Terias

Common grass yellow Terias hecabe, photographed by Ross Kendall.


Belongs within: Pieridae.

Terias is a genus of butterflies found primarily in the Oriental region.

<==Terias Swainson 1821 F55
    |  i. s.: T. ada F55
    |           |--T. a. ada F55
    |           `--T. a. toba de Nicéville 1895 F55
    |         T. alitha Felder 1862 [=T. tilaha alitha] F55
    |           |--T. a. alitha F55
    |           `--T. a. marosiana Fruhstorfer 1910 F55
    |         T. blanda F55
    |           |--T. b. blanda F55
    |           |--T. b. mensia Fruhstorfer 1910 F55
    |           |--T. b. vallivolans Butler 1883 F55
    |           `--T. b. visellia Fruhstorfer 1910 F55
    |         T. candida (Cramer 1780) [=Eurema candida] F55
    |           |--T. c. candida F55
    |           |--T. c. libera Fruhstorfer 1910 F55
    |           |--T. c. talboti F55
    |           `--T. c. virgo Wallace 1867 [=Eurema virgo] F55
    |         T. daira [=Eurema daira] FS54
    |           |--T. d. daira FS54
    |           |--T. d. eugenia Wallengren 1860 FS54
    |           `--T. d. lydia (Felder 1861) FS54
    |         T. dina [=Pyristia dina] FS54
    |           |--T. d. dina FS54
    |           `--T. d. westwoodi Boisduval 1836 FS54
    |         T. drona WM66
    |         T. hecabe F55
    |           |--T. h. hecabe F55
    |           |--T. h. asanga Fruhstorfer 1910 F55
    |           |--T. h. borneensis Fruhstorfer 1910 F55
    |           |--T. h. floricola [incl. T. hecabe floricola f. ceres Butler 1886] F55
    |           |--T. h. jalendra Fruhstorfer 1910 F55
    |           |--T. h. latimargo Hopffer 1874 F55
    |           |--T. h. luzoniensis (Linné 1764) F55
    |           |--T. h. photophila Butler 1884 F55
    |           |--T. h. senegalensis Boisduval 1836 [incl. T. h. senegalensis f. brenda Doubleday & Hewitson 1847] F55
    |           |--T. h. sintica Fruhstorfer 1910 F55
    |           `--T. h. tamiathis Fruhstorfer 1910 F55
    |         T. laeta WM66
    |         T. lisa Boisduval-Leconte 1833 [=Pyristia lisa] FS54
    |         T. mexicana Boisduval 1836 [=Eurema mexicana] FS54
    |         T. nicippe (Cramer 1779) [=Abaeis nicippe] FS54
    |         T. proterpia (Fabricius 1775) [=Pyristia proterpia] FS54
    |         T. sari Horsfield 1829 F55
    |           |--T. s. sari F55
    |           `--T. s. sarilata Semper 1891 F55
    |         T. simulatrix Semper 1891 F55
    |         T. tilaha F55
    |           |--T. t. tilaha F55
    |           |--T. t. invida Butler 1883 F55
    |           |--T. t. leytensis Fruhstorfer 1910 F55
    |           `--T. t. samarana Fruhstorfer 1910 F55
    |         T. tominia Vollenhoven 1865 F55
    |           |--T. t. tominia F55
    |           `--T. t. horatia Fruhstorfer 1910 F55
    |         T. vagans Wallace & Moore 1866 WM66
    |         T. venata WM66
    |--T. (Maiva Smith & Kirby 1893) F55
    |    `--T. (M.) desjardinsii (see below for synonymy) F55
    `--T. (Nirmula Moore 1906) F55
         `--T. (N.) herla F55
              |--T. h. herla F55
              `--T. h. semperi Moore 1906 F55

Terias (Maiva) desjardinsii [incl. T. desjardinsii f. marshalli Butler 1897, T. desjardinsii f. regularis Butler 1876] F55

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[F55] Franz, E. 1955. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Senckenberg, 16). Insecta, Lepidoptera, Pieridae. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 339-367.

[FS54] Franz, E., & H. Schröder. 1954. Tagfalter (Lep. Rhopalocera) aus El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35: 75-87.

[WM66] Wallace, A. R., & F. Moore. 1866. List of lepidopterous insects collected at Takow, Formosa, by Mr. R. Swinhoe. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 355-365.

Colias

Dark clouded yellow Colias croceus, photographed by Hans Hillewaert.


Belongs within: Pieridae.

Colias, the clouded yellows, is a subcosmopolitan genus of butterflies with larvae feeding on Vicia species and other Papilionaceae.

<==Colias Fabricius 1807 F55
    |--C. baeckeri Kotzsch 1929 F55
    |--C. caesonia [=Zerene caesonia] FS54
    |    |--C. c. caesonia FS54
    |    `--C. c. centralamericana Röber 1909 FS54
    |--C. chlorocoma F55
    |    |--C. c. chlorocoma F55
    |    `--C. c. thatschukovi Bang-Haas 1936 F55
    |--C. cocandica F55
    |    |--C. c. cocandica F55
    |    |--C. c. culminicola Kotzsch 1936 [incl. C. cocandica culminicola ab. xantha Kotzsch 1936] F55
    |    `--C. c. tartarica Bang-Haas 1915 F55
    |--C. croceus (Fourcroy 1785) (see below for synonymy) F55
    |--C. eogene F55
    |    |--C. e. eogene F55
    |    `--C. e. francesca [incl. C. eogene francesca ab. mahdii Bang-Haas 1936] F55
    |--C. europomone Ochsenheimer 1808 B08
    |--C. heos F55
    |    |--C. h. heos F55
    |    `--C. h. thia Bang-Haas 1934 [=C. aurora thia] F55
    |--C. hyale (Linnaeus 1760) F55
    |--C. palaeno I92
    |    |--C. p. palaeno I92
    |    |--C. p. aias Fruhstorfer 1903 I92
    |    |--C. p. poktussana Bang-Haas 1934 F55
    |    `--C. p. sugitanii Esaki 1929 I92
    |--C. staudingeri F55
    |    |--C. s. staudingeri F55
    |    `--C. s. leechi (see below for synonymy) F55
    `--C. wiskotti F55
         |--C. w. wiskotti F55
         `--C. w. aurea Kotzsch 1937 [incl. C. wiskotti aurea ab. blanda Kotzsch 1937] F55

Colias croceus (Fourcroy 1785) [incl. C. edusa ab. decurtata Kitt 1924, C. croceus f. decurtata, C. croceus f. helice (Hübner 1799)] F55

Colias staudingeri leechi [incl. C. leechi ab. carnea Bang-Haas 1937, C. leechi ab. flammula Bang-Haas 1937, C. leechi ab. impunctata Bang-Haas 1937, C. leechi ab. nana Bang-Haas 1937] F55

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B08] Bálint, Z. 2008. Lepidoptera collections of historical importance in the Hungarian Natural History Museum. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 100 (17-35).

[F55] Franz, E. 1955. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Senckenberg, 16). Insecta, Lepidoptera, Pieridae. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 339-367.

[FS54] Franz, E., & H. Schröder. 1954. Tagfalter (Lep. Rhopalocera) aus El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35: 75-87.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

Pieris

Asian cabbage white Pieris canidia, photographed by John Horstman.


