Meranoplini

Meranoplus bicolor, from here.


Belongs within: Myrmicinae.
Contains: Crematogaster.

The Meranoplini is a group of ants with a compact mesosoma and nine-segmented antenna. Meranoplus, the shield ants, are slow-moving ants found in the Old World tropics and subtropics, which have the dorsum of the anterior mesosoma flattened with projecting edges to form a distinct shield (Heterick 2009).

Characters (from Tree of Life): Mesosoma short and compact. Promesonotum forming a shield that overhangs the pleurae laterally and usually overhangs the propodeum posteriorly. Antennae with 9 segments, with a 3-segmented club.

<==Meranoplini E14
    |  i. s.: Promeranoplus Emery 1914 E14
    |           `--*P. rouxi Emery 1914 E14
    |         Prodicroaspis Emery 1914 E14
    |           `--*P. sarasini Emery 1914 E14
    |         Calyptomyrmex E14
    |         Dicroaspis E14
    |--+--Mayriella BS06
    |  |    |--M. ebbei BS06
    |  |    `--M. occidua H09
    |  `--+--Xenomyrmex floridanus BS06
    |     `--+--Eutetramorium mocquerysi BS06
    |        `--Metapone madagascarica BS06
    `--+--+--Crematogaster BS06
       |  `--Pristomyrmex Mayr 1866 SB08, B03 (see below for synonymy)
       |       |--*P. pungens Mayr 1866 YT99
       |       |--P. brevispinosus Emery 1887 B03
       |       |    |--P. b. brevispinosum B03
       |       |    `--P. b. sulcatus B03
       |       |--*Hylidris’ myersi Weber 1941 YT99
       |       |--P. pulcher N-ZLI11
       |       |--P. quadridentata André 1905 [=P. (*Odontomyrmex) quadridentata] YT99
       |       |--*Dodous’ trispinosus Donisthorpe 1946 YT99
       |       `--P. yaeyamensis Yamane & Terayama 1999 [incl. P. brevispinosus sulcatus var. formosae] YT99
       `--+--Meranoplus Smith 1854 BS06, B03
          |    |--*M. bicolor (Guér. 1838) (see below for synonymy) B03
          |    |--M. belli Forel 1902 B03
          |    |--M. dichrous H09
          |    |--M. dimidiatus H09
          |    |--M. diversus H09
          |    |--M. fenestratus H09
          |    |--M. ferrugineus H09
          |    |--M. laeviventris Emery 1889 E89
          |    |--M. leveillei Emery 1883 E14
          |    |--M. malaysianus N-ZLI11
          |    |--M. mcarthuri H09
          |    |--M. mucronatus Smith 1857 B03
          |    |--M. oceanicus H09
          |    |--M. puryi H09
          |    |--M. radamae BS06
          |    |--M. rothneyi Forel 1902 B03
          |    |--M. rugosus H09
          |    `--M. similis H09
          `--+--Pheidologeton Mayr 1862 BS06, B03
             |    |--*P. diversus (Jerdon 1851) (see below for synonymy) B03
             |    |--P. affinis (Jerdon 1851) (see below for synonymy) B03
             |    |--P. laboriosus E89
             |    |--P. lamellifrons Forel 1902 B03
             |    |--P. nanus Roger 1863 B03
             |    |--P. ocellifer E89
             |    |--P. pygmaeus N-ZLI11
             |    `--P. silenus N-ZLI11
             `--Formicoxenini MR08
                  |--Formicoxenus nitidulus A71
                  `--Nesomyrmex Wheeler 1910 BS06, MR08
                       |--*N. clavipilis Wheeler 1910 TO99
                       |--N. angulatus (Mayr 1862) [=Leptothorax angulatus] MR08
                       |--N. antoinetteae Mbanyana & Robertson 2008 MR08
                       |--N. braunsi (Forel 1912) [=Dilobocondyla (Tetramyrma) braunsi] MR08
                       |--N. cederbergensis Mbanyana & Robertson 2008 MR08
                       |--N. denticulatus (Mayr 1901) [=Leptothorax denticulatus] MR08
                       |--N. echinatinodis BS06
                       |--N. entabeni Mbanyana & Robertson 2008 MR08
                       |--N. ezantsi Mbanyana & Robertson 2008 MR08
                       |--N. inye Mbanyana & Robertson 2008 MR08
                       |--N. karooensis Mbanyana & Robertson 2008 MR08
                       |--N. koebergensis Mbanyana & Robertson 2008 MR08
                       |--N. larsenae Mbanyana & Robertson 2008 MR08
                       |--N. mcgregori Mbanyana & Robertson 2008 MR08
                       |--N. nanniae Mbanyana & Robertson 2008 MR08
                       |--N. njengelanga Mbanyana & Robertson 2008 MR08
                       |--N. ruani Mbanyana & Robertson 2008 MR08
                       |--N. saasveldensis Mbanyana & Robertson 2008 MR08
                       |--N. simoni (Emery 1895) [=Tetramorium simoni] MR08
                       |--N. stramineus (Arnold 1948) [=Limnomyrmex stramineus] MR08
                       |--N. tshiguvhoae Mbanyana & Robertson 2008 MR08
                       `--N. vannoorti Mbanyana & Robertson 2008 MR08

*Meranoplus bicolor (Guér. 1838) [=Cryptocerus bicolor; incl. M. dimicans Walker 1859, M. villosus Motsch. 1859] B03

Pheidologeton affinis (Jerdon 1851) [=Ocodoma affinis; incl. Atta bellicosa Smith 1858, Solenopsis calida Smith 1863, S. laboriosa Smith 1861] B03

*Pheidologeton diversus (Jerdon 1851) [=Ocodoma diversa; incl. Pheidole ocellifera Smith 1858, Pheidole taprobanae Smith 1858] B03

Pristomyrmex Mayr 1866 SB08, B03 [incl. Dodous Donisthorpe 1946 YT99, Hylidris Weber 1941 YT99, Odontomyrmex Andre 1905 YT99]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[B03] Bingham, C. T. 1903. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera. Vol. II. Ants and Cuckoo-Wasps. Taylor and Francis: London.

[BS06] Brady, S. G., T. R. Schultz, B. L. Fisher & P. S. Ward. 2006. Evaluating alternative hypotheses for the early evolution and diversification of ants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (48): 18172–18177.

[E89] Emery, C. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XX.—Formiche di Birmania e del Tenasserim raccolte da Leonardo Fea (1885–87). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 485–520.

[E14] Emery, C. 1914. Les fourmis de la Nouvelle-Calédonie & des îles Loyalty. In: Sarasin, F. & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1, Heft IV pp. 393–436, pl. 12. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[H09] Heterick, B. E. 2009. A guide to the ants of south-western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 76: 1–206.

[MR08] Mbanyana, N. & H. G. Robertson. 2008. Review of the ant genus Nesomyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae) in southern Africa. African Natural History 4: 35–55.

[N-ZLI11] Nur-Zati A. M., G. T. Lim & A. B. Idris. 2011. Checklist of ants of selected hill dipterocarp forests of peninsular Malaysia. Serangga 16 (1): 91–105.

[TO99] Terayama, M. & K. Onoyama. 1999. The ant genus Leptothorax Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Japan. Memoirs of the Myrmecological Society of Japan 1: 71–97.

[YT99] Yamane, S. & M. Terayama. 1999. A new species of the genus Pristomyrmex Mayr from Japan, and a proposal of a new synonym of species in the genus Camponotus Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Memoirs of the Myrmecological Society of Japan 1: 17–24.

Pheidole

Coastal brown ants Pheidole megacephala, from here.


Belongs within: Myrmicinae.

Pheidole, the big-headed ants, is a diverse genus of ants with a clear division in colonies between major and minor workers. The minor workers are usually the more active and most likely to be involved in foraging, with the major workers often specialising in carrying larger or harder food items. The coastal brown ant Pheidole megacephala has become a significant invasive species in some parts of the world.

Characters (from Heterick 2009): Antenna with twelve segments, antennal club three-segmented; promesonotum in lateral view steeply sloping down to propodeum; workers dimorphic.

