Polyommatus

Common blue Polyommatus icarus, photographed by Ernst Vikne.


Belongs within: Polyommatini.

Polyommatus is a large genus of blue butterflies found throughout the Old World. The common blue Polyommatus icarus has also been been introduced to North America, first being recorded in Canada in the early 2000s.

Characters (from Bingham 1907): Fore wing with costa very slightly arched, nearly straight; apex well-marked but not acute; termen convex; tornus obtuse; dorsum straight; cell not quite half length of wing; veins 6 and 7 closely approximate almost from a point; middle and lower discocellulars attenuate; vein 8 absent, vein 9 from middle of vein 7, veins 10 and 11 from apical half of subcostal; vein 12 bent towards vein 1l, very close, touching but not anastomosed; vein 12 long, terminates on costa opposite apex of cell. Hind wing with costa slightly arched; apex rounded; termen rather straight especially in the female, in the male slightly convex; tornus well-marked, angulate, dorsum rather long; cell very short, not nearly half length of wing; middle and lower discocellulars attenuate; veins 3 and 4 from lower apex of cell, vein 7 from only a little before upper apex of cell; vein 8 strongly arched at base, terminating on costal margin well before apex of wing. Antenna short, not quite half length of fore wing, club long and gradual, pointed at apex; eyes hairy; palpi porrect or subporrect, fringed anteriorly; third joint rather short, bare, aciculate; body comparatively robust. Male with sex-mark: fore and hind wings thickly overlaid with hair-like scales that give a frosted appearance to the upperside; underside of fore wing with a patch of specialized scales at bases of interspaces 2 and 3.

<==Polyommatus Latreille 1804 BH07
    |--*P. icarus (Rottemburg 1775) [=Papilio icarus] BH07
    |--P. admetus (Esper 1782) BH07
    |--P. amanda (Schneider 1792) BH07
    |--P. amphidamas P01
    |--P. ariana (Moore 1865) BH07
    |--P. bellargus (Rottemburg 1775) BH07
    |--P. coridon (Poda 1761) BH07
    |--P. damon (Denis & Schiffermüller 1775) BH07
    |--P. daphnis (Denis & Schiffermüller 1775) BH07
    |--P. dorylas (Denis & Schiffermüller 1775) BH07
    |--P. eroides (Frivaldszky 1835) BH07
    |--P. eros (Ochsenheimer 1808) BH07
    |--P. erotides (Staudinger 1894) BH07
    |--P. mauritanicus Lucas 1849 E12
    |--P. phlaeas [incl. P. phlaeas var. eleus] P01
    |--P. polonus (Zeller 1848) BH07
    |--P. poseidon (Herrich-Schäffer 1851) BH07
    |--P. rutilus P01
    |--P. stoliczkanus BH07
    |--P. thersites (Cantener 1834) BH07
    `--P. virgaureae [incl. P. virgaureae var. oranula] P01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BH07] Bálint, Z., Z. E. Horváth, K. Kertész, Z. Vértesy & L. P. Biró. 2007. Observations on scale structures and spectroscopic properties of Polyommatus lycaenid butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 99: 115–127.

Bingham, C. T. 1907. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Butterflies vol. 2. Taylor and Francis: London.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[P01] Pável, J. 1901. Lepkék [Lepidopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 171–177. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

Last updated: 18 August 2017.

Polyommatini

Phengaris atroguttata, photographed by Chia Chieh Fan.


Belongs within: Lycaenidae.
Contains: Polyommatus, Maculinea.

The Polyommatini are a cosmopolitan group of butterflies.

Characters (from Eliot 1973): Fore wing with veins 11 and 12 variable, may be free, touch or anastomose; in a few species vein 11 may arise from vein 10; an additional vein linking veins 11 and 12 rarely occurs. Hind wing tailed or tailless. Secondary sexual characters comprise various types of specialized scales, of which battledore androconia, arranged in alternate rows with ordinary scales, are much the most frequent; occasionally compact patches or streaks of specialized hair and short plume scales occur. Eyes variable. Antennae with nudum confined to club. Palpi variable. Male genitalia with uncus undivided or (more commonly) divided into separated lobes; brachia usually present, but never bifurcate; juxta usually furca-like, but occasionally reduced to a small plate or otherwise modified; saccus usually not or only very slightly developed.