Belongs within: Pieridae.

Pieris, the whites, is a genus of butterflies with caterpillars feeding on Brassicaceae. Some species of this genus have become cosmopolitan pests on Brassica species.

<==Pieris Schrank 1801 F55
    |--P. beckerii GE05
    |--P. brassicae GE05
    |--P. bryoniae Ochsenheimer 1808 B08
    |--P. canidia Sparrman 1768 F55
    |--P. cisseis F55
    |    |--P. c. cisseis F55
    |    `--P. c. reducta Mell 1938 F55
    |--P. formosana Wallace & Moore 1866 WM66
    |--P. hippo [incl. P. eleonora] WM66
    |--P. napi (Linnaeus 1758) B08
    `--P. rapae (Linnaeus 1758) F55

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B08] Bálint, Z. 2008. Lepidoptera collections of historical importance in the Hungarian Natural History Museum. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 100 (17-35).

[F55] Franz, E. 1955. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Senckenberg, 16). Insecta, Lepidoptera, Pieridae. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 339-367.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[WM66] Wallace, A. R., & F. Moore. 1866. List of lepidopterous insects collected at Takow, Formosa, by Mr. R. Swinhoe. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 355-365.

Cepora

Common gull Cepora nerissa, photographed by Raju Kasambe.


Belongs within: Pieridae.

Cepora, the gulls, is an Indoaustralian genus of butterflies.

<==Cepora Dalman 1820 [incl. Huphina Moore 1881] F55
    |--C. aspasia (Stoll 1790) [=Pieris aspasia] F55
    |    |--C. a. aspasia F55
    |    |--C. a. emma (Vollenhoven 1865) [=Pieris aspasia var. emma] F55
    |    |--C. a. fulcinia (Fruhstorfer 1911) [=Huphina aspasia fulcinia] F55
    |    |--C. a. irma (Fruhstorfer in Seitz 1910) [=Huphina aspasia irma] F55
    |    |--C. a. olga (Eschscholtz 1821) [=Huphina olga] F55
    |    |--C. a. olgina (Staudinger 1889) [=Huphina aspasia olgina, H. emma var. olgina] F55
    |    |--C. a. orantia (Fruhstorfer in Seitz 1910) [=Huphina aspasia orantia] F55
    |    |--C. a. poetelia (Fruhstorfer in Seitz 1910) [=Huphina aspasia poetelia] F55
    |    |--C. a. rhemia (Fruhstorfer in Seitz 1910) [=Huphina aspasia rhemia] F55
    |    `--C. a. tolmida (Fruhstorfer 1911) [=Huphina aspasia tolmida] F55
    |--C. boisduvaliana (Felder 1862) [=Huphina boisduvaliana] F55
    |    |--C. b. boisduvaliana F55
    |    |--C. b. balbagona (Semper 1890) [=Huphina boisduvaliana var. balbagona] F55
    |    |--C. b. cirta Fruhstorfer in Seitz 1910 F55
    |    `--C. b. semperi (Semper 1890) [=Huphina boisduvaliana var. semperi] F55
    |--C. nerissa F55
    |    |--C. n. nerissa F55
    |    `--C. n. dissimilis Rothschild 1892 F55
    `--C. perimale F55
         |--C. p. perimale F55
         |--C. p. bolana (Fruhstorfer 1903) F55
         `--C. p. inopinata PP02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[F55] Franz, E. 1955. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Senckenberg, 16). Insecta, Lepidoptera, Pieridae. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 339-367.

[PP02] Patrick, B., & H. Patrick. 2002. Butterflies of Fiji. Weta 24: 5-12.

Nymphalidae

Melinaea maenius, photographed by Rich Hoyer.


Belongs within: Rhopalocera.
Contains: Catagramma, Adelpha, Satyrinae, Morphinae, Charaxinae, Heliconiinae, Limenitidinae, Biblidinae, Nymphalinae, Apaturinae, Danaini.

The Nymphalidae, brush-footed butterflies, are a diverse group of butterflies characterised by the presence of three carinae on the antennae.

Characters (from Nielsen & Common 1991): Small to large; most antennal segments with two ventral grooves; maxillary palps one-segmented; labial palps ascending; epiphysis absent, male forelegs lack pretarsus, with fewer than five tarsomeres, lack tarsal spines, and covered with long scales; female forelegs usually reduced in size and not used for walking; spurs 0-2-2 or 0-0-0; fore wing with all branches of R present, 1A+2A simple or forming a basal fork; hind wing with humeral vein usually present, Sc+R1 diverging from Rs near base, two anal veins. Egg taller than diameter, with vertical and horizontal ribs, or nearly spherical and sometimes nearly smooth. Larva with long paired filaments, branching spines, or fine secondary setae and bifid anal segment or horned head; crochets multiordinal. Pupa suspended by cremaster or, rarely, loose on ground beneath debris.

<==Nymphalidae
    |--Libytheinae [Libytheidae] WWN03
    |    |--Prolibythea vagabunda GE05
    |    |--Barbarothea florissanti GE05
    |    `--Libythea WWN03
    |         |--L. carinenta (Cramer 1779) S55
    |         `--L. celtis WWN03
    `--+--+--+--Satyrinae WWN03
       |  |  `--+--Morphinae WWN03
       |  |     `--+--Charaxinae WWN03
       |  |        `--Calinaga [Calinaginae] WWN03
       |  |             `--C. buddha WWN03
       |  `--+--+--Heliconiinae WWN03
       |     |  `--Limenitidinae WWN03
       |     `--+--Cyrestinae WWN03
       |        |    |--Cyrestini WWN03
       |        |    |    |--Cyrestis thyodamas WWN03
       |        |    |    `--Dicorrhagia WWN03
       |        |    `--Pseudergolini WWN03
       |        |         |--Amnosia decora WWN03
       |        |         |--Stibochiona nicea WWN03
       |        |         `--Pseudergolis WWN03
       |        `--+--Biblidinae WWN03
       |           `--+--Nymphalinae WWN03
       |              `--Apaturinae WWN03
       `--Danainae [Danaidae] WWN03
            |  i. s.: Hirsutis salvadoris (Staudinger 1885) FS54
            |         Mechanitis FS54
            |           |--M. doryssus Bates 1864 FS54
            |           `--M. istmia FS54
            |                |--M. i. istmia FS54
            |                `--M. i. lycidice Bates 1863 FS54
            |         Napeogenes tolosa (Hewitson 1856) FS54
            |         Dircenna S55
            |           |--D. dero (Hübner 1823) S55
            |           |--D. klugii (Geyer 1837) FS54
            |           `--D. loreta Haensch 1903 S55
            |         Leucothyris victorina FS54
            |           |--L. v. victorina FS54
            |           `--L. v. paula Weymer 1884 FS54
            |         Hymenitis FS54
            |           |--H. nero (Hewitson 1854) FS54
            |           `--H. oto (Hewitson 1854) FS54
            |         Thyridia confusa S55
            |           |--T. c. confusa S55
            |           `--T. c. psamathe (Godman & Salvin 1898) S55
            |         Xanthocleis psidii (Linnaeus 1758) S55
            |         Ceratinia S55
            |           |--C. nise S55
            |           |    |--C. n. nise S55
            |           |    `--C. n. peruensis (Haensch 1905) S55
            |           `--C. tutia S55
            |                |--C. t. tutia S55
            |                `--C. t. chanchamaya (Haensch 1905) S55
            |         Corbulis cassotis S55
            |           |--C. c. cassotis S55
            |           `--C. c. cajona (Haensch 1905) S55
            |         Heterosais edessa S55
            |           |--H. e. edessa S55
            |           `--H. e. nephele (Bates 1862) S55
            |         Archaeolycorea ferreirai GE05
            |         Parantica Moore 1880 NS07
            |--Danaini WWN03
            |--Tellervo J03 [Tellervinae, Tellervini WWN03]
            `--Ithomiini [Ithomiinae] WWN03
                 |--Greta oto WWN03
                 |--Ithomia patilla Hewitson 1852 FS54
                 `--Melinaea maenius GE05, S55
                      |--M. m. maenius S55
                      |--M. m chincha Druce 1876 S55
                      `--M. m. mothone (Hewitson 1866) S55