<==Pheidole Westwood 1839 FT08
    |--*P. providens B03
    |--P. algae N-ZLI11
    |--P. allani Bingham 1903 B03
    |--P. ampla H09
    |    |--P. a. ampla H09
    |    `--P. a. perthensis H09
    |--P. angustior Forel 1902 B03
    |--P. aristotelis N-ZLI11
    |--P. aurivillii A61
    |--P. bhavanae Bingham 1903 B03
    |--P. bicornis DL99
    |--P. binghami Forel 1902 B03
    |--P. bluntschlii N-ZLI11
    |--P. butteli N-ZLI11
    |--P. capellinii Emery 1887 [incl. P. capellinii var. asperata] B03
    |--P. cariniceps N-ZLI11
    |--P. clydei BS06
    |--P. constanciae Forel 1902 B03
    |--P. elecebra [=Sympheidole elecebra] WW90
    |--P. elisae N-ZLI11
    |--P. fallax DL99
    |--P. feae Emery 1894 B03
    |--P. fergusoni Forel 1902 B03
    |--P. fervens OT99
    |--P. fervida OT99
    |--P. fossulata Forel 1902 [=P. jucunda fossulata] B03
    |--P. ghatica Forel 1902 B03
    |--P. grayi Forel 1902 B03
    |--P. hartmeyeri H09
    |--P. himalayana Forel 1902 B03
    |--P. hoogwerfi Forel 1902 [=P. sharpi hoogwerfi] B03
    |--P. horni Emery 1901 B03
    |--P. hortensis N-ZLI11
    |--P. hospita Bingham 1903 B03
    |--P. hyatti BS06
    |--P. impressifrons A61
    |--P. indica Mayr 1878 [incl. P. indicata var. coonoorensis] B03
    |--P. inquilina [=Epipheidole inquilina] WW90
    |--P. javana Mayr 1867 [incl. P. javana var. charmsalana] B03
    |--P. jordanica E89
    |--P. jucunda Forel 1885 B03
    |--P. lamellinoda Forel 1902 B03
    |--P. latinoda Roger 1863 B03
    |--P. longipes N-ZLI11
    |--P. lucioccipitalis N-ZLI11
    |--P. luteipes Emery 1914 E14
    |    |--P. l. luteipes E14
    |    `--P. l. obvia Emery 1914 E14
    |--P. magretti Emery 1887 B03
    |--P. malinsi Forel 1902 B03
    |--P. mediofusca [incl. P. mediofusca var. croceithorax Emery 1914] E14
    |--P. megacephala (Fabricius 1793) FT08 [=Formica megacephala B03; incl. P. pusilla E89]
    |--P. multidens Forel 1902 B03
    |--P. mus Forel 1902 B03
    |--P. naorojii Forel 1902 B03
    |--P. nietneri Emery 1901 B03
    |--P. noda OT99
    |--P. oceanica FT08
    |    |--P. o. oceanica E14
    |    `--P. o. cavannae Emery 1887 E14
    |--P. parva Mayr 1865 B03
    |--P. peguensis Emery 1894 B03
    |--P. phipsoni Forel 1902 B03
    |--P. pieli OT99
    |--P. plagiaria Smith 1860 B03
    |--P. plinii N-ZLI11
    |--P. pronotalis Forel 1902 B03
    |--P. proxima B88
    |--P. punctulata A61
    |--P. rabo N-ZLI11
    |--P. rhombinoda Mayr 1878 (see below for synonymy) B03
    |--P. roberti Forel 1902 B03
    |--P. rogersi Forel 1902 B03
    |--P. rotschana Forel 1902 B03
    |--P. rotundata A61
    |--P. rugosa Smith 1858 B03
    |--P. ryukyuensis Ogata 1982 I92
    |--P. sagei Forel 1902 B03
    |--P. sauberi N-ZLI11
    |--P. sepulchralis Bingham 1903 B03
    |--P. sharpi Forel 1902 B03
    |--P. sinaitica E89
    |--P. smythiesi Forel 1902 [=P. (Ceratophidole) smythiesi; incl. P. smythiesi var. bengalensis] B03
    |--P. spathifera Forel 1902 [incl. P. spathifera var. aspatha, P. sphathifera var. yerburyi] B03
    |--P. striativentris Mayr 1878 B03
    |--P. sulcaticeps Roger 1863 [incl. P. sulcaticeps var. punensis] B03
    |--P. susanowo Onoyama & Terayama 1999 OT99
    |--P. sykesi Forel 1902 B03
    |--P. templaria Forel 1902 B03
    |--P. teneriffana H09
    |--P. tjibodana N-ZLI11
    |--P. umbonata E14
    |--P. upeneci N-ZLI11
    |--P. variabilis Mayr 1876 FT08
    |    |--P. v. variabilis E14
    |    `--P. v. aliena Emery 1914 E14
    |--P. watsoni Forel 1902 B03
    |--P. woodmasoni Forel 1885 B03
    |--P. wroughtoni Forel 1902 B03
    |--P. xanthocnemis Emery 1914 E14
    `--P. yeensis Forel 1902 [=P. sulcaticeps yeensis] B03

Pheidole rhombinoda Mayr 1878 [incl. P. rhombinoda var. micantiventris, P. rhombinoda var. taprobanae non P. taprobanae Smith 1858] B03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Andreae, H. 1961. Coleoptera: Cossyphodidae. In: Hanström, B., P. Brinck & G. Rudebeck. South African Animal Life: Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951 vol. 8 pp. 198–216. Almqvist & Wiksell: Uppsala.

[B03] Bingham, C. T. 1903. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera. Vol. II. Ants and Cuckoo-Wasps. Taylor and Francis: London.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[BS06] Brady, S. G., T. R. Schultz, B. L. Fisher & P. S. Ward. 2006. Evaluating alternative hypotheses for the early evolution and diversification of ants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (48): 18172–18177.

[DL99] Dyer, L. A. & D. K. Letourneau. 1999. Relative strengths of top-down and bottom-up forces in a tropical forest community. Oecologia 119: 265–274.

[E89] Emery, C. 1889. Intorno ad alcune formiche della fauna palearctica. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 439–443.

[E14] Emery, C. 1914. Les fourmis de la Nouvelle-Calédonie & des îles Loyalty. In: Sarasin, F. & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1, Heft IV pp. 393–436, pl. 12. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[FT08] Framenau, V. W., & M. L. Thomas. 2008. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean): identification and distribution. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 45–85.

[H09] Heterick, B. E. 2009. A guide to the ants of south-western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 76: 1–206.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[N-ZLI11] Nur-Zati A. M., G. T. Lim & A. B. Idris. 2011. Checklist of ants of selected hill dipterocarp forests of peninsular Malaysia. Serangga 16 (1): 91–105.

[OT99] Onoyama, K. & M. Terayama. 1999. A new species of the ant genus Pheidole Westwood from Japan (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Memoirs of the Myrmecological Society of Japan 1: 65–69.

[WW90] Wheeler, G. C., & J. Wheeler. 1990. Insecta: Hymenoptera Formicidae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1277–1294. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

Umbilicaria section Glabrae

Petalled rocktripe Umbilicaria polyphylla, from here.


Belongs within: Umbilicariaceae.

The section Glabrae of the lichen genus Umbilicaria is characterised by a lobed or sinuate-edged thallus that lacks rhizines (Frey 1933).

Characters (from Frey 1933): Underside of thallus without rhizines. Thallus usually brown or greenish gray or brown-black above, black or reddish-gray or whitish below, edge usually somewhat roundly lobed or sinuate. Apothecia with grooved disc. Spores colourless.

Umbilicaria sect. Glabrae Frey 1931 F33
    |--U. arctica (Acharius) Nylander 1859 [=Gyrophora arctica Acharius 1803] F33
    |    |--U. a. var. arctica F33
    |    |--U. a. var. hyporrhiza Nylander 1866 F33
    |    `--U. a. var. plicata Nylander 1866 F33
    |--U. corrugata (de Candolle) Nylander 1861 (see below for synonymy) F33
    |    |--U. c. f. corrugata F33
    |    `--U. c. f. microphyllina (Nylander) Frey 1933 [=U. corrugata var. microphyllina Nylander 1860] F33
    |--U. deusta (Linnaeus) Baumgartner 1790 (see below for synonymy) F33
    |    |--U. d. f. deusta F33
    |    |--U. d. f. brotera (Acharius) Frey 1933 (see below for synonymy) F33
    |    `--U. d. f. subpapulosa (Nylander) Frey 1933 (see below for synonymy) F33
    |--U. erosa (Weber) Acharius 1794 (see below for synonymy) F33
    |    |--U. e. var. erosa F33
    |    |--U. e. var. subradians Nylander 1861 [=Gyrophora erosa var. subradians (Nylander) Fries 1871] F33
    |    `--U. e. var. torrefacta (Lightf.) Frey 1933 (see below for synonymy) F33
    |--U. hyperborea (Acharius) Hoffmann 1801 (see below for synonymy) F33
    `--U. polyphylla (Linnaeus) Hoffmann 1796 (see below for synonymy) F33
         |  i. s.: U. p. f. congregata (Turner) Leight. 1871 (see below for synonymy) F33
         |         U. p. f. coriacea (Fries) Frey 1933 [=Gyrophora polyphylla var. glabra f. coriacea Fries 1871] F33
         |         U. p. f. diffusa (Nylander) Frey 1933 (see below for synonymy) F33
         |         U. p. f. lacera (Hepp) Leight. 1871 [=Gyrophora polyphylla f. lacera Hepp 1860] F33
         |--U. p. var. polyphylla F33
         `--U. p. var. variegata Nylander 1861 [=Gyrophora polyphylla var. variegata (Nylander) Fries 1871] F33

