Antheraea

Chinese oak silkmoth Antheraea pernyi, photographed by Tony Pittaway.


Belongs within: Saturnioidea.

Antheraea is a genus of large moths found mostly in Asia, with some species present in Europe and North America. Some species are important sources of silk.

Characters (from Seitz 1913): Palpi and frons with rather short scaling, not rough and woolly, end-segment of palpi distinctly marked. Antenna of male quadripectinate, the processes very long, with the exception of the seven to ten last segments, whose branches are so short that the apex of the antenna has the appearance of being simple; the distal branches are altogether absent on the last 6 to 8 segments. In the female also quadripectinate, but the distal branches of each segment always short and on the last 8 to 10 segments only vestigial: in the male and female the apical edge of the distal segments (about 10) produced below. Tibiae and tarsi laterally with rather long hair-like scales, rough, the spur of fore tibia not scaled, long and broad in the male, much shorter and slenderer in the female; tarsi with very few spines; fifth segment of fore tarsus of female scaled in the middle of the sole, but the narrow scales easily fall off. Forewing with three subcostals, the first (morphologically the second branch) originates from the cell, or from the stalk of 3 and 4, or directly outside the fork, in single specimens the rest of the real first subcostal (SC1) is indicated as a small branch thrown off from SC2. SC3 always absent, the branches forming the fork being SC4 and SC5, SC4 always distinctly bent down at the the tip, therefore ending in the outer margin, not in the apex, the stalk of the subcostal fork originates at the same level as the upper median, lower median from the middle of the cell, upper and lower radials separate, cross-vein present; costal vein of hindwing always terminating in the apex or outer margin, not in the costal margin, subcostal at the same level as the lower median or more proximal. Basal spur of forewing very well developed. Larva sparsely hairy, with six rows of warts bearing thorns and a few long hairs widened at the apex; above the stigmata a longitudinal line; upper lip with deep narrow incision; antenna long. Pupa short and broad, without distinctly marked cremaster, loose in the cocoon, not attached by the cremaster; the bristles at the anal end not hooked, and not united in two bundles. Cocoon very dense, covered with a loose web and usually wrapped in a few leaves of the food-plant, ovate, attached to a small twig with one end by means of a short or long stalk.

<==Antheraea DS73
    |--A. assamensis GE05
    |--A. eucalypti H74
    |--A. frithi H03
    |--A. mylytta GE05
    |--A. paphia DS73
    |--A. paukstadtorum RS10
    |--A. pernyi GE05
    |--A. polyphemus DS73
    |--A. roylei DS73
    |--A. simplex B88
    `--A. yamamai DS73

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[DS73] Dickens, M., & E. Storey. 1973. The World of Moths. Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc.: New York.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: Vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311-449.

[H74] Helson, G. A. H. 1974. Insect Pests: Identification, life history, and control of pests of farms, horticulture, gardens, and public health. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[RS10] Regier, J. C., J. W. Shultz, A. Zwick, A. Hussey, B. Ball, R. Wetzer, J. W. Martin & C. W. Cunningham. 2010. Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences. Nature 463: 1079-1083.

Seitz, A. 1913. The Macrolepidoptera of the World: A systematic description of the hitherto known Macrolepidoptera vol. 2. Verlag des Seitz'schen Werkes (Alfred Kernen): Stuttgart.

Rhinolophidae

Trident leaf-nosed bats Asellia tridens, photographed by Drew Gardner.


Belongs within: Rhinolophoidea.
Contains: Rhinolophus, Hipposideros.

The Rhinolophidae, Old World leaf-nosed bats, get their vernacular name from the well-developed leaf-like structure at the end of their muzzle.

Characters (from Miller 1907, as separate families Rhinolophidae and Hipposideridae): Humerus with trochiter about as large as trochin and definitely articulating with scapula by an articular surface half as large as glenoid fossa, both tubercles rising slightly above level of head, epitrochlea large and with well-developed styloid process, capitellum nearly in line with shaft. Second manal digit consisting of well-developed metacarpal alone; third finger with two phalanges. Shoulder girdle highly abnormal, the seventh cervical vertebra and first dorsal so completely fused that their boundaries cannot be detected; in Rhinolophinae these are fused with first rib, which in turn is fused with presternum and ventral half of second rib, the region between which is completely filled with bone, the presternum appearing to be enlarged to form a broadly crescentic plate; in Hipposiderinae, the fusion of the first and second ribs incorporates the entire bone to and including the corresponding dorsal vertebrae, thus producing a solid ring of bone consisting of the seventh cervical vertebra, first and second dorsals, first and second ribs and entire presternum, the elements of the ring indicated by a slit-like vacuity above, between the ribs and one or two small roundish vacuities below. Foot normal, the hallux with two phalanges, the other toes with two (Hipposiderinae) or three (Rhinolophinae). Fibula complete, threadlike. Pelvis in Rhinolophinae abnormal, the ischium and pubis so reduced in size that dorsal and ventral profiles of innominate bone are nearly parallel, their width at the same time so increased that the thyroid foramen is scarcely more than twice as large as the acetabulum; that in Hipposiderinae like that of Rhinolophinae posteriorly, but anteriorly with a supplemental bridge of bone connecting acicular process with front of ilium and producing a pre-acetabular foramen slightly exceeding the thyroid foramen in size. Lumbar vertebrae in Rhinolophinae showing no tendency to become fused, but centrum of fifth or sixth, often of both, with distinct bifid or double hypophysis; in Hipposiderinae showing a marked tendency to become fused into a solid rod with hypophyses absent. Skull without postorbital processes and with premaxillaries represented by ligulate palatal branches only, the two bones partly cartilaginous, and fused neither with each other nor with maxillaries; palate so deeply emarginate both anteriorly and posteriorly that its median length is less than least distance between tooth rows; teeth normal; ears large, without tragus; muzzle with conspicuous leaflike cutaneous outgrowths consisting of a horizontal anterior horseshoe, a perpendicular median sella, and a posterior erect lancet.