Nymphalidae incertae sedis:
  Aglais KIR02
    |--A. karaganica KIR02
    `--A. urticae A71
  Percnodaimon pluto (Fereday 1872) H82
  Philaethria dido S55
    |--P. d. dido S55
    `--P. d. ostara (Röber 1906) S55
  Eueides eanes S55
    |--E. e. eanes S55
    `--E. e. eanides Stichel 1903 S55
  Historis orion (Fabricius 1775) S55
  Gynaecia dirce (Linnaeus 1764) S55
  Pyrrhogyra S55
    |--P. edocla S55
    |    |--P. e. edocla S55
    |    `--P. e. maculata Staudinger 1888 S55
    `--P. otolais Bates 1864 S55
  Temenis laothoe S55
    |--T. l. laothoe S55
    |--T. l. ottonis Fruhstorfer 1907 S55
    `--T. l. violetta Fruhstorfer 1907 S55
  Nessaea obrinus (Linnaeus 1764) S55
  Myscelia sophronia (Godtart 1823) S55
  Eunica excelsa Godman & Salvin 1877 S55
  Catagramma S55
  Adelpha S55
  Doxocopa S55
    |--D. agathina (Cramer 1777) S55
    |--D. cherubina S55
    |    |--D. c. cherubina S55
    |    `--D. c. parva (Röber 1916) S55
    `--D. lavinia (Butler 1866) S55
  Polygrapha cyanea (Godman & Salvin 1868) S55
  Zaretes isidora S55
    |--Z. i. isidora S55
    `--Z. i. cacica Staudinger 1888 S55
  Geitoneura klugii YHT05
  Paramo Adams & Bernard 1977 O08
    `--*P. aculata (Krüger 1924) [=Pedaliodes aculata] O08
  Blepolensis catherinae GE05
  Lethites reynesii GE05
  Neorinopis sepulta GE05
  Eugonia atava GE05
  Batesia hypochlora GE05
  Hypanartia lethe (Fabricius 1793) S55
  Archimestra L88
  Issoria sinha TYM08
    |--I. s. sinha TYM08
    `--I. s. pelewensis Nakamura 1932 TYM08
  Callerebia cyclopia TYM08
    |--C. c. cyclopia TYM08
    `--C. c. yoshikurana Kishida & Nakamura 1941 TYM08

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[FS54] Franz, E., & H. Schröder. 1954. Tagfalter (Lep. Rhopalocera) aus El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35: 75-87.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H82] Helmore, D. W. 1982. Drawings of New Zealand insects. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of New Zealand 8: 1-52.

[J03] Jong, R. de. 2003. Are there butterflies with Gondwanan ancestry in the Australian region? Invertebrate Systematics 17: 143-156.

[KIR02] Kozlov, M. V., V. D. Ivanov & A. P. Rasnitsyn. 2002. Order Lepidoptera Linné, 1758. The butterflies and moths (=Papilionida Laicharting, 1781). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 220-227. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[L88] Liebherr, J. K. 1988. General patterns in West Indian insects, and graphical biogeographic analysis of some circum-Caribbean Platynus beetles (Carabidae). Systematic Zoology 37 (4): 385-409.

[NS07] Nässig, W. A., & C. H. Schulze. 2007. A second species with diurnal males of the genus Eupterote from Indonesia: Eupterote (Eupterote) splendens sp. n. from Sulawesi (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Bombycoidea, Eupterotidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 87 (2): 189-194.

Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia, 2nd ed., vol. 2, pp. 817-915. Melbourne University Press.

[O08] Özdikmen, H. 2008. Nomenclatural changes for some preoccupied harvestman genus group names (Arachnida: Opiliones). Turkish Journal of Arachnology 1 (1): 37-43.

[S55] Schröder, H. 1955. Eine Falter-Ausbeute aus dem westlichen Bolivien. (Ins. Lepid. Rhopal.) Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 329-338.

[TYM08] Tennent, W. J., M. Yasuda & K. Morimoto. 2008. Lansania Journal of arachnology and zoology – a rare and obscure Japanese natural history journal. Archives of Natural History 35 (2): 252-280.

[WWN03] Wahlberg, N., E. Weingartner & S. Nylin. 2003. Towards a better understanding of the higher systematics of Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 28: 473-484.

[YHT05] Yates, C. J., S. D. Hopper & R. H. Taplin. 2005. Native insect flower visitor diversity and feral honeybees on jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) in Kings Park, an urban bushland remnant. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 147-153.

Satyrinae

Common evening brown Melanitis leda, photographed by Ravi Vaidyanathan.


Belongs within: Nymphalidae.
Contains: Elymniini, Satyrini.

The Satyrinae is a cosmopolitan group of butterflies whose larvae have bifid tails and mostly feed on monocots. Most satyrines are relatively drab in coloration, with browns and greys predominating, though there are some more colourful tropical species.

<==Satyrinae [Satyridae]
    |--+--Elymniini WWN03
    |  `--Satyrini WWN03
    `--+--Manataria maculata WWN03
       `--Melanitis [Melanitini] WWN03
            |--M. constantia B88
            |--M. leda WWN03
            |    |--M. l. leda PP02
            |    |--M. l. levuna PP02
            |    `--M. l. saipanensis Nakamura 1929 TYM08
            `--M. undularis WM66

Satyrinae incertae sedis:
  Haetera GE05 [Haeterini WWN03]
    `--H. macleannania GE05
  Eritini WWN03
  Ragadiini WWN03
  Taygetis S55
    |--T. andromeda (Cramer 1779) S55
    |--T. kerea Butler 1869 FS54
    `--T. uncinata Weymer 1907 FS54
  Pierella lena (Linnaeus 1767) S55
  Bia [Biini] S55
    `--B. actorion (Linnaeus 1767) S55
  Dodonidia helmsi T27
  Neorinella garciae GE05
  Lethe GE05
    |--L. corbieri GE05
    `--L. diana I92
         |--L. d. diana I92
         `--L. d. mikuraensis Shirôzu 1975 I92
  Pseudoneorina coulleti GE05
  Tisiphone abeona NS04
    |--T. a. abeona NS04
    |--T. a. morrisi NS04
    |--T. a. rawnsleyi NS04
    `--T. a. regalis NS04
  Calisto L88
    |--C. hysius L88
    `--+--C. arcas L88
       `--C. archebates L88
  Eretris L88

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[FS54] Franz, E., & H. Schröder. 1954. Tagfalter (Lep. Rhopalocera) aus El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35: 75-87.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[L88] Liebherr, J. K. 1988. General patterns in West Indian insects, and graphical biogeographic analysis of some circum-Caribbean Platynus beetles (Carabidae). Systematic Zoology 37 (4): 385-409.