<==Polyommatini [Polymmatinae]
    |--Euphilotes AV04
    |    |--E. battoides AV04
    |    `--E. enoptes AV04
    `--+--+--Iolana iolas AV04
       |  `--+--Otnjukovia tatjana AV04
       |     `--Turanana cytis AV04
       |--Phengaris Doherty 1891 AV04
       |    |--P. daitozana AV04
       |    `--+--Maculinea AV04
       |       `--+--P. albida AV04
       |          `--P. atroguttata AV04
       `--+--+--Scolitantides [Scolitantiditi] AV04
          |  |    `--S. orion AV04
          |  `--Pseudophilotes AV04
          |       |--P. bavius AV04
          |       `--+--P. baton AV04
          |          `--P. vicrama AV04
          `--+--Caerulea AV04
             |    |--C. coelestis AV04
             |    `--C. coeligena AV04
             `--Glaucopsyche [Glaucopsychiti] AV04
                  |  i. s.: G. xerces GE05
                  |--G. alexis AV04
                  `--+--G. lygdamus AV04
                     `--Sinia divina AV04

Polyommatini incertae sedis:
  Catopyrops ancyra PP02
  Catochrysops taitensis PP02
  Lampides boeticus PP02
  Famegana alsulus PP02
  Euchrysops cnejus PP02
  Zizula hylax PP02
  Jamides bochus PP02
    |--J. b. bochus PP02
    `--J. b. candrena PP02
  Strymon bazochii PP02
    |--S. b. bazochii PP02
    `--S. b. gundlachianus PP02
  Zizina PP02
    |--Z. labradus PP02 [=Z. otis labradus M83; incl. Z. otis mangoensis PP02]
    `--Z. oxleyi PPE03
  Nacaduba PP02
    |--N. biocellata PP02
    |    |--N. b. biocellata PP02
    |    `--N. b. armillata PP02
    |--N. dyopa PP02
    `--N. samoensis PP02
  Polyommatus BH07
  Lepidochrysops AV04
  Phaedrotes AV04
  Apelles AV04
  Philotes AV04
  Palaeophilotes AV04
  Praephilotes AV04
  Shijimiaeoides AV04
    |--S. battoides USDI77
    |    |--S. b. battoides USDI77
    |    `--S. b. allyni USDI77
    |--S. divina I92
    |    |--S. d. divina I92
    |    `--S. d. barine (Leech 1893) I92
    `--S. enoptes USDI77
         |--S. e. enoptes USDI77
         `--S. e. smithi USDI77
  Philotiella AV04
  Micropsyche AV04
  Rubrapterus AV04
  Bajluana AV04
  Lachides AV04
  Anthene AV04
  Niphanda fusca (Bremer & Grey 1852) AV04, I92
  Aricia BH07
    |--A. agestis (Denis & Schiffermüller 1775) BH07
    |--A. artaxerxes (Fabricius 1781) BH07
    `--A. eumedon (Esper 1782) BH07
  Cyaniris semiargus (Poda 1761) BH07
  Plebejus BH07
    |--P. argus (Linnaeus 1758) BH07
    |--P. argyrognomon (Bergsträsser 1779) BH07
    |--P. idas (Linnaeus 1758) BH07
    `--P. sephirus (Frivaldszky 1835) BH07

Nomen nudum: Nacaduba nora nana Nakamura in Kishida 1933 [=Nacaduva (l. c.) nora nana, Prosotas nana] TYM08

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AV04] Als, T. D., R. Vila, N. P. Kandul, D. R. Nash, S.-H. Yen, Y.-F. Hsu, A. A. Mignault, J. J. Boomsma & N. E. Pierce. 2004. The evolution of alternative parasitic life histories in large blue butterflies. Nature 432: 386-390.

[BH07] Bálint, Z., Z. E. Horváth, K. Kertész, Z. Vértesy & L. P. Biró. 2007. Observations on scale structures and spectroscopic properties of Polyommatus lycaenid butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 99: 115-127.

Eliot, J. N. 1973. The higher classification of the Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera): a tentative arrangement. Bulletin of the British Museum of Natural History (Entomology) 28 (6): 371-505.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: An annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1-98.