Umbilicaria corrugata (de Candolle) Nylander 1861 [=U. proboscidea var. corrugata de Candolle in de Lamarck & de Candolle 1805, Gyrophora corrugata (de Candolle) Arnold 1875, G. deusta var. corrugata (de Candolle) Turner 1839, G. glabra var. corrugata (de Candolle) Acharius 1814, G. heteroidea var. corrugata (de Candolle) Acharius 1810, G. hyperborea var. corrugata (de Candolle) Fries 1871, G. proboscidea var. corrugata (de Candolle) Mudd 1861, Umbilicaria varia var. deusta f. corrugata (de Candolle) Leight. 1856; incl. U. polyphylloides Nylander 1860] F33

Umbilicaria deusta (Linnaeus) Baumgartner 1790 [=Lichen deustus Linnaeus 1753, Gyrophora deusta (Linnaeus) Acharius 1803, G. polyphylla var. deusta (Linnaeus) Rabenhorst 1845, Umbilicaria polyphylla var. deusta (Linnaeus) Fries 1831; incl. Lichen flocculosus Wulf. ex Jacquin 1789, Gyrophora aenea var. flocculosa (Wulf.) Schaerer 1818, G. deusta var. flocculosa (Wulf.) Acharius 1803, G. flocculosa (Wulf.) Körb. 1855, Umbilicaria aenea var. flocculosa (Wulf.) Schaerer 1836, U. flocculosa (Wulf.) Hoffmann 1796, U. polyphylla var. flocculosa (Wulf.) Schaerer 1850] F33

Umbilicaria deusta f. brotera (Acharius) Frey 1933 [=Gyrophora deusta var. brotera Acharius 1803, U. flocculosa f. brotera (Acharius) Nylander 1861; incl. G. flocculosa f. cribrata Mueller 1862, G. deusta f. cribrata (Mueller) Zahlbr. 1927] F33

Umbilicaria deusta f. subpapulosa (Nylander) Frey 1933 [=U. flocculosa f. subpapulosa Nylander 1861, Gyrophora deusta f. subpapulosa (Nylander) Zahlbr. 1927, G. polyphylla var. deusta f. subpapulosa (Nylander) Fries 1871; incl. Umbilicaria flocculosa f. squamulosa Harm. 1910] F33

Umbilicaria erosa (Weber) Acharius 1794 [=Lichen erosus Weber 1778, Gyrophora erosa (Weber) Acharius) 1803; incl. Gyrophora koldeweyi Körb. 1874, Lichen reticulatus Retz 1779] F33

Umbilicaria erosa var. torrefacta (Lightf.) Frey 1933 [=Lichen torrefactus Lightf. 1777, Gyrophora erosa var. torrefacta (Lightf.) Fries 1871, G. torrefacta (Lightf.) Cromb. 1894, Umbilicaria torrefacta (Lightf.) Schrader 1794; incl. G. erosa var. torrida Acharius 1804, G. torrida (Acharius) Röhling 1813, Umbilicaria erosa var. torrida (Acharius) Nylander 1861, U. torrida (Acharius) Nylander ex Stizenb. 1876] F33

Umbilicaria hyperborea (Acharius) Hoffmann 1801 [=Lichen hyperboreus Acharius 1794, Gyrophora aenea var. hyperborea (Acharius) Schaerer 1818, G. hyperborea (Acharius) Acharius 1803, Umbilicaria aenea var. hyperborea (Acharius) Schaerer 1826, U. polyphylla var. hyperborea (Acharius) Schaerer 1850, U. varia var. hyperborea (Acharius) Leight. 1856; incl. Gyrophora hyperborea var. pimaria Fries 1871, U. ustulata Wainio 1888, G. ustulata (Wainio) Dalla Torre & Sarnth. 1902] F33

Umbilicaria polyphylla (Linnaeus) Hoffmann 1796 [=Lichen polyphyllus Linnaeus 1753, Gyrophora polyphylla (Linnaeus) Funck 1804; incl. G. glabra Acharius 1803, G. aenea var. glabra (Acharius) Schaerer 1826, G. polyphylla f. glabra (Acharius) Zahlbr. 1927, G. polyphylla var. glabra (Acharius) Fries 1871] F33

Umbilicaria polyphylla f. congregata (Turner) Leight. 1871 [=Gyrophora polyphylla f. congregata Turner 1839; incl. G. polyphylla var. conglobata Fries 1871, G. deusta var. conglobata (Fries) Zahlbr. 1927] F33

Umbilicaria polyphylla f. diffusa (Nylander) Frey 1933 [=Gyrophora glabra var. diffusa Nylander 1896, G. polyphylla f. diffusa (Nylander) Zahlbr. 1927] F33

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[F33] Frey, E. 1933. Cladoniaceae (unter Ausschluss der Gattung Cladonia), Umbilicariaceae. In Die Flechten (Dr. L. Rabenhorst’s Kryptogamenflora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz vol. 9) sect. 4, part 1. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft M. B. H.: Leipzig (reprinted 1971. Johnson Reprint Corporation: New York).

Umbilicaria section Polymorphae

Umbilicaria cylindrica, from here.


Belongs within: Umbilicariaceae.
The section Polymorphae in the lichen genus Umbilicaria is characterised by a more or less distinctly reticulate thallus.

Characters (from Frey 1933): Upper side of thallus more or less distinctly reticulately ribbed, with ridges or bulges at least present in the middle clearly over the umbilicus, and with at least some rhizines present at edge when upper side is very smooth. Underside of thallus smooth, rhizines flat when cortex smoother, more or less distinctly belt-shaped, or at least partially fused to become more belt-shaped and fitted to underside. If rhizines completely absent on underside, then isolated rhizines present at the edge, or ribs above the umbilicus are whitish, at least much brighter than the other shallower ribs or ridges. Apothecia usually frequent, with flat or grooved disc. Spores colorless.

Umbilicaria sect. Polymorphae Frey 1931 F33
    |--U. cylindrica (Linnaeus) Delise ex Duby 1830 (see below for synonymy) F33
    |    |  i. s.: U. c. f. laciniata (Retzius) Frey 1933 (see below for synonymy) F33
    |    |         U. c. f. mesenteriformis (Wulf.) Frey 1933 (see below for synonymy) F33
    |    |         U. c. f. nudiuscula (Schaerer) Frey 1933 (see below for synonymy) F33
    |    |--U. c. var. cylindrica F33
    |    |--U. c. var. corrugatoides Frey 1933 F33
    |    |--U. c. var. delisei Nylander 1861 (see below for synonymy) F33
    |    |--U. c. var. denudata (Turner) Frey 1933 (see below for synonymy) F33
    |    |--U. c. var. fimbriata (Acharius) Nylander 1861 (see below for synonymy) F33
    |    `--U. c. var. tornata (Acharius) Nylander 1861 (see below for synonymy) F33
    |--U. proboscidea Schrader 1794 (see below for synonymy) F33
    |    |  i. s.: U. p. f. fimbriata (Turner) Leight. 1871 (see below for synonymy) F33
    |    |--U. p. var. proboscidea F33
    |    |--U. p. var. exasperata (Acharius) Nylander 1861 [=Gyrophora proboscidea var. exasperata Acharius 1803] F33
    |    `--U. p. var. pulla (Wulf.) Frey 1933 (see below for synonymy) F33
    `--U. virginis Schaerer 1841 (see below for synonymy) F33
         |--U. v. var. virginis F33
         `--U. v. var. meylani Frey 1933 F33