[NS04] New, T. R., & D. P. A. Sands. 2004. Management of threatened insect species in Australia, with particular reference to butterflies. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 258-270.

[PP02] Patrick, B., & H. Patrick. 2002. Butterflies of Fiji. Weta 24: 5-12.

[S55] Schröder, H. 1955. Eine Falter-Ausbeute aus dem westlichen Bolivien. (Ins. Lepid. Rhopal.) Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 329-338.

[TYM08] Tennent, W. J., M. Yasuda & K. Morimoto. 2008. Lansania Journal of arachnology and zoology – a rare and obscure Japanese natural history journal. Archives of Natural History 35 (2): 252-280.

[T27] Thomson, G. M. 1927. The pollination of New Zealand flowers by birds and insects. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 106-125.

[WWN03] Wahlberg, N., E. Weingartner & S. Nylin. 2003. Towards a better understanding of the higher systematics of Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 28: 473-484.

[WM66] Wallace, A. R., & F. Moore. 1866. List of lepidopterous insects collected at Takow, Formosa, by Mr. R. Swinhoe. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 355-365.

Elymniini

Lohora (Lohora) ophthalmicus, photographed by Antonio Guidici.


Belongs within: Satyrinae.

The Elymniini are a group of butterflies including the bushbrowns and palmflies.

<==Elymniini
    |  i. s.: Bicyclus anynana WWN03
    |         Lasiommata WWN03
    |           |--L. dejanira B66
    |           `--L. megera WWN03
    |         ‘Papilio’ canthus Linné 1766 (see below for synonymy) B66
    `--Mycalesina V-WF03
         |--Orsotriaena medus V-WF03
         |--Nirvana Tsukada & Nishiyama 1979 V-WF03
         |    `--N. hypnus V-WF03
         |--Mycalesis V-WF03
         |    |--*M. francisca [=Papilio francisca] V-WF03
         |    |--M. drusia [incl. M. mineus] WM66
         |    |--M. otrea WM66
         |    |--‘Papilio’ peribaea Fabricius 1793 [=Neonympha peribaea, Satyrus peribaea] B66
         |    `--M. samba [incl. M. lalassis] WM66
         `--Lohora Moore 1880 [=Lohara (l. c.); incl. Celebina Fruhstorfer 1899] V-WF03
              |--L. (Lohora) V-WF03
              |    |--*L. (L.) dexamenus (Hewitson 1862) [=Mycalesis dexamenus] V-WF03
              |    |--L. (L.) anna Vane-Wright & Fermon 2003 V-WF03
              |    |--L. (L.) dinon (Hewitson 1862) [=Mycalesis dinon, M. dexamenus dinon] V-WF03
              |    |--L. (L.) haasei (Röber 1887) [=Mycalesis haasei] V-WF03
              |    |--L. (L.) ophthalmicus (Westwood 1888) (see below for synonymy) V-WF03
              |    |--L. (L.) tilmara (Fruhstorfer 1906) [=Mycalesis tilmara] V-WF03
              |    |--L. (L.) transiens (Fruhstorfer 1908) (see below for synonymy) V-WF03
              |    `--L. (L.) unipapillata Fruhstorfer 1899 (see below for synonymy) V-WF03
              |--L. (Physcon de Nicéville 1898) [=Phycona (l. c.)] V-WF03
              |    |--L. (*P.) pandaea (Hopffer 1874) [=Mycalesis pandaea, M. (Physcon) pandaea] V-WF03
              |    |--L. (P.) decipiens (Martin 1929) [=Mycalesis decipiens] V-WF03
              |    |--L. (P.) deianira (Hewitson 1862) [=Mycalesis deianira, M. dora Hewitson 1864] V-WF03
              |    |--L. (P.) deianirina (Fruhstorfer 1897) (see below for synonymy) V-WF03
              |    |--L. (P.) erna (Fruhstorfer 1899) [=Celebina erna, Mycalesis erna] V-WF03
              |    |--L. (P.) imitatrix (Martin 1929) [=Mycalesis imitatrix] V-WF03
              |    |--L. (P.) inga (Fruhstorfer 1899) [=*Celebina inga, Mycalesis inga] V-WF03
              |    `--L. (P.) umbrosa Roos 1997 V-WF03
              `--L. (Pseudomycalesis Tsukada & Nishiyama 1979) V-WF03
                   `--L. (*P.) tanuki (Tsukada & Nishiyama 1979) [=*Pseudomycalesis tanuki] V-WF03

Lohora (Lohora) ophthalmicus (Westwood 1888) [=Messaras ophthalmicus, Mycalesis ophthalmica, My. ophthalmicus] V-WF03

Lohora (Lohora) transiens (Fruhstorfer 1908) [=Mycalesis dexamenus transiens; incl. M. transiens f. obscurata Martin 1929] V-WF03

Lohora (Lohora) unipapillata Fruhstorfer 1899 [=Lohara (l. c.) dinon unipapillata, Mycalesis haasei unipapillata] V-WF03

Lohora (Physcon) deianirina (Fruhstorfer 1897) [=Mycalesis deianirina, Celebina pandaea deianirina, Lohora pandaea deianirina, Mycalesis deianira deianirina] V-WF03

‘Papilio’ canthus Linné 1766 [=Neonympha canthus, Satyrus canthus, S. cantheus; incl. Papilio eurydice Linn. 1789] B66

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B66] Butler, A. G. 1866. A monograph of the genus Euptychia, a numerous race of butterflies belonging to the family Satyridae; with descriptions of sixty species new to science, and notes on their affinities &c. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 458-504.

[V-WF03] Vane-Wright, R. I., & H. Fermon. 2003. Taxonomy and identification of Lohora Moore (Lepidoptera: Satyrinae), the Sulawesi bush browns. Invertebrate Systematics 17: 129-141.

[WWN03] Wahlberg, N., E. Weingartner & S. Nylin. 2003. Towards a better understanding of the higher systematics of Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 28: 473-484.

[WM66] Wallace, A. R., & F. Moore. 1866. List of lepidopterous insects collected at Takow, Formosa, by Mr. R. Swinhoe. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 355-365.

Catagramma

Catagramma cynosura, photographed by Alberto Salguero.


Belongs within: Nymphalidae.

Catagramma is a genus of butterflies found in Central and South America, the males of which have unusually thickened forelegs.