Rhinolophidae [Rhinolophi, Rhinolophineae, Rhinolophini]
    |--Rhinolophinae KJ70
    |    |--Rhinolophus KJ70
    |    |--Paleonycteris KJ70
    |    |--Rhinomegalophus KJ70
    |    |--Anthops Thomas 1888 KJ70, M07
    |    |    `--*A. ornatus M07
    |    `--Asellia Gray 1838 KJ70, M07
    |         |--*A. tridens (see below for synonymy) M07
    |         |--A. murraiana M07
    |         |--A. patrizii IT07
    |         |--A. tricuspidata G66
    |         `--A. vetus Lavocat 1961 B78
    `--Hipposiderinae [Hipposideridae, Phyllorhinae, Phyllorhininae] KJ70
         |  i. s.: Miophyllorhina Hand 1997 LA02
         |           `--*M. riversleighensis Hand 1997 LA02
         |         Riversleigha Hand 1998 LA02
         |           `--*R. williamsi Hand 1998 LA02
         |         Xenorhinos Hand 1998 LA02
         |           `--*X. halli Hand 1998 LA02
         |         Brachipposideros Sigé 1968 LA02
         |           |--*B. collongensis (Depéret 1892) [=Hipposideros (*Brachipposideros) collongensis] LA02
         |           |--B. aguilari Legendre 1982 LA02
         |           |--B. branssatensis (Hugueney 1965) LA02
         |           |--B. dechaseauxi Sigé 1968 LA02
         |           |--B. khengkao Mein & Ginsburg 1997 LA02
         |           |--B. nooraleebus Sigé, Hand & Archer 1982 LA02
         |           |--B. omani Sigé et al. 1994 LA02
         |           `--B. watsoni Hand 1997 LA02
         |--Palaeophyllophorini KJ70
         |    |--Palaeophyllophora KJ70
         |    `--Paraphyllophora KJ70
         |--Coelopsini KJ70
         |    |--Paracoelops megalotis KJ70, IT07
         |    `--Coelops Blyth 1849 KJ70, B88
         |         |--*C. frithi [incl. C. bernsteini] M07
         |         |--C. hirsutus IT07
         |         `--C. robinsoni IT07
         `--Hipposiderini KJ70
              |--Hipposideros KJ70
              |--Cloeotis Thomas 1901 KJ70, M07
              |    `--*C. percivali M07
              |--Rhinonicteris Gray 1847 LA02 [=Rhinonycteris Gray 1866 KJ70, M07; Rhinonycterina]
              |    |--*R. aurantius (Gray 1845) LA02 [=Rhinolophus aurantius M07, *Rhinonycteris aurantius G66]
              |    `--R. tedfordi Hand 1997 LA02
              |--Triaenops Dobson 1871 KJ70, M07
              |    |--*T. persicus Dobson 1871 M07, K92 [incl. T. afer K92]
              |    `--T. furculus IT07
              `--Aselliscus KJ70
                   |--A. stoliczkanus IT07
                   `--A. tricuspidatus IT07
                        |--A. t. tricuspidatus M72
                        `--A. t. novehebridensis M72

*Asellia tridens [=Rhinolophus tridens, Hipposideros (*Asellia) tridens, Phyllorhina (*A.) tridens] M07

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[B78] Butler, P. M. 1978. Insectivora and Chiroptera. In Evolution of African Mammals (V. J. Maglio & H. B. S. Cooke, eds) pp. 56-68. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[G66] Gray, J. E. 1866. A revision of the genera of Rhinolophidae, or horseshoe bats. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 81-83.

[IT07] Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman & J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PLoS One 2 (3): e296.

[K92] Klompen, J. S. H. 1992. Phylogenetic relationships in the mite family Sarcoptidae (Acari: Astigmata). Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 180: i-vi, 1-154.

[KJ70] Koopman, K. F., & J. K. Jones, Jr. 1970. Classification of bats. In About Bats (Slaughter & Walton, eds) pp. 22-28. Southern Methodist University Press: Dallas.

[LA02] Long, J., M. Archer, T. Flannery & S. Hand. 2002. Prehistoric Mammals of Australia and New Guinea: One Hundred Million Years of Evolution. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[M72] McKean, J. L. 1972. Notes on some collections of bats (order Chiroptera) from Papua-New Guinea and Bougainville Island. CSIRO Division of Wildlife Research Technical Paper 26: 1-35.

[M07] Miller, G. S., Jr. 1907. The families and genera of bats. Smithsonian Institution, United States National Museum, Bulletin 57: i-xvii, 1-282, pl. I-XIV.

Columbicola

Pigeon louse Columbicola columbae, photographed by Pfliegler Walter.


Belongs within: Philopteridae.

Columbicola is a genus of chewing lice found primarily on species of pigeons; Tendeiro (1962) regarded records on other bird species to represent strays.

Characters (from Tendeiro 1962): Generally elongate, sometimes broad and squat. Head configuration similar in both sexes. Antennae usually with marked sexual dimorphism. Two pairs of short setae present on clypeal region, the anterior pair lanceolate and the posterior pair pointed.

Columbicola Ewing 1929 (see below for synonymy) T62
    |--*C. columbae (Linnaeus 1958) (see below for synonymy) T62
    |    |--C. c. columbae (see below for synonymy) T62
    |    |--C. c. bacillus (Giebel 1866) (see below for synonymy) T62
    |    `--C. c. stresemanni Eichler 1942 T62
    |--C. angustus (Rudow 1869) [=Lipeurus angustus] T62
    |--C. baculoides (Paine 1912) (see below for synonymy) T62
    |--C. becheti Tendeiro 1962 T62
    |--C. carrikeri Tendeiro 1962 T62
    |--C. cavifrons (Taschenberg 1882) (see below for synonymy) T62
    |    |--C. c. cavifrons [incl. C. longiceps sikoraae Eichler 1947] T62
    |    `--C. c. harrisoni Tendeiro 1962 T62
    |--C. claviformis (Denny 1842) [=Nirmus claviformis, C. columbae claviformis] T62
    |--C. clayae Tendeiro 1960 T62
    |    |--C. c. clayae T62
    |    `--C. c. insularis Tendeiro 1962 T62
    |--C. elbeli Tendeiro 1962 T62
    |    |--C. e. elbeli T62
    |    `--C. e. phoenicopterae Tendeiro 1962 T62
    |--C. emersoni Tendeiro 1960 T62
    |    |--C. e. emersoni T62
    |    `--C. e. curtus Tendeiro 1962 T62
    |--C. exilicornis (Piaget 1880) [=Lipeurus exilicornis; incl. C. juliusriemeri Eichler & Bárbara Mrosek 1958] T62
    |--C. extinctus Malcomson 1937 T62
    |--C. fortis (Taschenberg 1882) (n. d.) [=Lipeurus fortis] T62
    |--C. fradei Tendeiro 1962 T62
    |--C. fulmecki Eichler 1943 [=C. baculus fulmecki, C. bacillus fulmecki] T62
    |--C. gracilicapitis Carriker 1955 T62
    |--C. guimaraesi Tendeiro 1962 T62
    |    |--C. g. guimaraesi T62
    |    `--C. g. grandiusculus Tendeiro 1962 T62
    |--C. hoogstraali Tendeiro 1959 T62
    |--C. keleri Tendeiro 1962 T62
    |--C. longiceps (Rudow 1869) (see below for synonymy) T62
    |--C. longisetaceus (Piaget 1885) (n. d.) [=Lipeurus longisetaceus, C. lonigsetacea (l. c.)] T62
    |--C. macrourae (Wilson 1941) [=Esthiopterum (Columbicola) macrourae; incl. C. pseudolipeurusque Eichler 1952] T62
    |--C. meinertzhageni Tendeiro 1959 T62
    |    |--C. m. meinertzhageni T62
    |    |--C. m. longantennatus Tendeiro 1959 T62
    |    |--C. m. meridionalis Tendeiro 1959 T62
    |    `--C. m. parvus Tendeiro 1959 T62
    |--C. menura (Le Souëf & Bullen 1902) (n. d.) [=Lipeurus menura, Esthiopterum menura] T62
    |--C. mjoebergi Eichler 1943 T62
    |--C. orientalis Tendeiro 1962 T62
    |--C. paradoxus Tendeiro 1962 T62
    |--C. passerinae (Wilson 1941) (see below for synonymy) T62
    |--C. seta (Piaget 1880) (n. d.) [=Nirmus seta] T62
    |--C. streptopeliae (Clay & Meinertzhagen 1937) [=*Soricella streptopeliae] T62
    |    |--C. s. streptopeliae T62
    |    |--C. s. capicolae (Clay & Meinertzhagen 1937) [=Soricella streptopeliae capicolae, C. capicolae] T62
    |    |--C. s. oenae (Hopkins 1941) [=Soricella streptopeliae oenae, C. oenae] T62
    |    `--C. s. senegalensis Tendeiro 1962 T62
    |--C. taschenbergi Eichler 1942 T62
    |--C. theresae Ansari 1955 T62
    |--C. timmermanni Tendeiro 1962 T62
    |--C. tschulyschman Eichler 1942 [incl. C. montschadskyi Blagoveshtchensky 1951] T62
    |--C. turturis (Uchida 1917) [=Lipeurus turturis, C. bacillus turturis, C. baculus turturis] T62
    `--C. wardi Tendeiro 1962 T62