Umbilicaria cylindrica (Linnaeus) Delise ex Duby 1830 [=Lichen cylindricus Linnaeus 1753, Gyromium cylindricum (Linnaeus) Wahlenberg 1812, Gyrophora cylindrica (Linnaeus) Acharius 1803, Gyrophora polymorpha var. cylindrica (Linnaeus) Schaerer 1818, Gyrophora proboscidea var. cylindrica (Linnaeus) Mann 1825, Umbilicaria polymorpha var. cylindrica (Linnaeus) Schaerer 1826, U. proboscidea var. cylindrica (Linnaeus) Fries 1831; incl. Lichen crinitus Zoega ex Olafson & Povels 1775, Gyrophora cylindrica var. crinita (Zoega) Flot. 1850, Umbilicaria crinita (Zoega) Hoffmann 1794, Lichen proboscideus Hudson 1778] F33

Umbilicaria cylindrica var. delisei Nylander 1861 [=G. cylindrica f. delisei (Nylander) Lynge 1921, Gyrophora cylindrica var. delisei (Nylander) Sydow 1887, G. delisei (Nylander) Krempelh. 1871, Umbilicaria delisei (Nylander) Despr. ex Nylander 1861] F33

Umbilicaria cylindrica var. denudata (Turner) Frey 1933 [=Gyrophora proboscidea var. denudata Turner 1839, G. cylindrica f. denudata (Turner) Stein in Cohn 1879, G. cylindrica var. denudata (Turner) Mudd 1861] F33

Umbilicaria cylindrica var. fimbriata (Acharius) Nylander 1861 [=Gyrophora cylindrica var. fimbriata Acharius 1810, G. fimbriata (Acharius) Röhling 1813, Umbilicaria polymorpha var. cylindrica f. fimbriata (Acharius) Schaerer 1850] F33

Umbilicaria cylindrica f. laciniata (Retzius) Frey 1933 [=Lichen corneus var. laciniatus Retzius 1779, Gyrophora cylindrica var. laciniata (Retzius) Zahlbr. 1927, Umbilicaria cylindrica var. laciniata (Retzius) Wain. 1898; incl. G. cylindrica var. denticulata Acharius 1803, G. denticulata (Acharius) Floerke 1810, Umbilicaria polymorpha var. cylindrica f. denticulata (Acharius) Schaerer 1818] F33

Umbilicaria cylindrica f. mesenteriformis (Wulf.) Frey 1933 [=Lichen mesenteriformis Wulf. ex Jacquin 1781, Gyrophora cylindrica f. mesenteriformis (Wulf.) Anders 1928, G. cylindrica var. mesenteriformis (Wulf.) Flot. 1850] F33

Umbilicaria cylindrica f. nudiuscula (Schaerer) Frey 1933 [=Gyrophora polymorpha var. cylindrica f. nudiuscula Schaerer 1818, G. cylindrica var. nudiuscula (Schaerer) Zahlbr. 1927] F33

Umbilicaria cylindrica var. tornata (Acharius) Nylander 1861 [=Gyrophora tornata Acharius 1808, G. cylindrica var. tornata (Acharius) Arnold 1874] F33

Umbilicaria proboscidea Schrader 1794 non Lichen proboscideus Hudson 1778 [=Gyrophora polymorpha var. proboscidea (Schrader) Schaerer 1818, G. proboscidea (Schrader) Acharius 1803] F33

Umbilicaria proboscidea f. fimbriata (Turner) Leight. 1871 [=Gyrophora deusta var. fimbriata Turner 1839 non G. cylindrica var. fimbriata Acharius 1810, G. proboscidea var. fimbriata (Turner) Mudd 1861] F33

Umbilicaria proboscidea var. pulla (Wulf.) Frey 1933 [=Lichen pullus Wulf. ex Jacquin 1871; incl. U. proboscidea var. deplicans Nylander 1860, G. proboscidea f. deplicans (Nylander) Fries 1871] F33

Umbilicaria virginis Schaerer 1841 [=Gyrophora virginis (Schaerer) Frey 1929; incl. Umbilicaria rugifera Nylander 1861, Agyrophora rugifera (Nylander) Nylander 1896, Gyrophora rugifera (Nylander) Fries 1871, Umbilicaria stipitata Nylander 1861, Agyrophora stipitata (Nylander) Nylander 1896, Gyrophora stipitata (Nylander) Nylander ex Hue 1886-1887, G. tramnitziana Koerber 1871] F33

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[F33] Frey, E. 1933. Cladoniaceae (unter Ausschluss der Gattung Cladonia), Umbilicariaceae. In Die Flechten (Dr. L. Rabenhorst’s Kryptogamenflora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz vol. 9) sect. 4, part 1. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft M. B. H.: Leipzig (reprinted 1971. Johnson Reprint Corporation: New York).

Umbilicaria section Velleae

Hairy navel lichen Umbilicaria hirsuta, from here.


Belongs within: Umbilicariaceae.

The section Velleae in the genus Umbilicaria is a group of lichens with a more or less smooth surface.

Characters (from Frey 1933): Upper side of thallus smooth or finely cracked, never with net-like ribs or wavy ridges. Underside of thallus with rhizines or, failing this, having a cracked and warty areolar network that is visible to the naked eye. Rhizines flexible, simple or branched, may be lumpy and warty, with finely granular cortex, not flat strap-shaped and not clearly externally defined. Cortex between rhizines at least partially clearly warty-areolate; when rhizines are entirely absent, areolar network is clearer, stronger and more regular. Apothecia usually rare, if present, strongly grooved. Spores colourless.

Umbilicaria sect. Velleae Frey 1931 F33
    |--U. grisea (Swartz) Acharius 1794 (see below for synonymy) F33
    |    |--U. g. f. grisea F33
    |    `--U. g. f. subpapyria Frey 1933 F33
    |--U. hirsuta (Swartz) Acharius 1793 (see below for synonymy) F33
    |    |--U. h. var. hirsuta F33
    |    |--U. h. var. melanotricha Flot. 1850 F33
    |    |--U. h. var. papyria (Acharius) Nylander 1861 (see below for synonymy) F33
    |    `--U. h. var. pyrenaica Frey 1933 F33
    |--U. polyrrhiza (Linnaeus) Acharius 1794 (see below for synonymy) F33
    |    |--U. p. var. polyrrhiza F33
    |    `--U. p. var. luxurians (Acharius) Nylander 1861 (see below for synonymy) F33
    `--U. vellea (Linnaeus) Acharius 1794 (see below for synonymy) F33

Umbilicaria grisea (Swartz) Acharius 1794 [=Lichen griseus Swartz ex Westring 1793, Gyrophora grisea (Swartz) Swartz ex Billberg & Swartz 1819, G. hirsuta var. grisea (Swartz) Fries 1871, Umbilicaria vellea var. spodochroa f. grisea (Swartz) Schaerer 1850; incl. Lichen murinus Acharius 1798, Gyrophora depressa var. hirsuta f. murina (Acharius) Schaerer 1818, G. hirsuta var. murina (Acharius) Floerke 1810, G. murina (Acharius) Acharius 1803, Lecidea hirsuta var. murina (Acharius) Sprengel 1827, Umbilicaria depressa var. murina (Acharius) Duby 1830, U. murina (Acharius) de Candolle ex Lam & de Candolle 1805] F33

Umbilicaria hirsuta (Swartz) Acharius 1793 [=Lichen hirsutus Swartz ex Westring 1793, Gyrophora hirsuta (Swartz) Acharius 1803, Lecidea hirsuta (Swartz) Sprengl 1827, Umbilicaria depressa var. hirsuta (Swartz) Schaerer 1826, U. vellea var. hirsuta (Swartz) Fries 1831; incl. Gyrophora hirsuta var. vestita Fries 1871] F33

Umbilicaria hirsuta var. papyria (Acharius) Nylander 1861 [=Gyrophora hirsuta var. papyria Acharius 1803, G. grisea f. papyria (Acharius) Zahlbr. 1927, U. murina f. papyria (Acharius) Harmand 1910, U. vellea var. depressa f. papyria (Acharius) Schaerer 1850] F33

Umbilicaria polyrrhiza (Linnaeus) Acharius 1794 [=Lichen polyrrhizos Linnaeus 1753, Gyromium polyrrhizum (Linnaeus) Wahlenberg 1820, Gyrophora polyrrhiza (Linnaeus) Körb. 1859; incl. Gyrophora diabolica Zahlbr. ex Herre 1906, Lichen pellitus Acharius 1794, Gyrophora depressa var. spodochroa f. pellita (Acharius) Schaerer 1818, Gyrophora pellita (Acharius) Acharius 1803, Umbilicaria pellita (Acharius) Acharius 1794, U. varia var. pellita (Acharius) Leight. 1856] F33

Umbilicaria polyrrhiza var. luxurians (Acharius) Nylander 1861 [=Gyrophora pellita var. luxurians Acharius 1810, G. luxurians (Acharius) Röhling 1813, G. polyrrhiza f. luxurians (Acharius) Fries 1871] F33

Umbilicaria vellea (Linnaeus) Acharius 1794 [=Lichen velleus Linnaeus 1753, Gyrophora depressa var. spodochroa f. vellea (Linnaeus) Schaerer 1818, G. vellea (Linnaeus) Acharius 1803; incl. Umbilicaria vellea var. diffracta Nylander 1869, G. vellea var. diffracta (Nylander) Zahlbr. 1927, U. vellea var. depressa f. prolifera Schaerer 1850, G. vellea f. prolifera (Schaerer) Arnold 1878, G. vellerea Nylander ex Hue 1891, U. vellerea (Nylander) Minks 1900] F33

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[F33] Frey, E. 1933. Cladoniaceae (unter Ausschluss der Gattung Cladonia), Umbilicariaceae. In Die Flechten (Dr. L. Rabenhorst’s Kryptogamenflora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz vol. 9) sect. 4, part 1. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft M. B. H.: Leipzig (reprinted 1971. Johnson Reprint Corporation: New York).

