaeginthus Cabanis 1851 B94; Zonaeginthinae]
             |  |    |--E. guttata L81
             |  |    |--E. oculatum (Quoy & Gaimard 1830) SJ85, WS48 (see below for synonymy)
             |  |    |--‘Zonaeginthus’ phaeton FP64
             |  |    |--E. pictum Gould 1842 JT12, WS48 (see below for synonymy)
             |  |    `--E. temporale SJ85
             |  `--Neochmia temporalis (Latham 1802) BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
             |       |--N. t. temporalis M03
             |       |--N. t. loftyi M03
             |       `--N. t. minor M03
             `--Poephila Gould 1842 BKB15, B94
                  |  i. s.: P. bichenovii (Vigors & Horsfield 1827) [=Fringilla bichenovii] WS48
                  |         P. gouldiae (Gould 1844) (see below for synonymy) WS48
                  |         P. mirabilis S13
                  |         P. phaeton (Hombron & Jacquinot 1841) (see below for synonymy) WS48
                  |         P. ruficauda (Gould 1837) (see below for synonymy) WS48
                  |--P. personata Gould 1842 JT12, WS48 (see below for synonymy)
                  |    |--P. p. personata M03
                  |    `--P. p. leucotis M03
                  `--+--Aidemosyne modesta JF06 [=Neochmia modesta BKB15]
                     `--+--P. acuticauda (Gould 1839) JT12, WS48 (see below for synonymy)
                        `--P. cincta (Gould 1837) JT12, CC10 [=Amadina cincta CC10]
                             |--P. c. cincta M03
                             |--P. c. atropygialis M03
                             `--P. c. nigrotecta M03

Emblema oculatum (Quoy & Gaimard 1830) SJ85, WS48 [=Fringilla oculata WS48, Zonaeginthus oculatus WS48; incl. Z. oculatus gaimardi Mathews 1923 WS48]

Emblema pictum Gould 1842 JT12, WS48 [=Zonaeginthus pictus WS48; incl. E. picta clelandi Mathews 1914 WS48, E. picta conngani Mathews 1912 WS48]

Neochmia temporalis (Latham 1802) BKB15, CC10 [=Fringilla temporalis CC10, Aegintha temporalis CC10, Estrelda temporalis CC10]

Poephila acuticauda (Gould 1839) JT12, WS48 [=Amadina acuticauda WS48; incl. P. acuticauda hecki M03]

Poephila gouldiae (Gould 1844) [=Amadina gouldiae; incl. Gouldaeornis gouldiae westra Mathews 1923] WS48

Poephila personata Gould 1842 JT12, WS48 [incl. P. personata belcheri Mathews 1911 WS48, Neochmia personata harterti Mathews 1912 WS48]

Poephila phaeton (Hombron & Jacquinot 1841) [=Fringilla phaeton; incl. Neochmia phaeton fitzroyi Mathews 1912] WS48

Poephila ruficauda (Gould 1837) [=Amadina ruficauda; incl. Aegintha ruficauda subclarescens Mathews 1912, Ae. ruficauda thorpei Mathews 1912] WS48

Taeniopygia castanotis (Gould 1837) BKB15, CC10 [=Amadina castanotis CC10, Poephila guttata castonotis WS48, L81, Taeniopygia guttata castanotis CC10; incl. Loxia guttata Vieillot 1807 non Shaw 1796 WS48, P. guttata H86, Taeniopygia guttata JT12, T. castanotis hartogi Mathews 1920 WS48, Zonaeginthus castanotis mungi Mathews 1912 WS48, Z. castanotis roebucki Mathews 1913 WS48, Z. castanotis wayensis Mathews 1912 WS48]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[H86] Harvey, P. H. 1986. Birds, bands and better broods? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 1 (1): 8–9.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149–186.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

[M03] Morcombe, M. 2003. Field Guide to Australian Birds 2nd ed. Steve Parish Publishing.

[S13] Sarasin, F. 1913. Die Vögel Neu-Caledoniens und der Loyalty-Inseln. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 Heft I pp. 1–78, pl. 1–3. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[SJ85] Storr, G. M., & R. E. Johnstone. 1985. Field Guide to the Birds of Western Australia 2nd ed. Western Australian Museum: Perth (Australia).

[WS48] Whittell, H. M., & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1–126.