<==Catagramma
    |--C. anna B66
    |--C. astarte (Cramer 1780) [=Papilio astarte, Callicore astarte] B66
    |--C. codomannus (Fabricius 1781) [=Papilio codomannus, Nymphalis codomanus] B66
    |--C. cynosura B66
    |--C. eluina Hewitson 1855 B66
    |--C. eunomia S55
    |    |--C. e. eunomia S55
    |    `--C. e. incarnata S55
    |--C. janeira Felder 1862 B66
    |--C. marchalii B66
    `--C. pygas (Godtart 1823) S55

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B66] Butler, A. G. 1866. Notes on some species of butterflies belonging to the genus Catagramma. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 578-580.

[S55] Schröder, H. 1955. Eine Falter-Ausbeute aus dem westlichen Bolivien. (Ins. Lepid. Rhopal.) Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 329-338.

Aliquandostipitaceae

Jahnula aquatica, photographed by Ascomycètes 44.


Belongs within: Dothideomycetes.

The Aliquandostipitaceae are a family of aquatic fungi found growing on submerged wood, characterised by wide hyphae and dimorphic ascomata.

Characters (from Pang et al. 2002, as Jahnulales): Ascomata globose, with a stalk or sessile, immersed or superficial, ostiolate, papillate, coriaceous to subcarbonaceous, hyaline, pale brown. Peridium thick, comprising a few layers of relatively large cells. Hamathecium pseudoparaphyses, hyphal-like, filamentous, septate, unbranched between the asci, branching and anastomosing above the asci or septate, branched and persistent, dividing to form loose locules. Asci ovoid, saccate, clavate or cylindrical, thick-walled, bitunicate, persistent or deliquescing, with an apical apparatus. Ascospores ellipsoid-fusiform, apical cell slightly larger, hyaline to brown, slightly constricted at the septum, with or without a mucilaginous sheath.

Aliquandostipitaceae [Jahnulales]
    |--Aliquandostipite Inderbitzin in Inderbitzin, Landvik et al. 2001 IL01
    |    `--*A. khaoyaiensis Inderbitzin in Inderbitzin, Landzik et al. 2001 IL01
    |--Patescospora Abdel-Wahab & El-Sharouney in Pang, Abdel-Wahab et al. 2002 PA-W02
    |    `--*P. separans Abdel-Wahab & El-Sharouney in Pang, Abdel-Wahab et al. 2002 PA-W02
    `--Jahnula PA-W02
         |--*J. aquatica PA-W02
         |--J. australiensis PA-W02
         |--J. bipolaris PA-W02
         |--J. poonythii PA-W02
         |--J. potamophila PA-W02
         |--J. siamensiae Sivichai & Jones in Pang, Abdel-Wahab et al. 2002 PA-W02
         |--J. sunyatsenii (Inderbitzin) Pang, Jones & Sivichai in Pang, Abdel-Wahab et al. 2002 (see below for synonymy) PA-W02
         `--J. systyla PA-W02

Jahnula sunyatsenii (Inderbitzin) Pang, Jones & Sivichai in Pang, Abdel-Wahab et al. 2002 [=Aliquandostipite sunyatsenii Inderbitzin in Inderbitzin, Landvik et al. 2001] PA-W02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[IL01] Inderbitzin, P., S. Landvik, M. A. Abdel-Wahab & M. L. Berbee. 2001. Aliquandostipitaceae, a new family for two new tropical ascomycetes with unusually wide hyphae and dimorphic ascomata. American Journal of Botany 88 (1): 52-61.

[PA-W02] Pang, K.-L., M. A. Abdel-Wahab, S. Sivichai, H. M. El-Sharouney & E. B. G. Jones. 2002. Jahnulales (Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota): A new order of lignicolous freshwater ascomycetes. Mycological Research 106 (9): 1031-1042.

Georgefischeriales

Jamesdicksonia brunkii on Dichanthium sericeum, from Roger Shivas. Scale bar = 5 mm.


Belongs within: Ustilaginomycotina.

The Georgefischeriales are a clade of smut fungi, most species of which occur on grasses.

Characters (from Bauer et al. 2001): Local interaction zones present; septa poreless. Haustoria or other intracellular fungal organs absent. Mostly on grasses; generally sporulating in vegetative part of host. Teliospore masses usually not powdery; sori usually not exposed by rupture of host tissues.

Georgefischeriales
    |  i. s.: ‘Tilletiopsis’ minor BB01
    |         ‘Entyloma’ majus BB01
    |         ‘Entyloma’ parvum BB01
    |--Eballistra Bauer, Begerow et al. 2001 [Eballistraceae] BB01
    |    |--*E. oryzae (Sydow & Sydow) Bauer, Begerow et al. 2001 [=Entyloma oryzae Sydow & Sydow 1914] BB01
    |    |--E. brachiariae (Viégas) Bauer, Begerow et al. 2001 [=Melanotaenium brachiariae Viégas 1944] BB01
    |    `--E. lineata (Cooke) Bauer, Begerow et al. 2001 [=Ustilago lineata Cooke 1882, Entyloma lineatum] BB01
    |--Tilletiariaceae BB01
    |    |--Tilletiaria anomala BB01
    |    |--Tolyposporella chrysopogonis BB01
    |    |--Phragmotaenium Bauer, Begerow et al. 2001 BB01
    |    |    `--*P. indicum (Vánky, Patil & Sharma) Bauer, Begerow et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy) BB01
    |    `--Tilletiopsis BB01
    |         |--T. flava BB01
    |         `--T. fulvescens BB01
    `--Georgefischeriaceae BB01
         |--Georgefischeria riveae BB01
         `--Jamesdicksonia Thirum., Pavgi & Payak 1960 BB01
              |--*J. obesa (Sydow & Sydow) Thirum., Pavgi & Payak 1960 BB01
              |--J. brunkii (Ellis & Galloway) Walker & Shivas 1998 BB01
              |--J. dactylidis (Pass.) Bauer, Begerow et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy) BB01
              |--J. eleochartis (Sawada) Bauer, Begerow et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy) BB01
              |--J. irregularis (Johanson) Bauer, Begerow et al. 2001 [=Entyloma irregulare Johanson 1884] BB01
              |--J. ischaemiana (Thirum. & Pavgi) Bauer, Begerow et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy) BB01
              `--J. scirpicola (Thirum. & Dicks) Bauer, Begerow et al. 2001 (see below for synonymy) BB01

Jamesdicksonia dactylidis (Pass.) Bauer, Begerow et al. 2001 [=Thecaphora dactylidis Pass. 1876, Entyloma dactylidis] BB01

Jamesdicksonia eleochartis (Sawada) Bauer, Begerow et al. 2001 [=Ustilago eleocharidis Sawada 1943, Entyloma eleochartis, E. eleocharidis (l. c.)] BB01

Jamesdicksonia ischaemiana (Thirum. & Pavgi) Bauer, Begerow et al. 2001 [=Melanotaenium ischaemianum Thirum. & Pavgi 1967] BB01

Jamesdicksonia scirpicola (Thirum. & Dicks) Bauer, Begerow et al. 2001 [=Entyloma scirpicola Thirum. & Dicks 1949] BB01

*Phragmotaenium indicum (Vánky, Patil & Sharma) Bauer, Begerow et al. 2001 [=Melanotaenium indicum Vánky, Patil & Sharma 1997] BB01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BB01] Bauer, R., D. Begerow, A. Nagler & F. Oberwinkler. 2001. The Georgefischeriales: A phylogenetic hypothesis. Mycological Research 105 (4): 416-424.