Umbilicaria subgenus Gyrophoropsis

Umbilicaria spodochroa, from here.


Belongs within: Umbilicariaceae.

Gyrophoropsis is a subgenus of the lichen genus Umbilicaria containing species with relatively large spores.

Characters (from Frey 1933): Spores rather large, usually about 12 μm long and 6 μm wide, rarely smaller, colorless or brownish, at least distal spores within the ascus two- or three-celled or multicellular with brick-like cells.

Umbilicaria subg. Gyrophoropsis (Elenkin & Sav.) Zahlbr. 1927 [=Gyrophoropsis Elenkin & Sav. 1911] F33
    |--U. cinereorufescens (Schaerer) Frey 1931 (see below for synonymy) F33
    |--U. crustulosa (Acharius) Frey 1931 (see below for synonymy) F33
    |    |--U. c. var. crustulosa F33
    |    `--U. c. var. badiofusca Frey 1933 F33
    |--U. depressa (Acharius) Duby 1830 [=Gyrophora crustulosa var. depressa Acharius 1810] F33
    |--U. ruebeliana (DR. & Frey) Frey 1931 [=Gyrophora ruebeliana DR. & Frey 1929] F33
    |    |--U. r. f. ruebeliana F33
    |    `--U. r. f. rhizinosa Frey 1933 F33
    `--U. spodochroa (Acharius) Frey 1931 (see below for synonymy) F33
         |--U. s. var. spodochroa F33
         `--U. s. var. lapponica Frey 1933 F33

Umbilicaria cinereorufescens (Schaerer) Frey 1931 [=U. vellea var. spodochroa f. cinereorufescens Schaerer 1850, Gyrophora vellea f. cinereorufescens (Schaerer) Arnold 1878; incl. G. mammulata, G. cirrhosa f. mammulata (Acharius) Zahlbr. 1928, G. depressa var. mammulata (Acharius) Dalla Torre & Sarnth. 1902, G. spodochroa var. mammulata (Acharius) Arnold 1878, G. vellea var. mammulata (Acharius) Arnold 1878, G. tylorhiza Nylander ex Hue 1886-1887] F33

Umbilicaria crustulosa (Acharius) Frey 1931 [=Gyrophora crustulosa Acharius 1810, G. depressa var. crustulosa (Acharius) Dalla Torre & Sarnth. 1902, G. spodochroa var. crustulosa (Acharius) Arnold 1878, Umbilicaria spodochroa var. crustulosa (Acharius) Nylander 1861; incl. U. vellea var. spodochroa f. abortiva Schaerer 1850, Gyrophora cirrhosa f. abortiva (Schaerer) Zahlbr. 1927, G. vellea f. abortiva (Schaerer) Arnold 1850, Umbilicaria vellea var. depressa f. abortiva (Schaerer) Schaerer 1850, G. cirrhosa var. depressa (Acharius) Anders 1928, G. depressa (Acharius) Röhling 1813, G. spodochroa var. depressa (Acharius) Acharius 1810, G. crustulosa var. eximia Nylander 1875, G. depressa var. spodochroa f. leprosa Schaerer 1818, G. crustulosa f. leprosa (Schaerer) Zahlbr. 1927, G. spodochroa var. crustulosa f. leprosa (Schaerer) Arnold 1878, G. vellea f. leprosa (Schaerer) Zahlbr. 1927, Umbilicaria vellea var. cinereorufescens f. leprosa (Schaerer) Schaerer 1850, U. vellea var. spodochroa f. rupta Schaerer 1850, G. vellea f. rupta (Schaerer) Arnold 1878, U. vellea var. depressa f. rupta (Schaerer) Schaerer 1850, U. vellerea f. rupta (Schaerer) Dalla Torre & Sarnth. 1902, U. vellea var. depressa f. subpedicellata Schaerer 1850, Gyrophora vellea f. subpedicellata (Schaerer) Zahlbr. 1927, U. vellea var. depressa f. velleiformis Schaerer 1850, G. vellea var. velleiformis (Schaerer) Zahlbr. 1927] F33

Umbilicaria spodochroa (Acharius) Frey 1931 [=Lichen spadochrous Acharius 1798, Gyrophora spodochroa (Acharius) Acharius 1810; incl. Umbilicaria vellea var. cinereorufescens f. aenea Schaerer 1850, G. vellea f. aenea (Schaerer) Arnold 1878, U. cirrhosa Hoffmann 1790, G. cirrhosa (Hoffmann) Wain. 1888] F33

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[F33] Frey, E. 1933. Cladoniaceae (unter Ausschluss der Gattung Cladonia), Umbilicariaceae. In Die Flechten (Dr. L. Rabenhorst’s Kryptogamenflora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz vol. 9) sect. 4, part 1. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft M. B. H.: Leipzig (reprinted 1971. Johnson Reprint Corporation: New York).

Baeomycetaceae

Baeomyces rufus, photographed by Bernd Haynold.


Belongs within: Lecanoromycetes.

The Baeomycetaceae are a family of lichens containing green algae, found growing on soil, rocks or similar substrates (Cannon & Kirk 2007).

Characters (from Cannon & Kirk 2007): Thallus varied, usually crustose or squamulose. Ascomata sessile or shortly stipitate, sometimes clustered, formed on specialised generally non-lichenised thalline branches, flat or convex, pink or brown, the wall of interwoven hyphae. Interascal tissue of simple or sparingly branched paraphyses, often swollen at the apices. Hymenial gel J+ or J-. Asci thin-walled, not thickened at the apex, with a J+ or J- apical pore. Ascospores hyaline, simple or transversely septate. Anamorph pycnidial.

Baeomycetaceae [Baeomycetales]
    |--Phyllobaeis EB03
    `--Baeomyces Persoon 1794 F33
         |--B. subg. Eubaeomyces Mueller 1862 F33
         |    `--B. roseus Persoon 1794 (see below for synonymy) F33
         |         |--B. r. var. roseus F33
         |         `--B. r. var. complicatus Erichsen ex Frey 1933 F33
         `--B. subg. Sphyridium (Flotow) Mueller 1862 [=Sphyridium Flotow 1843] F33
              |--B. placophyllus Acharius 1803 (see below for synonymy) F33
              |--B. rufus (Hudson) Rebent. 1804 (see below for synonymy) F33
              |    |  i. s.: B. r. f. exilis Erichsen in Frey 1933 F33
              |    |         B. r. f. fuscorufescens (Vainio) Frey 1933 [=B. fuscorufescens Vainio 1922] F33
              |    |         B. r. f. lignorum Acharius 1814 F33
              |    |         B. r. f. parasiticus (Fries) Zahlbr. 1927 (see below for synonymy) F33
              |    |         B. r. f. rupestris (Persoon) Harmand 1895 (see below for synonymy) F33
              |    |         B. r. f. sessilis (de Candolle) Nylander 1860 (see below for synonymy) F33
              |    |         B. r. f. sorediatus Frey 1933 F33
              |    |         B. r. f. subsquamulosus (Nylander) Frey 1933 (see below for synonymy) F33
              |    |         B. r. f. terrestris (Fries) Zahlbr. 1927 (see below for synonymy) F33
              |    |--B. r. var. rufus F33
              |    |--B. r. var. callianthus (Lettau) Lettau 1919 [=B. callianthus Lettau 1912] F33
              |    `--B. r. var. carneus (Flk.) Nylander 1860 [=B. carneus Flk. 1821] F33
              |         |--B. r. var. c. f. carneus F33
              |         `--B. r. var. c. f. polycephalus (Fries) Zahlbr. 1927 (see below for synonymy) F33
              `--B. speciosus (Körb.) Lindau 1913 [=Sphyridium speciosum Körb. ex Stein in Cohn 1879] F33