Columbicola Ewing 1929 [=Phagopterus Freire & Andrade 1944; incl. Soricella Clay & Meinertzhagen 1937, Parasoricella Eichler 1952] T62

Columbicola baculoides (Paine 1912) [=Lipeurus baculoides; incl. L. texanus McGregor 1917, Columbicola texanus, C. triangularis Hopkins & Clay 1953] T62

Columbicola cavifrons (Taschenberg 1882) [=Lipeurus baculus var. cavifrons, C. longiceps cavifrons, Esthiopterum cavifrons] T62

*Columbicola columbae (Linnaeus 1958) [=Pediculus columbae, Esthiopterum columbae, Lipeurus columbae, *Phagopterus columbae] T62

Columbicola columbae bacillus (Giebel 1866) [=Philopterus (Lipeurus) baculus de Haan in Lyonet 1829 non Nitzsch 1818, Lipeurus bacillus, Columbicola baculus bacillus; incl. C. bacillus confusissimus Eichler 1947, C. confusissimus, C. hopkinsi Ansari 1955] T62

*Columbicola columbae columbae (Linnaeus 1958) [incl. Lipeurus antennatus Giebel 1874, Columbicola antennatus, Philopterus (Lipeurus) baculus Nitzsch 1818, C. baculus, Esthiopterum baculum, Nirmus filiformis Olfers 1816, Columbicola columbae filiformis, C. filiformis, Esthiopterum filiforme, C. columbae juanfernandez Eichler 1952, C. juanfernandez] T62

Columbicola longiceps (Rudow 1869) [=Lipeurus longiceps, Ducula longiceps, Esthiopterum longiceps; incl. L. forficula Piaget 1885, Columbicola forficula, *Parasoricella wolffhuegelli Eichler 1952, Columbicola wolffhuegeli] T62

Columbicola passerinae (Wilson 1941) [=Esthiopterum (Columbicola) passerinae; incl. C. gymnopeliae Eichler in Niethammer 1953] T62

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[T62] Tendeiro, J. 1962. Estudos sobre malófagos: Revisão monográfica do género Columbicola Ewing (Ischnocera, Philopteridae). Memórias da Junta de Investigações do Ultramar, ser. 2, 32: 7-460.

Nematinae

Larva of Phyllocolpha leucapsis, photographed by Habropoda.


Belongs within: Tenthredinoidea.

The Nematinae are a group of sawflies found primarily in the Holarctic region; they are the dominant sawfly group in the Arctic and Subarctic, but become less predominant in more southern regions (Smith 2003).

Characters (from Smith 2003): Forewing with vein M meeting Sc+R basal to the point where Rs+M meets Sc+R; vein 2m-cu usually joins cell 1Rs; vein 2A+3A atrophied at base, present only as a straight stub or sometimes curved up and meeting 1A forming a small basal anal cell; veins M and 1m-cu markedly divergent; radial crossvein (2r) present or absent. Hindwing with cells RS and M both present; anal cell present. Epicnemium present, broad and triangular, separated from mesepisternum by suture; propleurae pointed on meson.

REFERENCES

Smith, D. R. 2003. Synopsis of the sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta) of America south of the United States: Tenthredinidae (Nematinae, Heterarthrinae, Tenthredininae). Transactions of the American Entomological Society 129 (1): 1-45.

Melaleuceae

Pink bottlebrush Beaufortia schaueri, photographed by Brian Walters.


Belongs within: Myrtaceae.
Contains: Melaleuca.

The Melaleuceae is a group of trees and shrubs bearing clustered flowers and very woody capsular fruits.

Characters (from Wilson et al. 2005): Trees or shrubs; leaves mostly spiral. Inflorescence often a spike-like (an aggregation of solitary flowers or triads commonly called "bottlebrushes") or head-like clusters of flowers; stamens often fasciculate, anthers fixed or versatile, dehiscing by longitudinal slits, pores or apical slits. Ovary inferior, 3-locular; ovules anatropous or hemitropous. Fruit a very woody capsule, often with delayed dehiscence; seeds linear.

<==Melaleuceae [Beaufortiinae, Callistemoninae, Calothamnineae, Melaleucinae] WO05
    |  i. s.: Eremaea pauciflora WO05, OS04
    |         Lamarchea WO05
    |         Petraeomyrtus WO05
    |         Phymatocarpus WO05
    |         Regelia ciliata WO05, RL05
    |--Callistemon WO05
    |    |--C. phoeniceus OS04
    |    |--C. polandii WO05
    |    |--C. rugulosus KIW98
    |    `--C. salignum B88
    `--+--Melaleuca WO05
       |--Beaufortia WO05
       |    |--B. bracteosa OS04
       |    |--B. dampieri KM08
       |    |--B. elegans RL05
       |    |--B. incana OS04
       |    |--B. micrantha OS04
       |    |    |--B. m. var. micrantha OS04
       |    |    `--B. m. var. puberula OS04
       |    |--B. orbifolia WO05
       |    `--B. schaueri G04
       `--Calothamnus WO05
            |--C. lateralis GK00
            |--C. lehmannii GK00
            |--C. planifolius OS04
            |--C. preissii GK00
            |--C. quadrifidus OS04
            |--C. sanguineus RL05
            |--C. schaueri GK00
            `--C. validus WO05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49-62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323-402.

[KIW98] Kearns, C. A., D. W. Inouye & N. M. Waser. 1998. Endangered mutualisms: the conservation of plant-pollinator interactions. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 83-112.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11-19.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19-28.