Adelpha

Adelpha iphicla, photographed by Jesus Linares.


Belongs within: Nymphalidae.

Adelpha, the sisters, is a New World genus of butterflies with wings that are primarily dark brown above and black below, usually with lighter postdiscal stripes.

See also: Deceptive and poisonous sisters.

Characters (from Willmott 2003): Medium to large butterflies with essentially sexually monomorphic wing patterns, consisting of contrasting ventral and dorsal surfaces. Dorsal surface always with a dark brown ground colour and almost always a postdiscal band on one or both wings, which may be vertical or oblique, and orange, white, or red in colour; postdiscal series usually fused on the dorsal surface of the forewing to form a subapical marking. Ventral surface typically with a black ground colour which is usually obscured by much reddish brown colouring, and in addition to the postdiscal bands that appear on the dorsal surface it has a number of lighter postdiscal and submarginal lines and other more basal pattern elements; dark brown longitudinal line usually present on the hindwing ventral surface extending from the base of cell 3A-2A to the middle of the anal margin in this cell, though this line may be fused to a band of colour that fills the anterior half of the cell, or broken in the basal half of the wing; venal stripe usually present at vein 3A on the ventral hindwing, may be split along the vein into two halves and variously modified or reduced.

<==Adelpha
    |--A. cytherea S55
    |    |--A. c. cytherea S55
    |    `--A. c. lanilla Fruhstorfer 1915 S55
    |--A. erotia (Hewitson 1847) S55
    |--A. iphicla S55
    |    |--A. i. iphicla S55
    |    `--A. i. pharae Fruhstorfer 1915 S55
    |--A. lara S55
    |    |--A. l. lara S55
    |    `--A. l. mainas Fruhstorfer 1915 S55
    `--A. mesentina (Cramer 1779) S55

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[S55] Schröder, H. 1955. Eine Falter-Ausbeute aus dem westlichen Bolivien. (Ins. Lepid. Rhopal.) Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 329-338.

Willmott, K. R. 2003. The Genus Adelpha: Its systematics, biology and biogeography (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Limenitidini). Scientific Publishers.

Dobsonia

Bare-backed fruit bat Dobsonia moluccensis magna, photographed by Bruce Thomson.


Belongs within: Pteropini.

Dobsonia includes the naked-backed fruit bats, a group of bats found from Sulawesi to the Solomon Islands, characterised byu the attachment of the wing membranes along the midline of the back.

Characters (from Miller 1907): Dental formula i1/1, c1/1, p2/3, m2/3. Upper incisors short, but well developed, in contact or nearly so, the crowns about as wide as long and with distinct cutting edge. Lower incisors almost structureless spicules with barely indicated blunt crowns. Canines rather short, not peculiar in form, without secondary cusps, those of the lower jaw nearly in contact. No small upper premolar (pm2). The corresponding tooth in the lower jaw relatively larger than in Pteropus, not separated from canine or from first large premolar by any appreciable space. Other premolars both above and below differing from those of Pteropus in greater development of cusps and in more trenchant ridges. Small posterior molars (m2 and m3) as in Pteropus. Anterior molars (m1 and m1, m2) resembling the large premolars in their general characteristics as compared with the corresponding teeth in Pteropus, the crown of each with a distinct median longitudinal ridge at middle of furrow. This ridge is continuous nearly from end to end of m2, in m1 and m1 it is confined to the region behind the cusps, and in some specimens is obsolete in the first lower molar. Skull much shorter and more heavily built than that of Pteropus but of essentially the same type. Distance from orbit to nares about equal to lachrymal width. Posterior portion of brain case slightly tubular, and occipital region so deflected that alveolar line projected backward passes just below root of zygoma. Premaxillaries very narrow, the width scarcely more than that of crown of incisor. The inner extremities barely come in contact. Audital bullae somewhat wider than in Pteropus but less developed than in Cynopterus. External characters unlike those of Pteropus in the absence of the claw of index finger, the presence of a distinct tail, and the attachment of the wing membranes along middle of back.

Dobsonia Palmer 1898 R64 [=Hypoderma Geoffroy 1828 non Latreille 1825 R64, Hypodermis (l. c.) M07; Dobsoniina]
    |--*D. peroni (Geoffroy 1810) [=Cephalotes peroni, *Hypoderma peroni] R64
    |--D. anderseni AC98
    |--D. beauforti IT07
    |--D. chapmani FS01
    |--D. crenulata AC98
    |--D. emersa IT07
    |--D. exoleta Andersen 1909 K92
    |--D. inermis Andersen 1909 K92
    |    |--D. i. inermis M72
    |    `--D. i. nesea M72
    |--D. minor M72
    |--D. moluccensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1830) K92
    |    |--D. m. moluccensis R64
    |    `--D. m. magna Thomas 1905 R64
    |--D. pannietensis IT07
    |--D. praedatrix IT07
    |--D. remota Cabrera 1920 M72
    |--D. palliata M07
    `--D. viridis M72

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AC98] Alcover, J. A., X. Campillo, M. Macias & A. Sans. 1998. Mammal species of the world: additional data on insular mammals. American Museum Novitates 3248: 1-29.

[FS01] Flannery, T. & P. Schouten. 2001. A Gap in Nature: Discovering the World's Extinct Animals. Text Publishing: Melbourne.

[IT07] Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman & J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PLoS One 2 (3): e296.

[K92] Klompen, J. S. H. 1992. Phylogenetic relationships in the mite family Sarcoptidae (Acari: Astigmata). Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 180: i-vi, 1-154.

[M72] McKean, J. L. 1972. Notes on some collections of bats (order Chiroptera) from Papua-New Guinea and Bougainville Island. CSIRO Division of Wildlife Research Technical Paper 26: 1-35.

[M07] Miller, G. S., Jr. 1907. The families and genera of bats. Smithsonian Institution, United States National Museum, Bulletin 57: i-xvii, 1-282, pl. I-XIV.

[R64] Ride, W. D. L. 1964. A list of mammals described from Australia between the years 1933 and 1963 (comprising newly proposed names and additions to the Australian faunal list). Australian Mammal Society Bulletin 7 (Suppl.): 1-15.

Cynopterini

Eastern tube-nosed bat Nyctimene robinsoni, photographed by Michael Pennay.


Belongs within: Pteropodidae.
Contains: Cynopterus.

The Cynopterini is a group of generally smaller fruit bats including the dog-faced fruit bats (Cynopterus) and the tube-nosed fruit bats (Nyctimene).