Baeomyces placophyllus Acharius 1803 [=Biatora placophylla (Acharius) Fries 1831, Lecidea placophylla (Acharius) Link 1833, Lichen placophyllus (Acharius) de Lamarck 1813, Ludovicia placophylla (Acharius) Trèvis. 1857, Patellaria placophylla (Acharius) Sprengel 1827, Sphyridium placophyllum (Acharius) Fries 1861] F33

Baeomyces roseus Persoon 1794 [=Lichen baeomyces Linnaeus 1781; incl. Baeomyces ericetorum (Linnaeus) de Candolle in de Lamarck & de Candolle 1805] F33

Baeomyces rufus (Hudson) Rebent. 1804 [=Lichen rufus Hudson 1762, Ba. rupestris var. rufus (Hudson) Acharius 1810, Sphyridium byssoides var. rufum Fries 1874; incl. Lichen byssoides Linnaeus 1767, Ba. byssoides (Linnaeus) Gartner, Meyer & von Schreber 1801, Ba. rufus f. byssoides Oliv. 1900, Ba. rupestris var. byssoides (Linnaeus) Acharius 1810, Biatora byssoides (Linnaeus) Fries 1845, Lecidea byssoides (Linnaeus) Link 1833, Sphyridium byssoides (Linnaeus) Beltram. 1858, Lichen cinereofuscus Jacquin 1762, Li. fungiformis Scopoli 1772, Stereocaulon fungiforme (Scopoli) Schaerer 1833, Sphyridium fungiforme (Scopoli) Flotow 1843] F33

Baeomyces rufus var. carneus f. polycephalus (Fries) Zahlbr. 1927 [=Sphyridium byssoides f. polycephalum Fries 1874, B. byssoides var. carneus f. polycephalus; incl. S. carneum f. botryosum Flot. 1849] F33

Baeomyces rufus f. parasiticus (Fries) Zahlbr. 1927 [=Sphyridium byssoides f. parasiticus Fries 1874] F33

Baeomyces rufus f. rupestris (Persoon) Harmand 1895 [=Ba. rupestris Persoon 1803, Biatora byssoides f. rupestris (Persoon) Fries 1831, Sphyridium byssoides f. rupestre Rabenhorst 1870, S. fungiforme f. rupestre (Persoon) Körb. 1855] F33

Baeomyces rufus f. sessilis (de Candolle) Nylander 1860 [=B. sessilis de Candolle in de Lamarck & de Candolle 1840; incl. B. sessilis var. rupicola de Candolle in de Lamarck & de Candolle 1840, B. sessilis var. sphagnicola de Candolle in de Lamarck & de Candolle 1840] F33

Baeomyces rufus f. subsquamulosus (Nylander) Frey 1933 [=B. rufus var. subsquamulosus Nylander 1877, Sphyridium byssoides var. subsquamulosum (Nylander) Arnold 1884] F33

Baeomyces rufus f. terrestris (Fries) Zahlbr. 1927 [=Sphyridium byssoides f. terrestre Fries 1874] F33

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Cannon, P. F., & P. M. Kirk. 2007. Fungal Families of the World. CABI.

[EB03] Eriksson, O. E., H. O. Barah, R. S. Currah, K. Hansen, C. P. Kurtzman, G. Rambold & T. Laessøe (eds.) 2003. Outline of Ascomycota—2003. Myconet 9: 1-89.

[F33] Frey, E. 1933. Cladoniaceae (unter Ausschluss der Gattung Cladonia), Umbilicariaceae. In Die Flechten (Dr. L. Rabenhorst’s Kryptogamenflora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz vol. 9) sect. 4, part 1. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft M. B. H.: Leipzig (reprinted 1971. Johnson Reprint Corporation: New York).

Formicinae

Workers and repletes of Myrmecocystus, copyright Greg Hume.


Belongs within: Formicidae.
Contains: Melophorus, Plagiolepis, Stigmacros, Prenolepis, Paratrechina, Lasius, Formica, Polyrhachis, Camponotus.

The Formicinae is a clade of ants characterised by the presence of an acidipore, a circular or semicircular cone at the apex of the hypopygium, usually projecting as a nozzle and often fringed with hairs (Heterick 2009). The acidopore is used to secret and/or spray formic acid, which is used for defense in lieu of a sting. Members of the Formicinae include the weaver ants of the genus Oecophylla, which are found in the Old World tropics and build arboreal nests by weaving together leaves with the silk produced by larvae. Members of the Australasian genus Opisthopsis are large-eyed ants commonly referred to as strobe ants due to their distinctly jerky way of moving.

<==Formicinae [Camponotidae, Camponotinae]
    |--+--Myrmelachista BS06
    |  `--Brachymyrmex BS06
    |       |--B. depilis BS06
    |       `--B. musculus WW90
    `--+--+--+--Prenolepis BS06
       |  |  `--Paratrechina BS06
       |  `--+--Lasius BS06
       |     `--Myrmecocystus Wesm. 1838 BS06, B03
       |          |--*M. melligera B03
       |          |--M. cursor MS01
       |          |--M. flaviceps BS06
       |          |--M. setipes Forel 1894 [=M. viaticus setipes] B03
       |          `--M. viaticus MS01
       `--+--+--Anoplolepis Santschi 1914 BS06, FT08
          |  |    `--A. gracilipes (Smith 1857) [incl. A. longipes] FT08
          |  `--Acropyga Roger 1862 BS06, B03
          |       |--*A. acutiventris Roger 1802 [incl. Plagiolepis flava Mayr 1862] B03
          |       |--A. flava E89
          |       |--A. myops [incl. A. indistincta] H09
          |       `--A. pallida H09
          `--+--+--Notostigma carazzii BS06
             |  `--+--+--Formica BS06
             |     |  `--Polyergus breviceps BS06 [incl. Formica rufescens D59, P. rufescens WW90]
             |     `--+--Oecophylla Smith 1861 BS06, B03
             |        |    |--*O. virescens B03
             |        |    |--O. leakeyi Z02
             |        |    |--O. longinoda H79
             |        |    `--O. smaragdina (Fabr. 1775) [=Formica smaragdina] B03
             |        `--Notoncus BS06
             |             |--N. capitatus H09
             |             |--N. enormis H09
             |             |--N. gilberti H09
             |             `--N. hickmani H09
             `--+--Myrmoteras Forel 1894 BS06, B03
                |    |--*M. binghami Forel 1894 B03
                |    |--M. diastematum N-ZLI11
                |    `--M. iriodum BS06
                `--+--Opisthopsis BS06
                   |    |--O. haddoni C08
                   |    |--O. respiciens BS06
                   |    `--O. rufithorax H09
                   `--+--Polyrhachis BS06
                      |--Camponotus BS06
                      `--Calomyrmex BS06
                           |--C. albertisi BS06
                           |--C. glauerti H09
                           `--C. purpureus B88

Formicinae incertae sedis:
  Cataglyphis Först. 1850 GE05, B03
  Melophorus H09
  Kyromyrma neffi GE05
  Chimaeromyrma GE05
  Plagiolepis FT08
  ‘Eucharis’ democles Walker 1839 B88
  Stigmacros H09
  Prolasius H09
    |--P. antennatus H09
    |--P. hemiflavus H09
    `--P. reticulatus [incl. P. wheeleri] H09
  Myrmecorhynchus emeryi H09
  Acanthomyops WW90
  Pseudolasius Smith 1861 B03
    `--*P. familiaris (Smith 1861) [=Formica familiaris] B03
  Euprenolepis N-ZLI11
    |--E. procera N-ZLI11
    |--E. varigata N-ZLI11
    `--E. wittei N-ZLI11
  Hemioptica Roger 1862 B03
    |--*H. scissa Roger 1862 [=Polyrhachis scissa] B03
    |--H. aculeata (Mayr 1878) [=Polyrhachis aculeata] B03
    `--H. pubescens (Mayr 1878) [=Polyrhachis pubescens; incl. H. pubescens var. alatisquamis] B03
  Acantholepis Mayr 1861 B03
    |--*A. frauenfeldi (Mayr 1855) (see below for synonymy) B03
    |--A. canescens A61
    |--A. capensis Mayr 1862 B03
    |--A. fergusoni Forel 1895 B03
    |--A. modesta Forel 1894 B03
    |--A. opaca Forel 1892 B03
    |--A. pulchella Forel 1892 B03
    `--A. simplex Forel 1892 B03

*Acantholepis frauenfeldi (Mayr 1855) [=Hypoclinea frauenfeldi; incl. A. frauenfeldi var. bipartita, A. frauenfeldi var. integra, A. frauenfeldi var. sericea] B03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Andreae, H. 1961. Coleoptera: Cossyphodidae. In: Hanström, B., P. Brinck & G. Rudebeck. South African Animal Life: Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951 vol. 8 pp. 198–216. Almqvist & Wiksell: Uppsala.