[RL05] Rafferty, C., & B. B. Lamont. 2005. Selective feeding by macropods on vegetation regenerating following fire. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 155-165.

[WO05] Wilson, P. G., M. M. O'Brien, M. M. Heslewood & C. J. Quinn. 2005. Relationships within Myrtaceae sensu lato based on a matK phylogeny. Plant Systematics and Evolution 251: 3-19.

Papaveraceae

Corn poppy Papaver rhoeas, photographed by Tanja Niggendijker.


Belongs within: Ranunculales.
Contains: Meconopsis, Corydalis.

The Papaveraceae are a mostly Northern Hemisphere family of flowering plants, including the poppies and related taxa.

Characters (from M. Zhang et al.): Herbs, annual, biennial, monocarpic perennial, perennial, or shrubby. Laticifers or elongated idioblasts present. Leaves alternate or in a basal rosette, rarely opposite or whorled, usually without stipules; leaf blade entire to compound. Inflorescences racemes, panicles, dichasia, pseudoumbels, or solitary flowers. Flowers actinomorphic, bisymmetric, or zygomorphic, always bisexual, usually 2-merous, rarely 3- or 4-merous. Calyx caducous, green or petaloid. Corolla choripetalous or quasi-sympetalous, very rarely absent. Anthers opening by slits. Ovary superior, syncarpous with 2 to several carpels; placentation parietal.

Papaveraceae
    |--Hypecoum [Hypecoaceae, Hypecoideae] T00
    |    `--H. leptocarpum O88
    |--Eschscholzioideae T00
    |    |--Dendromecon T00
    |    |--Hunnemannia T00
    |    `--Eschscholzia T00
    |         |--E. californica [=Escholtzia (l. c.) californica] C55b
    |         `--E. cristata [=Esholtzia (l. c.) cristata] C55b
    |--Fumarioideae [Fumariaceae] T00
    |    |--Dicentra cucullaria NDG98, HH03
    |    |--Corydalis NDG98
    |    `--Fumaria OS04
    |         |--F. capreolata OS04
    |         |--F. densiflora PT98
    |         |--F. indica PP07
    |         |--F. macrocarpa PT98
    |         |--F. officinalis ACW01
    |         `--F. parviflora PT98
    `--Papaver PT01 [Papaveroideae T00, Platystemonoideae]
         |--P. alpinum C55a
         |--P. argemone C55b
         |--P. aurantiacum C55b
         |--P. dubium PT98
         |--P. gracile PT98
         |--P. hybridum PT98
         |--P. nudicaule PT01
         |--P. officinale C55b
         |--P. purpureomarginatum PT98
         |--P. radicatum O88
         |--P. rhoeas PT98
         |--P. setigerum C55b
         |--P. somniferum C55b
         `--P. striatocarpum D37

Papaveraceae incertae sedis:
  Sanguinaria canadensis BA03
  Bocconia frutescens BA03
  Stylophorum BA03
  Argemone H06
    |--A. mexicana H06
    `--A. ochroleuca H06
  Dicranostigma lactucoides O88
  Meconopsis O88
  Glaucium Y98
    |--G. corniculatum Y98
    |--G. flavum Y98
    |--G. luteum [incl. Chelidonium glaucium] C55b
    `--G. violaceum C55b
  Pseudofumaria alba GR98
  Glaucinia flava B88

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[ACW01] Aguilar, H., C. C. Childers & W. C. Welbourn. 2001. Relative abundance and seasonal occurrence of mites in the family Tydeidae on citrus in Florida. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 376-380. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[BA03] Bergthorsson, U., K. L. Adams, B. Thomason & J. D. Palmer. 2003. Widespread horizontal transfer of mitochondrial genes in flowering plants. Nature 424: 197-201.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[GR98] Greuter, W., & T. Raus (eds.) 1998. Med-Checklist Notulae, 17. Willdenowia 28: 163-174.

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201-222.

[HH03] Hernández, J. R., & J. F. Hennen. 2003. Rust fungi causing galls, witches’ brooms, and other abnormal plant growths in northwestern Argentina. Mycologia 95 (4): 728-755.

[NDG98] Neal, P. R., A. Dafni & M. Giurfa. 1998. Floral symmetry and its role in plant-pollinator systems: terminology, distribution, and hypotheses. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 345-373.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19-28.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P. & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 15-78.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: Flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95-116.

[PT01] Pemberton, L. M. S., S.-L. Tsai, P. H. Lovell & P. J. Harris. 2001. Epidermal patterning in seedling roots of eudicotyledons. Annals of Botany 87: 649-654.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: Dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441-647.

[Y98] Yannitsaros, A. 1998. Additions to the flora of Kithira (Greece) I. Willdenowia 28: 77-94.

Paramoebidae

Korotnevella stella, from Microworld.


Belongs within: Amoebozoa.

The Paramoebidae are a family of flattened amoebae that produce finger-like anterior subpseudopodia. At least some paramoebids host minute endosymbionts close to the nucleus that were once mistaken for organelles, called parasomes.

Characters (from Microworld): Locomotive form with digitiform, blunt subpseudopodia frequently extending from the anterior hyaloplasm; temporarily lacking in some species. Floating form often with radiating pseudopodia. Uninucleate with central nucleolus. Surface layer complex, highly differentiated as a cuticle or as boat-shaped microscales discernable at the TEM level. Pseudopodia without a filamentous core.

Paramoebidae
    |--Janickina Chatton 1953 DF03
    |    |--J. chaetognathi (Grassi 1881) DF03
    |    `--J. pigmentifera (Grassi 1881) DF03
    |--Neoparamoeba Page 1987 DF03
    |    |--N. branchiphila SN05
    |    `--+--N. aestuarina DF03
    |       `--N. pemaquidensis (Page 1970) DF03
    |--Paramoeba Schaudinn 1896 DF03
    |    |--P. eilhardi Schaudinn 1896 DF03
    |    |--P. invadens Jones 1985 DF03
    |    `--P. perniciosa Sprague, Beckett & Sawyer 1969 DF03
    `--Korotnevella SN05
         |--K. hemistylolepis SN05
         `--+--K. monacantholepis KB05
            `--K. stella SN05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[DF03] Dyková, I., I. Fiala, J. Lom & J. Lukeš. 2003. Perkinsiella amoebae-like endosymbionts of Neoparamoeba spp., relatives of the kinetiplastid Ichthyobodo. European Journal of Protistology 39 (1): 37-52.

[KB05] Kudryavtsev, A., D. Bernhard, M. Schlegel, E. E-Y. Chao & T. Cavalier-Smith. 2005. 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences of Cochliopodium (Himatismenida) and the phylogeny of Amoebozoa. Protist 156: 215-224.

[SN05] Smirnov, A., E. Nassonova, C. Berney, J. Fahrni, I. Bolivar & J. Pawlowski. 2005. Molecular phylogeny and classification of the lobose amoebae. Protist 156: 129-142.