Cynopterini
    |--Cynopterina KJ70
    |    |--Cynopterus KJ70
    |    |--Dyacopterus spadiceus KJ70, IT07
    |    |--Chironax melanocephalus (Temminck 1825) KJ70, K92
    |    |--Aethalops alecto (Thomas 1923) KJ70, K92
    |    |--Penthetor lucasi (Dobson 1880) KJ70, K92
    |    |--Haplonycteris fischeri Lawrence 1939 KJ70, K92
    |    |--Sphaerias Miller 1906 KJ70, M07
    |    |    `--*S. blanfordi [=Cynopterus (Thoopterus) blanfordi] M07
    |    |--Balionycteris Matschie 1899 KJ70, M07
    |    |    `--*B. maculata (Thomas 1893) M07, K92 [=Cynopterus maculatus M07]
    |    |--Thoopterus Matschie 1899 KJ70, M07
    |    |    |--*T. nigrescens (Gray 1870) MY12 [=Cynopterus marginatus var. nigrescens MY12; incl. C. latidens M07]
    |    |    |--T. spadiceus M07
    |    |    `--T. suhaniahae Maryanto, Yani et al. 2012 MY12
    |    |--Ptenochirus Peters 1861 KJ70, M07
    |    |    |--*P. jagori (Peters 1861) M07, K92 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--P. lucasi M07
    |    |    `--P. minor Yoshiyuki 1979 K92
    |    `--Megaerops Peters 1865 KJ70, M07 (see below for synonymy)
    |         |--*M. ecaudatus (see below for synonymy) M07
    |         |--M. kusnotoi IT07
    |         |--M. niphanae IT07
    |         `--M. wetmorei IT07
    `--Nyctimenina KJ70
         |--Paranyctimene raptor KJ70, BWB05
         `--Nyctimene Bechstein 1800 (see below for synonymy) M07
              |--*N. cephalotes [=Vespertilio cephalotes] M07
              |--N. aello [incl. N. celaeno] M72
              |--N. albiventer M72 [=Cynopterus albiventer M07, *Uronycteris albiventer M07]
              |    |--N. a. albiventer M72
              |    |--N. a. bougainville M72
              |    |--N. a. minor M72
              |    `--N. a. papuanus M72
              |--N. cyclotis M72
              |    |--N. c. cyclotis M72
              |    `--N. c. certans M72
              |--N. draconilla IT07
              |--N. lullulae M07
              |--N. major [=Harpyia (*Bdelygma) major] M07
              |--N. malaitensis IT07
              |--N. masalai IT07
              |--N. minutus IT07
              |--‘Harpyia’ pallasii G66
              |--N. rabori Heaney & Peterson 1984 K92
              |--N. robinsoni M07
              |--N. sanctacrucis FS01
              `--N. vizcaccia IT07

Megaerops Peters 1865 KJ70, M07 [=Megaera Temminck 1841 nec Wagler 1830 nec Robineau-Devoidy 1830 M07, Megera M07]

*Megaerops ecaudatus [=*Megaera ecaudata, Cynopterus (Megaerops) ecaudatus, Ptenochirus (Megaerops) ecaudatus] M07

Nyctimene Bechstein 1800 [incl. Bdelygma Matschie 1899, Cephalotes Geoffroy 1810, Gelasinus Temminck 1837, Harpyia Illiger 1811 non Ochsenheimer 1810, Uronycteris Gray 1862; Harpyiana, Nyctimeninae] M07

*Ptenochirus jagori (Peters 1861) M07, K92 [=Pachysoma (*Ptenochirus) jagori M07, Cynopterus (*Ptenochirus) jagori M07]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[FS01] Flannery, T. & P. Schouten. 2001. A Gap in Nature: Discovering the World's Extinct Animals. Text Publishing: Melbourne.

[G66] Gray, J. E. 1866. A revision of the genera of pteropine bats (Pteropidae), and the descriptions fo some apparently undescribed species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 62-67.

[IT07] Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman & J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PLoS One 2 (3): e296.

[K92] Klompen, J. S. H. 1992. Phylogenetic relationships in the mite family Sarcoptidae (Acari: Astigmata). Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 180: i-vi, 1-154.

[KJ70] Koopman, K. F., & J. K. Jones, Jr. 1970. Classification of bats. In About Bats (Slaughter & Walton, eds) pp. 22-28. Southern Methodist University Press: Dallas.

[MY12] Maryanto, I., M. Yani, S. N. Prijono & S. Wiantoro. 2012. A new species of fruit bat (Megachiroptera: Pteropodidae: Thoopterus) from Sulawesi and adjacent islands, Indonesia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (1): 68-84.

[M72] McKean, J. L. 1972. Notes on some collections of bats (order Chiroptera) from Papua-New Guinea and Bougainville Island. CSIRO Division of Wildlife Research Technical Paper 26: 1-35.

[M07] Miller, G. S., Jr. 1907. The families and genera of bats. Smithsonian Institution, United States National Museum, Bulletin 57: i-xvii, 1-282, pl. I-XIV.

Erethizontidae

Prehensile-tailed porcupine Coendou prehensilis, from here.


Belongs within: Caviomorpha.

The Erethizontidae includes the New World porcupines, a group of large spiny rodents that are not directly related to the Old World porcupines of the Hystricidae. Erethizontid porcupines differ from hystricids in being semi-arboreal rather than terrestrial, and having quills arranged singly rather than in clusters as in Hystricidae. The majority of species are found in South and Central America, with the North American porcupine Erethizon dorsatum being found in Canada and the United States. Members of the genera Coendou and Sphiggurus have hairless, prehensile tails that aid them in climbing.

Characters (from Nowak 1999): Heavyset, relatively large rodents. Head and body length 300-860 mm, tail length 75-150 mm. Some of the hairs modified into short, sharp spines with overlapping barbs. Quills are embedded singly in the skin musculature. Pelage is marked with blackish to brownish, yellowish, or whitish bands. Foot modified for arboreal life: sole widened, first digit of hind foot sometimes replaced by a broad, movable band. Functional digits with strong curved claws. Limbs fairly short. Tail relatively short in Echinoprocta and Erethizon but long and prehensile in Coendou. Axis and third cervical vertebra fused in Erethizon and Coendou. Dental formula (i 1/1, c 0/0, pm 1/1, m3/3) × 2 = 20. Cheek teeth rooted, with reentrant folds.

<==Erethizontidae [Erethizontinae, Erethizontoidea, Erethizontomorpha]
    |--Echinoprocta rufescens GA90, IT07
    |--Erethizon GA90
    |    |--E. dorsatum (Linnaeus 1758) [=Hystrix dorsata] B75
    |    `--E. epixanthum B74
    |--Sphiggurus IT07
    |    |--S. insidiosus IT07
    |    |--S. mexicanus IT07
    |    |--S. pallidus FS01
    |    |--S. spinosus IT07
    |    |--S. vestitus IT07
    |    `--S. villosus IT07
    |--Coendou GA90
    |    |--C. bicolor GA90
    |    |    |--C. b. bicolor GA90
    |    |    `--C. b. simonsi GA90
    |    |--C. ichillus Voss & da Silva 2001 N10
    |    |--C. koopmani Handley et al. 1992 N10
    |    |--C. mexicanus GA90
    |    |--C. prehensilis GA90
    |    |--C. roosmalenorum Voss & da Silva 2001 N10
    |    `--C. rothschildi IT07
    `--Eopululo wigmorei MJ11

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B75] Bowles, J. B. 1975. Distribution and biogeography of mammals of Iowa. Special Publications, The Museum, Texas Tech University 9: 1-184.

[B74] Bugge, J. 1974. The cephalic arterial system in insectivores, primates, rodents and lagomorphs, with special reference to the systematic classification. Acta Anatomica 87 (Suppl 62): 1-160.