[B03] Bingham, C. T. 1903. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera. Vol. II. Ants and Cuckoo-Wasps. Taylor and Francis: London.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[BS06] Brady, S. G., T. R. Schultz, B. L. Fisher & P. S. Ward. 2006. Evaluating alternative hypotheses for the early evolution and diversification of ants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (48): 18172–18177.

[C08] Ceccarelli, F. S. 2008. Behavioral mimicry in Myrmarachne species (Araneae, Salticidae) from north Queensland, Australia. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 344–351.

[D59] Darwin, C. 1859. The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life 1st ed. John Murray: London. (reprinted 1967. Atheneum: New York; 1968. Penguin Books: London)

[E89] Emery, C. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XX.—Formiche di Birmania e del Tenasserim raccolte da Leonardo Fea (1885–87). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 485–520.

[FT08] Framenau, V. W., & M. L. Thomas. 2008. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean): identification and distribution. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 45–85.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H09] Heterick, B. E. 2009. A guide to the ants of south-western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 76: 1–206.

[H79] Howse, P. E. 1979. The uniqueness of insect societies: Aspects of defense and integration. In: Larwood, G. & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 345–374. Academic Press: London.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy], Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy], pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[N-ZLI11] Nur-Zati A. M., G. T. Lim & A. B. Idris. 2011. Checklist of ants of selected hill dipterocarp forests of peninsular Malaysia. Serangga 16 (1): 91–105.

[WW90] Wheeler, G. C., & J. Wheeler. 1990. Insecta: Hymenoptera Formicidae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1277–1294. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Insect trace fossils. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 303–324. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

Tetramorium

Pavement ant Tetramorium caespitum, photographed by Alex Wild.


Belongs within: Myrmicinae.

Tetramorium is a cosmopolitan genus of ants characterised by the presence of a dorsal appendage on the sting (Heterick 2009). Many species in the genus are difficult to distinguish, and molecular studies have identified the existence of morphologically cryptic species, for instance in the Tetramorium caespitum group of Europe (Schlick-Steiner et al. 2006).

Characters (from Heterick 2009): Area of clypeus below antennal sockets raised into sharp ridge; propodeal angle usually a pair of stout spines, sometimes flanges; postpetiole attached to front of gaster; tip of sting with a triangular or club-like appendage projecting upwards from the shaft.

<==Tetramorium Mayr 1855 FT08 [incl. Rhoptromyrmex Mayr 1901 B03]
    |--T. bicarinatum (Nylander 1846) S-SS06
    |--T. capitale (McAreavey 1949) S-SS06
    `--+--+--T. semilaeve (André 1883) S-SS06
       |  `--+--*T. caespitum (Linnaeus 1758) B03, S-SS06 (see below for synonymy)
       |     `--T. hungaricum (Röszler 1935) S-SS06
       `--+--T. tsushimae (Emery 1925) S-SS06
          `--+--T. impurum (Foerster 1850) S-SS06
             `--+--T. moravicum (Kratochvil 1941) S-SS06
                `--+--T. chefketi (Forel 1911) S-SS06
                   `--T. forte (Forel 1904) S-SS06

Tetramorium incertae sedis:
  T. aptum N-ZLI11
  T. belgaense Forel 1902 [=T. (Xiphomyrmex) belgaense] B03
  T. christiei Forel 1902 B03
  T. coonoorense Forel 1902 B03
  T. curtulum Emery 1894 B03
  T. curvispinosum Mayr 1897 B03
  T. dariae G89
  T. fergusoni Forel 1902 B03
  T. guineense (Fabr. 1793) B03 [=Formica guineensis B03; incl. T. guineense var. macra Emery 1914 E14]
  T. impressum H09
  T. inglebyi Forel 1902 B03
  T. insolens (Smith 1861) FT08
  T. kraepelini N-ZLI11
  T. lanuginosum Mayr 1870 FT08
  T. megalops H09
  T. meshena N-ZLI11
  T. mixtum Forel 1902 B03
  T. noratum N-ZLI11
  T. nursei Bingham 1903 B03
  T. pacificum Mayr 1870 FT08
    |--T. p. pacificum E14
    `--T. p. subscabra E14 [=T. scabrum var. subscabrum B03]
  T. parvum N-ZLI11
  ‘Myrmecina’ pilicornis Smith 1858 B03
  T. pilosum Emery 1893 [=T. (Xiphomyrmex) pilosum] B03
  T. pygmaeum G89
  T. rothneyi (Forel 1902) [=Rhoptromyrmex wroughtoni rothneyi] B03
  T. salvatum Forel 1902 B03
  T. scabrum Mayr 1879 B03
  T. setuliferum BM76
  T. simillimum (Smith 1851) FT08 (see below for synonymy)
  T. smithi Mayr 1871 FT08
  T. striolatum (Viehmeyer 1914) S-SS06
  T. subcoecum A61
  T. tortuosum Roger 1863 B03
  T. transversarium Roger 1863 B03
  T. validiusculum BS06
  T. viehmeyeri [incl. T. viehmeyeri venustus] H09
  T. walshi Forel 1890 FT08
  T. wroughtoni (Forel 1902) [=Rhoptromyrmex wroughtoni] B03]
  T. yerburyi Forel 1902 [=T. (Xiphomyrmex) pilosum yerburyi] B03

*Tetramorium caespitum (Linnaeus 1758) B03, S-SS06 [incl. Formica fusca Leach 1825 non Linnaeus 1758 S-SS06, T. fuscula (Nylander 1846) S-SS06]

Tetramorium simillimum (Smith 1851) FT08 [=Myrmica simillima B03; incl. T. simillimum denticulatum Forel 1902, T. simillimum laevinode Forel 1902 B03]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Andreae, H. 1961. Coleoptera: Cossyphodidae. In: Hanström, B., P. Brinck & G. Rudebeck. South African Animal Life: Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951 vol. 8 pp. 198–216. Almqvist & Wiksell: Uppsala.

[B03] Bingham, C. T. 1903. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera. Vol. II. Ants and Cuckoo-Wasps. Taylor and Francis: London.

[BM76] Bohart, R. M. & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[BS06] Brady, S. G., T. R. Schultz, B. L. Fisher & P. S. Ward. 2006. Evaluating alternative hypotheses for the early evolution and diversification of ants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (48): 18172–18177.

[E14] Emery, C. 1914. Les fourmis de la Nouvelle-Calédonie & des îles Loyalty. In: Sarasin, F. & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1, Heft IV pp. 393-436, pl. 12. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[FT08] Framenau, V. W., & M. L. Thomas. 2008. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean): identification and distribution. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 45–85.

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso «Esploratore» dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880.—IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 5–72.

[H09] Heterick, B. E. 2009. A guide to the ants of south-western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 76: 1–206.

[N-ZLI11] Nur-Zati A. M., G. T. Lim & A. B. Idris. 2011. Checklist of ants of selected hill dipterocarp forests of peninsular Malaysia. Serangga 16 (1): 91–105.

[S-SS06] Schlick-Steiner, B. C., F. M. Steiner, K. Moder, B. Seifert, M. Sanetra, E. Dyreson, C. Stauffer & E. Christian. 2006. A multidisciplinary approach reveals cryptic diversity in western Palearctic Tetramorium ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40 (1): 259–273.

Vespidae

Female Parischnogaster striatula provisioning a larval cell, copyright David Baracchi.


Belongs within: Vespoidea.
Contains: Eumeninae, Polistinae, Vespinae, Eustenogaster, Liostenogaster.

The Vespidae is a family of often large wasps including the social wasps and their close solitary or subsocial relatives. Eusocial wasps are placed in the subfamilies Vespinae, Polistinae and Stenogastrinae, with species of the last being facultatively eusocial. Stenogastrine colonies, usually composed of up to ten individuals, are flexible in structure and they lack the true workers of other social wasps (Hines et al. 2007).