Trichoconis

Hyphae of Trichoconis schnifferulae, from Deighton & Pirozynski (1972).


Belongs within: Fungi.

Trichoconis is an anamorphic genus of fungi that are hyperparasites on other plant-parasitic fungi.

Characters (from Deighton & Pirozynski 1972): Mycelial hyphae superficial, repent, septate, branched, smooth, colourless or almost so. Conidiophores well-developed, arising as lateral branches of the mycelial hyphae, simple or branched, septate or continuous, smooth, polyblastic, sympodial, denticulate. Denticles are narrow tubular separating cells cut off from conidiophore by basal thin septum or from conidium by another septum, cylindric or, in a few species, slightly conoid or obconoid, conidium shed by fracture of separating cell, sometimes about middle, sometimes near base and sometimes nearer or very close to base of conidium which leaves a longer or shorter tubular open-ended denticle attached to conidiophore and usually a longer or shorter portion attached to base of conidium; in some species (e.g Trichoconis angustispora and T. africana) the separating cell breaks so close to the base of the conidium that only a minute frill remains; in T. sigmoidea even this frill cannot be seen though old persistent fractured separating cels on conidiophore are open-ended denticles. Conidia more or less fusiform or filiform, colourless or nearly so, rarely (e.g. T. viridula) very dilute olivaceous, smooth, 1- to several-septate.

<==Trichoconis Clements 1909 DP72
    |--*T. caudata (Appel & Strunk) Clements 1909 [=Pyricularia caudata Appel & Strunk 1904] DP72
    |--T. africana (Hansford) Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 [=Eriomycopsis africana Hansford 1942] DP72
    |--T. angustispora (Hansford) Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 [=Eriomycopsis angustispora Hansford 1942] DP72
    |--T. appendiculata Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72
    |--T. englerulae (Hansford) Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 [=Eriomycopsis englerulae Hansford 1945] DP72
    |--T. hamata (Hansford) Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 [=Eriomycopsis hamata Hansford 1942] DP72
    |--T. hibernica Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72
    |--T. malloti (Saccardo) Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 (see below for synonymy) DP72
    |--T. schiffnerulae (Hansford) Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 (see below for synonymy) DP72
    |--T. sigmoidea Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72
    |--T. trichiliae (Hansford) Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 [=Eriomycopsis trichiliae Hansford 1942] DP72
    `--T. viridula Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 DP72

Trichoconis malloti (Saccardo) Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 [=Ramularia malloti Saccardo 1919; incl. Eriomycopsis ugandae Hansford 1942] DP72

Trichoconis schiffnerulae (Hansford) Deighton & Pirozynski 1972 [=Eriomycopsis schiffnerulae Hansford 1942; incl. Domingoella deightonii Hansford 1949] DP72

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[DP72] Deighton, F. C., & K. A. Pirozynski. 1972. Microfungi. V. More hyperparasitic hyphomycetes. Mycological Papers 128: 1-110.

Trichotheliales

Trichothelium epiphyllum, photographed by Robert Lücking.


Belongs within: Ascomycota.
Contains: Porina.

The Trichotheliales is an order of lichenised fungi associated with trentepohlioid algae.

Characters (from McCarthy 2001): Trentepohlioid photobiont; perithecioid ascomata; largely unbranched hamathecium of paraphyses; thin-wwalled unitunicate asci.

Trichotheliales
    |  i. s.: Ascolacicola Ranghoo & Hyde 1998 JC03, E99
    |           |--*A. aquatica Ranghoo & Hyde 1998 [anam. Trichocladium uniseptatum] E99
    |           `--A. austriaca JC03
    |--Myeloconis [Myeloconidaceae] EB03
    `--Trichotheliaceae EB03
         |--Polycornum EB03
         |--Porina LV98
         |--Clathroporina LV98
         |    |--*C. eminentior LV98
         |    `--C. isidiifera Harris 1995 LV98
         `--Trichothelium LV98 [incl. Actiniopsis Starbäck 1899 RS99, Ophiodictyon RS99]
              |--T. epiphyllum [incl. *Actiniopsis bambusae Starbäck 1899] RS99
              |--T. horridulum [incl. Actiniopsis plumbea Starbäck 1899, *Ophiodictyon plumbea] RS99
              `--T. sipmanii LV98

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[E99] Eriksson, O. E. (ed.) 1999. Notes on ascomycete systematics. Nos 2440-2755. Myconet 2: 1-41.

[EB03] Eriksson, O. E., H. O. Barah, R. S. Currah, K. Hansen, C. P. Kurtzman, G. Rambold & T. Laessøe (eds.) 2003. Outline of Ascomycota—2003. Myconet 9: 1-89.

[JC03] Jacobs, A., M. P. A. Coetzee, B. D. Wingfield, K. Jacobs & M. J. Wingfield. 2003. Phylogenetic relationships among Phialocephala species and other ascomycetes. Mycologia 95 (4): 637-645.

[LV98] Lücking, R., & A. Vězda. 1998. Taxonomic status in foliicolous species of the genus Porina (lichenized Ascomycotina: Trichotheliaceae)—II. The Porina epiphylla group. Willdenowia 28: 181-226.

McCarthy, P. M. 2001. Myeloconaceae. In: McCarthy, P. M. (ed.) Flora of Australia vol. 58A. Lichens 3, pp. 104-105. ABRS/CSIRO Australia: Melbourne.

[RS99] Rossman, A. Y., G. J. Samuels, C. T. Rogerson & R. Lowen. 1999. Genera of Bionectriaceae, Hypocreaceae and Nectriaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycetes). Studies in Mycology 42: 1-248.

Tenthredinoidea

Tenthredo variicolor, from here.


Belongs within: Hymenoptera.
Contains: Nematinae.

The Tenthredinoidea is the most diverse living lineage of sawflies, with larvae feeding on a wide variety of plant species, including ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms (Grimaldi & Engel 2005).

Characters (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Pronotum deeply curved, with lateral concavities for reception of prothoracic spiracle; forewing with crossvein 2r-rs distad of 2rs-m.