[FS01] Flannery, T. & P. Schouten. 2001. A Gap in Nature: Discovering the World’s Extinct Animals. Text Publishing: Melbourne.

[GA90] Glanz, W. E., & S. Anderson. 1990. Notes on Bolivian mammals. 7. A new species of Abrocoma (Rodentia) and relationships of the Abrocomidae. American Museum Novitates 2991: 1-32.

[IT07] Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman & J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PloS One 2 (3): e296.

[MJ11] Meredith, R. W., J. E. Janečka, J. Gatesy, O. A. Ryder, C. A. Fisher, E. C. Teeling, A. Goodbla, E. Eizirik, T. L. L. Simão, T. Stadler, D. L. Rabosky, R. L. Honeycutt, J. J. Flynn, C. M. Ingram, C. Steiner, T. L. Williams, T. J. Robinson, A. Burk-Herrick, M. Westerman, N. A. Ayoub, M. S. Springer & W. J. Murphy. 2011. Impacts of the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution and KPg extinction on mammal diversification. Science 334: 521-524.

[N10] Naish, D. 2010. Tetrapod Zoology: Book One. CFZ Press: Bideford (UK).

Nowak, R. M. 1999. Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed., vol 2. John Hopkins University Press.

Notomys

Mitchell's hopping mouse Notomys mitchelli, photographed by Gary Lewis.


Belongs within: Muridae.

Notomys includes the Australian hopping mice, a group of long-tailed mice with well-developed hind legs, species of which are brown or fawn above and pale grey or white below (so sayeth Wikipedia).

<==Notomys
    |--N. alexis R64
    |    |--N. a. alexis R64
    |    |--N. a. everardensis Finlayson 1940 R64
    |    `--N. a. reginae Troughton 1936 R64
    |--N. amplus Brazenor 1936 R64
    |--N. aquilo BP87
    |--N. carpentarius Johnson 1959 J59
    |--N. cervinus BP87
    |--N. filmeri Mack 1961 R64
    |--N. fuscus R64
    |    |--N. f. fuscus R64
    |    `--N. f. eyreius Finlayson 1960 R64
    |--N. longicaudatus FS01
    |--N. macrotis FS01
    |--N. mitchelli R64
    |    |--N. m. mitchelli R64
    |    `--N. m. alutacea Brazenor 1934 R64
    `--N. mordax FS01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BP87] Burton, J. A., & B. Pearson. 1987. Collins Guide to the Rare Mammals of the World. Collins: London.

[FS01] Flannery, T. & P. Schouten. 2001. A Gap in Nature: Discovering the World's Extinct Animals. Text Publishing: Melbourne.

[J59] Johnson, D. H. 1959. Four new mammals from the Northern Territory of Australia. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 72: 183-188.

[R64] Ride, W. D. L. 1964. A list of mammals described from Australia between the years 1933 and 1963 (comprising newly proposed names and additions to the Australian faunal list). Australian Mammal Society Bulletin 7 (Suppl.): 1-15.

Trochilidae

Fossil skeleton of Eurotrochilus inexpectatus, from G. Mayr.


Belongs within: Apodiformes.
Contains: Phaethornithinae, Trochilinae.

The Trochilidae are the hummingbirds, a group of very small, long-billed nectarivorous birds. Modern hummingbirds are found only in the New World, though the early Oligocene Eurotrochilus inexpectatus attests to their past presence in Europe.

Characters (from Mayr 2004): Size tiny; humerus and ulna extremely abbreviated and stocky, pronounced distal protrusion on humeral head; sternal end of coracoid column-like with convex dorsal surface and greatly reduced lateral process; sternal carina very high, caudal margin of corpus lacking any incisions; furcula widely U-shaped; legs very thin; bill greatly elongated, maxillary processes of palatine widely separated.

<==Trochilidae [Trochili, Trochiliformes]
    |--Eurotrochilus Mayr 2004 M04
    |    `--*E. inexpectatus Mayr 2004 M04
    `--+--Phaethornithinae B94
       `--Trochilinae B94

Trochilidae incertae sedis:
  Melanotrochilus fuscus M02
  Sericotes holosericeus RN72
  Damophila julie JT12
  Chlorestes notata JT12
  Leucochloris albicollis RN72
  Boissonneaua RN72
    |--B. flavescens JT12
    |--B. jardini RN72
    `--B. matthewsii JT12
  Paphosia adorabilis A61
  Stellula calliope FP64
  Calothorax FP64
    |--C. lucifer FP64
    `--C. pulcher JT12
  Anthracothorax RN72
    |--A. dominicus SWK87
    |--A. mango JT12
    |--A. nigricollis RN72
    |--A. prevostii JT12
    |--A. verguensis JT12
    |--A. viridigula JT12
    `--A. viridis SWK87
  Aglaiocercus RN72
    |--A. berlepschi JT12
    |--A. coelestis RN72
    |--A. emmae RN72
    `--A. kingi RN72
         |--A. k. kingi RN72
         `--A. k. mocoa RN72
  Saucerotia devillei FS55
  Myrmia micrura JT12
  Ramphomicron JT12
    |--R. dorsale JT12
    `--R. microrhynchum JT12
  Myrtis fanny JT12
  Panterpe insignis JT12
  Phlogophilus JT12
    |--P. harterti JT12
    `--P. hemileucurus JT12
  Polyonymus caroli JT12
  Pterophanes cyanopterus JT12
  Taphrospilus hypostictus JT12
  Taphrolesbia griseiventris JT12
  Thaumastura cora JT12
  Sternoclyta cyanopectus JT12
  Tilmatura dupontii JT12
  Urochroa bougueri JT12
  Abeillia abeillei JT12
  Atthis JT12
    |--A. ellioti JT12
    `--A. heloisa JT12
  Chrysuronia oenone JT12
  Chaetocercus JT12
    |--C. astreans JT12
    |--C. berlepschi JT12
    |--C. bombus JT12
    |--C. heliodor JT12
    |--C. jourdanii JT12
    `--C. mulsant JT12
  Anthocephala floriceps JT12
  Anopetia gounellei JT12
  Aphantochroa cirrochloris JT12
  Hylonympha macrocerca JT12
  Goethalsia bella JT12
  Eulidia yarrellii JT12
  Lamprolaima rhami JT12
  Heliactin bilophus JT12
  Haplophaedia JT12
    |--H. assimilis JT12
    |--H. aureliae JT12
    `--H. lugens JT12
  Elvira JT12
    |--E. chionura JT12
    `--E. cupreiceps JT12
  Lepidopyga JT12
    |--L. coeruleogularis JT12
    |--L. goudoti JT12
    `--L. lilliae JT12
  Microstilbon burmeisteri JT12

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1-281.

[FS55] Felten, H., & J. Steinbacher. 1955. Zur Vogelfauna von El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (1-2): 9-19.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444-448.

[M02] Mayr, G. 2002. Osteological evidence for paraphyly of the avian order Caprimulgiformes (nightjars and allies). Journal für Ornithologie 143: 82-97.

[M04] Mayr, G. 2004. Old World fossil record of modern-type hummingbirds. Science 304: 861-864.

[RN72] Rutgers, A., & K. A. Norris (eds.) 1972. Encyclopaedia of Aviculture vol. 2. Blandford Press: London.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.