Characters (from Naumann 1991): Mostly large (5-32 mm). Inner margins of compound eyes strongly emarginate except in Masarinae; mandibles generally short and broad but becoming elongate and crossing to form a distinct 'X' in many Eumeninae; glossae and paraglossae sometimes greatly produced and with apical sclerotised pads (acroglossal buttons); pronotum not freely movable against mesothorax, mid-dorsally short, posterolateral corner acutely produced dorsal to tegula and spiracle cover lobe close to tegula (remote in Stenogastrinae); parategula (an apically rounded, more or less dorsoventrally flattened lobe arising from posterolateral corner of mesoscutum and lying adjacent to tegula) present in Eumeninae and some Masarinae; calcar of hind tibia apically curved, bifid or trifid in some Masarinae, strigil well developed; fore wing at rest folded longitudinally in all except Stenogastrinae, Euparagiinae and many Masarinae; primitively with three submarginal cells in fore wing; cell 1M of fore wing elongate; hind wing jugal lobe often present; terga primitively overlapping sterna and freely movable against them, but with various degrees of fusion in many taxa; posterior metasomal segments often retractile within segment 2; T3 and S3 often enlarged; females ovipositing into cells before provisioning. Larvae variable, usually spinning a cocoon.

<==Vespidae [Eumenidae]
    |--+--+--Euparagia [Euparagiinae] HH07
    |  |  |    |--E. richardsi HH07
    |  |  |    `--E. scutellaris WB03
    |  |  `--Masarinae HH07
    |  |       |--Trimeria rhachiphora HH07
    |  |       `--Pseudomasaris phaceliae HH07
    |  `--+--Eumeninae HH07
    |     `--+--+--Polistinae HH07
    |        |  `--Vespinae HH07
    |        `--Zethinae HH07
    |             |--Calligaster HH07
    |             |--Australozethus tasmaniensis HH07
    |             `--Zethus HH07
    |                  |--Z. garciai HH07
    |                  |--Z. miniatus HH07
    |                  `--Z. spinipes HH07
    `--Stenogastrinae HH07
         |  i. s.: Stenogaster G84
         |         Metischnogaster van der Vecht 1977 NK11
         |           |--M. cillipennis (Smith 1857) NK11
         |           `--M. drewseni (de Saussure 1857) NK11
         |         Cochlischnogaster Dong & Otsuka 1997 NK11
         |           `--C. spatulata Carpenter & Starr 2000 NK11
         |--+--Eustenogaster HH07
         |  `--Liostenogaster HH07
         `--Parischnogaster von Schulthess 1914 HH07, NK11
              |--P. alternata Sakagami 1969 NK11
              |--P. aurifrons (Smith 1862) NK11
              |--P. foveata (du Buysson 1907) NK11
              |--P. gracilipes (van der Vecht 1977) NK11
              |--P. jacobsoni (du Buysson 1913) NK11
              |--P. mellyi (de Saussure 1852) NK11
              |--P. nigricans (Cameron 1902) NK11
              |--P. striatula (du Buysson 1907) NK11
              `--P. unicuspidata Reyes 1988 NK11

Vespidae incertae sedis:
  Sinostigma Hong 1983 E01
    `--*S. spinalata Hong 1983 E01
  Curiosivespa R02
  Agelaia multipicta BR07
  Paravespa GS61
    |  i. s.: P. spinigera GS61
    `--P. (Gestrodynerus Giordani Soika 1961) GS61
         |--P. (*G.) gestroi [=Odynerus gestroi] GS61
         |--P. (G.) minutepunctata Giordani Soika 1961 GS61
         `--P. (G.) violaceipennis Giordani Soika 1961 GS61
  Odontodynerus GS61
    |--O. brincki Giordani Soika 1961 GS61
    |--O. quadrituberculatus (Smith 1857) [=Odynerus quadrituberculatus] GS61
    |--O. rikatlensis [incl. O. hansi] GS61
    `--O. silaos (Saussure 1853) [=Odynerus silaos; incl. Ody. silaensis Saussure 1855] GS61
  Afreumenes GS61
    |--A. melanosoma GS61
    `--A. violaceus (Giordani Soika 1941) [=Eumenes (Afreumenes) violaceus] GS61
  Leptomenes GS61
    |--L. subtilis Giordani Soika 1938 GS61
    `--L. vulneratus (Saussure 1855) (see below for synonymy) GS61
  Pseudepipona GS61
    |  i. s.: P. erythrospila (Cameron 1905) [=Odynerus erythrospilus] GS61
    |         P. meadewaldoi (Bequaert 1918) (see below for synonymy) GS61
    |         P. posticus [incl. Odynerus hottentotus] GS61
    `--P. (Anthodynerus) GS61
         |--P. (A.) indecora (Cameron 1910) [=Odynerus indecorus] GS61
         |--P. (A.) proterrens GS61
         `--P. (A.) synagroides (Saussure 1853) [=Rhynchium synagroides, Odynerus synagroides] GS61
  Tricarinodynerus guerinii GS61
    |--T. g. guerinii GS61
    |--T. g. deserticola Giordani Soika 1961 GS61
    |--T. g. neptunus GS61
    `--T. g. rubens GS61
  Synagris GS61
    |--S. (Paragris) abyssinica Guérin in Lefebvre 1848 GS61
    `--S. cornuta (Linnaeus 1758) [=Vespa cornuta] BM76
  Ceramius GS61
    |--C. hispanicus RL09
    `--C. lichtensteinii GS61
         |--C. l. lichtensteinii GS61
         `--C. l. macrocephalus Saussure 1855 GS61
  Quartinia capensis [incl. Q. scutellimacula Schulthess 1929, Q. capensis var. scutellimacula] GS61
  Allodynerus rosi A-B91
  Pterocheilus C90
  ‘Didineis’ solidescens Scudder 1890 BM76
  Alastor BM76
    `--‘Nysson’ rottensis Meunier 1915 BM76

Leptomenes vulneratus (Saussure 1855) [=Odynerus vulneratus; incl. Labus transiens Kohl 1907, Leptomenes transiens] GS61

Pseudepipona meadewaldoi (Bequaert 1918) [=Odynerus meadewaldoi; incl. O. deceptor Meade Waldo 1915 (preoc.)] GS61

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A-B91] Athias-Binche, F. 1991. Ecology and evolution of phoresy in mites. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 27-41. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[BM76] Bohart, R. M. & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[BR07] Buzatto, B. A., G. S. Requena, E. G. Martins & G. Machado. 2007. Effects of maternal care on the lifetime reproductive success of females in a Neotropical harvestman. Journal of Animal Ecology 76 (5): 937-945.

[C90] Crawford, C. S. 1990. Scorpiones, Solifugae, and associated desert taxa. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 421-475. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[E01] Engel, M. S. 2001. A monograph of the Baltic amber bees and evolution of the Apoidea (Hymenoptera). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 259: 1-192.

[G84] Gauld, I. D. 1984. An Introduction to the Ichneumonidae of Australia. British Museum (Natural History).

[GS61] Giordani Soika, A. 1961. Hymenoptera (Aculeata): Vespidae. In: Hanström, B., P. Brinck & G. Rudebeck. South African Animal Life: Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951 vol. 8 pp. 440-451. Almqvist & Wiksell: Uppsala.

[HH07] Hines, H. M., J. H. Hunt, T. K. O'Connor, J. J. Gillespie & S. A. Cameron. 2007. Multigene phylogeny reveals eusociality evolved twice in vespid wasps. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 104 (9): 3295-3299.

Naumann, I. D. 1991. Hymenoptera. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers, 2nd ed., pp. 916-1000. Melbourne University Press.

[NK11] Nicholas, A. S., J. Kojima, M. Y. Ruslan, M. Fauzi & A. B. Idris. 2011. A list of social vespid wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) from Kuala Lompat, Krau Wildlife Reserve, Pahang, peninsular Malaysia. Serangga 16 (1): 59-74.

[R02] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002. Superorder Vespidea Laicharting, 1781. Order Hymenoptera Linné, 1758 (=Vespida Laicharting, 1781). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 242-254. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[RL09] Ren, D., C. C. Labandeira, J. A. Santiago-Blay, A. Rasnitsyn, C. Shih, A. Bashkuev, M. A. V. Logan, C. L. Hotton & D. Dilcher. 2009. A probable pollination mode before angiosperms: Eurasian, long-proboscid scorpionflies. Science 326: 840-847.

[WB03] Ward, P. S., & S. G. Brady. 2003. Phylogeny and biogeography of the ant subfamily Myrmeciinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Invertebrate Systematics 17: 361-386.