<==Tenthredinoidea
    |  i. s.: Caliroa AY04
    |           |--C. cerasi AY04
    |           `--C. limacina H74
    |--Xyelotomidae NPH04
    |    |--Pseudoxyelocerus Nel, Petrulevicius & Henrotay 2004 NPH04
    |    |    `--*P. bascharagensis Nel, Petrulevicius & Henrotay 2004 NPH04
    |    |--Xyelotoma Rasnitsyn 1968 NPH04
    |    |    `--*X. nigricornis Rasnitsyn 1968 NPH04
    |    |--Xyelocerus Rasnitsyn 1968 NPH04
    |    |    `--*X. admirandus Rasnitsyn 1968 NPH04
    |    |--Pseudoxyela Rasnitsyn 1968 NPH04
    |    |    `--*P. heteroclita Rasnitsyn 1968 NPH04
    |    |--Dahurotoma Rasnitsyn 1990 NPH04
    |    |    `--*D. robusta Rasnitsyn 1990 NPH04
    |    |--Vitimilarva Rasnitsyn 1969 NPH04
    |    |    `--*V. paradoxa Rasnitsyn 1969 NPH04
    |    `--Kuengilarva Rasnitsyn 1990 NPH04
    |         `--*K. inexpectata Rasnitsyn 1990 NPH04
    `--+--Liaotoma Ren et al. 1995 NPH04
       |    `--*L. linearis Ren et al. 1995 NPH04
       |--Leridatoma Rasnitsyn & Ansorge 2000 NPH04
       |    `--*L. pulcherrima Rasnitsyn & Ansorge 2000 NPH04
       |--Davidsmithia Pagliano & Scaramozzino 1990 (see below for synonymy) NPH04
       |    `--*D. suni (Hong 1982) [=*Protenthredo suni, *Thomasia suni] NPH04
       |--Undatoma Rasnitsyn 1977 NPH04
       |    |--*U. dahurica Rasnitsyn 1977 NPH04
       |    |--U. bicolor Rasnitsyn & Jarzembowski 1998 NPH04
       |    |--U. rudwickensis Rasnitsyn & Jarzembowski 1998 NPH04
       |    |--U. taksha Rasnitsyn 1990 NPH04
       |    |--U. stigmatica Rasnitsyn & Jarzembowski 1998 NPH04
       |    `--U. undurgensis Rasnitsyn 1990 NPH04
       `--+--Blasticotoma RZ04 [Blasticotomidae GE05]
          `--+--+--Electrotoma Z02 [Electrotomidae GE05]
             |  |    `--E. succini Z02
             |  `--+--Argidae GE05
             |     `--Pergidae GE05
             |          |--Perga SC04
             |          |--Platypsectra analis ZS10
             |          `--Phylacteophaga AY04
             |               |--P. eucalypti B88
             |               `--P. froggattii SC04
             `--+--+--Cimbicidae GE05
                |  `--Diprionidae GE05
                |       |--Diprion C81
                |       |    |--D. hercyniae C81
                |       |    `--D. pini A71
                |       `--Neodiprion TW05
                |            |--N. abietis FM80
                |            `--N. sertifer C81
                `--Tenthredinidae GE05
                     |  i. s.: Hemichroa crocea (Geoffroy 1785) HP-W05
                     |         Croesus HP-W05
                     |         Nematinus HP-W05
                     |         Cladius pectinicornis (Geoffroy 1785) HP-W05
                     |         Mesoneura opaca (Fabricius 1775) HP-W05
                     |         Pachynematus imperfectus (Zaddach 1876) HP-W05
                     |         Macrophya aguadoi Lacourt 2005 F05
                     |--Nematinae K07
                     |--Monosoma [Allantinae] HP-W05
                     |    `--M. pulverata (Retzius 1783) HP-W05
                     |--Dolerus [Dolerinae] H04b
                     |    `--D. varispinus Hartig 1837 H04b
                     `--Tenthredo Linnaeus 1758 [incl. Tenthredella Rohwer 1910; Tenthredininae] H04a
                          |--T. allantosikkimensis Haris 2004 H04a
                          |--T. changbuensis Haris 2000 H04a
                          |--T. coloripleuris Malaise 1945 H04a
                          |--T. maculipennis Malaise 1945 H04a
                          |--T. maruana Malaise 1945 H04a
                          |--T. memoriaescalerai Haris 2004 H04a
                          |--T. minutosimplicis Haris 2004 H04a
                          |--T. nigroypsilon Haris 2004 H04a
                          `--T. variicolor Malaise 1945 H04a

Davidsmithia Pagliano & Scaramozzino 1990 [=Protenthredo Hong 1982 non Pongracz 1928, Thomasia Pagliano & Scaramozzino 1990 nec Poche 1908 nec Lambert 1918; Protenthredinidae] NPH04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[AY04] Austin, A. D., D. K. Yeates, G. Cassis, M. J. Fletcher, J. La Salle, J. F. Lawrence, P. B. McQuillan, L. A. Mound, D. J. Bickel, P. J. Gullan, D. F. Hales & G. S. Taylor. 2004. Insects 'Down Under' - diversity, endemism and evolution of the Australian insect fauna: examples from select orders. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 216-234.

[C81] Caltagirone, L. E. 1981. Landmark examples in classical biological control. Annual Review of Entomology 26: 213-232.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261-282.

[FM80] Futuyma, D. J., & G. C. Mayer. 1980. Non-allopatric speciation in animals. Systematic Zoology 29 (3): 254-271.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H04a] Haris, A. 2004a. Four new Tenthredo Linnaeus, 1758 species from Sikkim (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae). Graellsia 60 (2): 155-161.

[H04b] Haris, A. 2004b. New sawflies from Spain (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae). Graellsia 60 (2): 163-165.

[HP-W05] Heitland, W., & H. Pschorn-Walcher. 2005. Biology and parasitoids of the peculiar alder sawfly, Platycampus luridiventris (Fallen) (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (2): 215-231.

[H74] Helson, G. A. H. 1974. Insect Pests: Identification, life history, and control of pests of farms, horticulture, gardens, and public health. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[K07] Kopelke, J.-P. 2007. The European species of the genus Phyllocolpa, part III: the species-groups of crassispina, scotaspis, and piliserra (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae, Nematinae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 87 (2): 163-183.

[NPH04] Nel, A., J. F. Petrulevicius & M. Henrotay. 2004. New Early Jurassic sawflies from Luxembourg: The oldest record of Tenthredinoidea (Hymenoptera: “Symphyta”). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 49 (2): 283-288.

[RZ04] Rasnitsyn, A. P., & H. Zhang. 2004. A new family, Daohugoidae fam. n., of siricomorph hymenopteran (Hymenoptera = Vespida) from the Middle Jurassic of Daohugou in Inner Mongolia (China). Proceedings of the Russian Entomological Society, St. Petersburg 75 (1): 12-16.

[SC04] Stone, C., & N. C. Coops. 2004. Assessment and monitoring of damage from insects in Australian eucalypt forests and commercial plantations. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 283-292.

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240-257.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P. & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Ecological history of the terrestrial insects. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 331-388. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

Apocrita

Female Megalyra fasciipennis, photographed by Simon van Noort.


Belongs within: Siricomorpha.
Contains: Ichneumonoidea, Aculeata, Proctotrupomorpha.

The Apocrita is a major clade of wasps characterised by the development of a narrow waist between the first and second abdominal segments, with the first abdominal segment being incorporated into the mesosoma as the propodeum (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). Members of the Apocrita are ancestrally parasitic as larvae.

Apocrita [Ephialtitoidea, Parasitica]
  |--Karatavitidae R02
  |--Stephanidae [Stephanoidea] GE05
  |    |--Stephaninae GE05
  |    `--Archaeostephanus [Schlettererinae] GE05
  |         `--A. corae GE05
  `--+--+--Ichneumonoidea GE05
     |  `--Aculeata GE05
     |--Ephialtitidae R02
     |    |--Stephanogaster magna GE05
     |    |--Karataus R02
     |    `--Cratephialtites kourios GE05
     `--+--Proctotrupomorpha R02
        `--Evaniomorpha R02
             |--Trigonalidae [Archiglossata, Trigonalyoidea] GE05
             |--Megalyridae [Megalyroidea] GE05
             |    |--Cleistogaster buriatica GE05, R02
             |    |--Maimetsha [Maimetshidae] GE05
             |    |--Mesaulacinus GE05
             |    `--Megalyra GE05
             |         |--M. australia Girault 1925 G25
             |         |--M. fabrei Girault 1932 G32
             |         |--M. fasciipennis G32
             |         |    |--M. f. fasciipennis G32
             |         |    `--M. f. io Girault 1932 G32
             |         |--M. nigricorpus Girault 1932 G32
             |         |--M. punctata G32
             |         |--M. szepligetii Bradley 1905 GM79
             |         |--M. transversistriata Girault 1925 G25
             |         |--M. troglodytes GE05
             |         `--M. viridescens Froggatt 1906 GM79
             `--Evanioidea GE05
                  |--Praeaulacidae GE05
                  |    |--Praeaulacus ramosus R02
                  |    `--Westratia R02
                  `--+--Evaniidae [Cretevaniidae, Evaniiformes] GE05
                     |    |--Brachygaster minuta A71
                     |    |--Andrenelia [Andreneliidae] GE05
                     |    |--Szepligetella AY04
                     |    `--Acanthinevania AY04
                     `--Aulaciformes GE05
                          |--Manlaya R02 [Baissidae GE05, Manlayinae]
                          `--+--Aulacus A71 [Aulacidae GE05]
                             |    `--A. striatus A71
                             `--Gasteruptiidae GE05
                                  |  i. s.: Tillywhimia R02
                                  |         Gasteruption jaculator A71
                                  |--Kojutellitinae GE05
                                  `--Hyptiogastrinae GE05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[AY04] Austin, A. D., D. K. Yeates, G. Cassis, M. J. Fletcher, J. La Salle, J. F. Lawrence, P. B. McQuillan, L. A. Mound, D. J. Bickel, P. J. Gullan, D. F. Hales & G. S. Taylor. 2004. Insects 'Down Under' - diversity, endemism and evolution of the Australian insect fauna: examples from select orders. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 216-234.

[G25] Girault, A. A. 1925. An essay on when a fly is lovable, the ceremony of baptizing some and unlovely hate. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 187-190).

[G32] Girault, A. A. 1932. New lower Hymenoptera from Australia and India. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 293-298).

[GM79] Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 1-400.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[R02] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002. Superorder Vespidea Laicharting, 1781. Order Hymenoptera Linné, 1758 (=Vespida Laicharting, 1781). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 242-254. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

Vespoidea

Blue flower wasp Scolia verticalis, photographed by Arthur Chapman.


Belongs within: Aculeata.
Contains: Formicidae, Vespidae, Pompilidae.

The Vespoidea is a clade including the social wasps, ants and closely related taxa. It is characterised by reduction of the prepectus and sparse setae on the hypopharynx (this last character reversed in Rhopalosomatidae and Pompilidae); vespoids other than the Sierolomorphidae also have the metapostnotum partially invaginated and the hind wing jugal lobe reduced (Grimaldi & Engel 2005).

<==Vespoidea [Scolioidea]
    |  i. s.: Methoca [Methocidae] A71
    |           `--M. ichneumonides A71
    |--Sierolomorpha [Sierolomorphidae] GE05
    `--+--+--Rhopalosomatidae GE05
       |  |    |--Rhopalosoma nearcticum HH07
       |  |    |--Mesorhopalosoma GE05
       |  |    `--Propalosoma GE05
       |  `--+--Typhoctes [Bradynobaenidae] GE05
       |     `--+--Falsiformicidae GE05
       |        `--+--+--Formicidae GE05
       |           |  `--Armania [Armaniidae] GE05
       |           |       `--A. robusta GE05
       |           `--+--Vespidae GE05
       |              `--Scoliidae GE05
       |                   |--Campsomeris tasmaniensis H49
       |                   |--Proscolia [Proscoliinae] GE05
       |                   |--Trisciloa ferruginea ZS10
       |                   `--Scolia RBV08
       |                        |--S. bicincta HH07
       |                        |--S. distincta Lucas 1849 E12
       |                        |--S. manilae A71
       |                        |--S. ruficornis C81
       |                        |--S. varicolor Lucas 1849 E12
       |                        `--S. verticalis RBV08
       `--+--Tiphiidae GE05
          |    |  i. s.: Colocistis crassa HH07
          |    |         Architiphia rasnitsyni GE05
          |    |         Tiphia brevipennis Lucas 1849 E12
          |    |         Hemithynnus ZS10
          |    |         Rhagigaster unicolor ZS10
          |    |--Anthoboscinae GE05
          |    |--Brachycistis [Brachycistidinae] C90
          |    |--Diamma AY04 [Diamminae GE05]
          |    `--Thynninae [Thynnidae] AY04
          `--+--Pompilidae GE05
             `--+--+--Chyphotes mellipes RBV08
                |  `--+--Aglyptacros sulcatus RBV08
                |     `--Aporus niger RBV08
                `--+--Sapygidae GE05
                   |    |--Fedtschenkiinae GE05
                   |    `--Sapyga [Sapyginae] GE05
                   |         `--S. pumila RBV08
                   `--Mutillidae GE05
                        |--Dasymutilla aureola GE05, RBV08
                        |--Euphutomorpha R55
                        |--Photopsis C90
                        `--Mutilla E12
                             |--M. affinis Lucas 1849 E12
                             |--M. bicolor Lucas 1849 E12
                             |--M. capitata Lucas 1849 E12
                             |--M. dorsalis Lucas 1849 E12
                             |--M. erythrocephala Lucas 1849 E12
                             |--M. luctuosa Lucas 1849 E12
                             |--M. oraniensis Lucas 1849 E12
                             |--M. quadrimaculata Lucas 1849 E12
                             |--M. rubricollis Lucas 1849 E12
                             |--M. rubrocincta Lucas 1849 E12
                             |--M. tabida Lucas 1849 E12
                             |--M. unicincta Lucas 1849 E12
                             `--M. unimaculata Lucas 1849 E12

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[AY04] Austin, A. D., D. K. Yeates, G. Cassis, M. J. Fletcher, J. La Salle, J. F. Lawrence, P. B. McQuillan, L. A. Mound, D. J. Bickel, P. J. Gullan, D. F. Hales & G. S. Taylor. 2004. Insects 'Down Under' - diversity, endemism and evolution of the Australian insect fauna: examples from select orders. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 216-234.

[C81] Caltagirone, L. E. 1981. Landmark examples in classical biological control. Annual Review of Entomology 26: 213-232.

[C90] Crawford, C. S. 1990. Scorpiones, Solifugae, and associated desert taxa. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 421-475. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H49] Hatch, E. D. 1949. The New Zealand forms of Calochilus R. Br. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (2): 247-249.

[HH07] Hines, H. M., J. H. Hunt, T. K. O'Connor, J. J. Gillespie & S. A. Cameron. 2007. Multigene phylogeny reveals eusociality evolved twice in vespid wasps. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 104 (9): 3295-3299.

[RBV08] Rabeling, C., J. M. Brown & M. Verhaagh. 2008. Newly discovered sister lineage sheds light on early ant evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 105 (39): 14913-14917.

[R55] Rayment, T. 1955. Taxonomy, morphology and biology of sericophorine wasps with diagnoses of two new genera and descriptions of forty new species and six sub-species. Memoirs of the National Museum, Melbourne 19: 1-95.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P. & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

Porina

Porina nucula, photographed by Harrie Sipman.


Belongs within: Trichotheliales.

Porina is a genus of lichenised fungi found primarily in shaded habitats in tropical and subtropical regions (P. M. McCarthy).

Characters (from P. M. McCarthy): Thallus corticolous, saxicolous or foliicolous (rarely bryophilous or terricolous). Algae Trentepohlia (mainly in corticolous and saxicolous spp.) or Phycopeltis (in most foliicolous spp.). Perithecia immersed in the thallus or in thallus-dominated verrucae, or superficial on the thallus. Involucrellum vestigial to well-developed and almost completely enclosing the exciple, pale to dark orange-brown, red-brown, brown, green-black, purple-black or jet-black; surface smooth to uneven, lacking whorls of stiff subapical setae (rarely with a more uniformly distributed and delicate pilose or ± tomentose covering). Ascospores with 3 or more transverse septa, or submuriform to muriform.

<==Porina [incl. Phragmopeltheca] E99
    |  i. s.: P. americana LV98
    |         P. applanata LV98
    |         P. epilucida LV98
    |         P. fulvella LV98
    |         P. fusca Lücking 1991 LV98
    |         P. guaranitica LV98
    |         P. guentheri JC03
    |         P. heterospora LV98
    |         P. mastoidea LV98
    |         P. nuculastrum LV98
    |         P. rufula LV98
    |         P. rugosa Ach. 1814 LV98
    |         P. simulans LV98
    |--+--+--P. curtula Malme 1929 LV98
    |  |  `--P. tetracerae (Afz.) Mueller 1885 [=Verrucaria tetracerae Afz. in Ach. 1803; incl. P. variegata] LV98
    |  `--+--P. distans Vězda & Vivant 1994 LV98
    |     |--P. exasperatula Vainio 1914 LV98
    |     `--+--P. conspersa Malme 1929 LV98
    |        `--P. imitatrix Mueller 1890 (see below for synonymy) LV98
    `--+--+--P. subnucula Lumbsch, Lücking & Vězda in Lücking & Vězda 1998 LV98
       |  `--+--P. verruculosa Mueller 1890 LV98
       |     `--+--P. rudiuscula (Nyl.) Mueller 1892 [=Verrucaria rudiuscula Nyl. 1868] LV98
       |        `--+--*P. nucula Ach. 1814 LV98
       |           `--P. pocsii Vězda 1984 LV98
       `--+--+--+--P. follmanniana Becker & Lücking in Daniels et al. 1995 LV98
          |  |  `--P. radiata Kalb, Lücking & Vězda in Lücking & Vězda 1998 (see below for synonymy) LV98
          |  `--+--+--P. epiphylloides Vězda 1975 LV98
          |     |  `--P. guianensis Lücking & Vězda 1998 LV98
          |     `--+--P. longispora Vězda 1975 LV98
          |        `--P. mazosioides Lücking & Vězda 1998 LV98
          `--+--P. foliicola (Vězda) Lücking & Vězda 1998 [=Clathroporina foliicola Vězda 1977] LV98
             `--+--+--P. andreana Lücking & Vězda 1998 LV98
                |  `--P. mirabilis Lücking & Vězda 1998 LV98
                `--+--+--P. conica Sant. 1952 LV98
                   |  `--P. subepiphylla Lücking & Vězda 1998 LV98
                   `--+--+--P. atriceps (Vainio) Vainio 1921 (see below for synonymy) LV98
                      |  `--P. atropunctata Lücking & Vězda 1998 LV98
                      `--+--P. virescens (Kremp.) Mueller 1883 (see below for synonymy) LV98
                         `--+--P. similis Kalb & Vězda 1991 LV98
                            `--+--P. lucida Sant. 1952 [incl. P. lenticulata Lücking 1994 (n. n.)] LV98
                               |    |--P. l. var. lucida LV98
                               |    `--P. l. var. australiensis Lücking & Vězda 1998 LV98
                               `--+--P. albicera (Kremp.) Overeem 1922 (see below for synonymy) LV98
                                  `--+--P. epiphylla (Fée) Fée 1837 (see below for synonymy) LV98
                                     `--P. minutissima Henssen, Lücking & Vězda in Lücking & Vězda 1998 LV98

Porina albicera (Kremp.) Overeem 1922 [=Verrucaria albicera Kremp. 1874; incl. Phylloporina myriocarpa Mueller 1891] LV98

Porina atriceps (Vainio) Vainio 1921 [=P. epiphylla var. atriceps Vainio 1896; incl. Phylloporina cupreofusca Zahlbr. 1928] LV98

Porina epiphylla (Fée) Fée 1837 [=Porina americana var. epiphylla Fée in Bory de Saint-Vincent et al. 1831; incl. P. insperata Mueller 1883, P. ephiphylla var. major Vainio 1921, Verrucaria praestans Nyl. 1868, Micropeltis schmidtiana Rostr. 1902] LV98

Porina imitatrix Mueller 1890 [incl. Po. affinis Schill. 1927, Phylloporina caerulescens Mueller 1890, Po. hypothetica Vainio 1921, Ph. schiffneri Zahlbr. 1909] LV98

Porina radiata Kalb, Lücking & Vězda in Lücking & Vězda 1998 [=P. rugosa Kalb & Vězda 1992 non Ach. 1814] LV98

Porina virescens (Kremp.) Mueller 1883 [=Verrucaria virescens Kremp. 1874; incl. P. multiseptata Mueller 1883, P. pandanorum Vainio 1921] LV98

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[E99] Eriksson, O. E. (ed.) 1999. Notes on ascomycete systematics. Nos 2440-2755. Myconet 2: 1-41.

[JC03] Jacobs, A., M. P. A. Coetzee, B. D. Wingfield, K. Jacobs & M. J. Wingfield. 2003. Phylogenetic relationships among Phialocephala species and other ascomycetes. Mycologia 95 (4): 637-645.

[LV98] Lücking, R., & A. Vězda. 1998. Taxonomic status in foliicolous species of the genus Porina (lichenized Ascomycotina: Trichotheliaceae) - II. The Porina epiphylla group. Willdenowia 28: 181-226.