[PP02] Patrick, B., & H. Patrick. 2002. Butterflies of Fiji. Weta 24: 5-12.

[PPE03] Patrick, B., H. Patrick & E. Edwards. 2003. Tiger moths and pheromones. Weta 25: 14-17.

[TYM08] Tennent, W. J., M. Yasuda & K. Morimoto. 2008. Lansania Journal of arachnology and zoology – a rare and obscure Japanese natural history journal. Archives of Natural History 35 (2): 252-280.

[USDI77] USDI (United States Department of the Interior). 1977. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants - republication of list of species. Federal Register 42: 36420-36431.

Lycaenidae

Scarce copper Lycaena virgaureae, photographed by Albert Vliegenthart.


Belongs within: Rhopalocera.
Contains: Polyommatini, Theclini, Eumaeini.

The Lycaenidae are a group of butterflies with often flattened larvae that are commonly associated with ants.

Characters (from Nielsen & Common 1991): Small to large; eyes often emarginate at base of antenna, or contiguous with antennal socket, often hairy; maxillary palps absent; labial palps ascending; epiphysis absent, fore leg in male somewhat reduced in most groups, normal in female, spurs 0-2-2, 0-1-1 or 0-0-0; fore wing often lacking one or two branches of R, 1A+2A sometimes forked; hind wing with Sc+R1 diverging from Rs near base, usually with two anal veins, margin often produced into one or more tails. Egg with diameter usually greater than height, or nearly spherical, often densely pitted or with projections. Larva usually onisciform, usually with retractile head, sometimes with dense short hairs; abdomen often with medial dorsal gland on segment 7 and pair of dorsolateral, eversible organs on 8; prolegs with median fleshy lobe, more or less interrupting the uni- to multiordinal row of crochets; frequently associated with ants. Pupa usually attached at anal end by central, silken girdle; sometimes lying loose, cremaster absent.

<==Lycaenidae
    |--Miletinae HH02
    |--Polyommatini HH02
    |--Liphyrini AV04 [Liphyrinae HH02]
    |    |--Liphyra AV04
    |    `--Euliphyra AV04
    |--Theclinae PP02
    |    |  i. s.: Deudorix PP02
    |    |           |--D. epijarbas PP02
    |    |           |    |--D. e. epijarbas PP02
    |    |           |    `--D. e. diovella PP02
    |    |           `--D. eryx I92
    |    |                |--D. e. eryx I92
    |    |                `--D. e. okinawana (Matsumura 1919) I92
    |    `--Theclini AV04
    |--Brephidiinae C82
    |    |--Brephidium C82
    |    `--Oraidium C82
    `--Lycaeninae J03
         |  i. s.: Iophanus J03
         |         Lycaena JP05
         |           |--L. boldenarum O81
         |           |--L. cnejus WM66
         |           |--L. elpis WM66
         |           |--L. iolas Ochsenheimer 1816 B08
         |           |--L. kandarpa WM66
         |           |--L. karsandra Moore 1865 WM66
         |           |--L. nisa Wallace & Moore 1866 WM66
         |           |--L. parrhasius WM66
         |           |--L. plinius WM66
         |           |--L. pluto WM66
         |           |--L. sangra Moore 1865 WM66
         |           |--L. varunana Moore 1865 WM66
         |           `--L. virgaureae (Linnaeus 1758) JP05
         `--Eumaeini J03

Lycaenidae incertae sedis:
  Antipodalycaena PPE03
  Leptotes cassius (Cramer 1775) FS54
  Hemiargus FS54
    |--H. gyas FS54
    |    |--H. g. gyas FS54
    |    `--H. g. zachaeina Butler 1870 FS54
    `--H. hanno (Stoll 1790) FS54
  Everes FS54
    |--E. comyntas Godart 1823 FS54
    `--E. lacturnus I92
         |--E. l. lacturnus I92
         `--E. l. kawaii Matsumura 1926 I92
  Lachnocnemini AV04
    |--Lachnocnema AV04
    `--Thestor AV04
  Aphnaeini AV04
    |--Aloeides AV04
    |--Aphnaeus AV04
    |--Axiocerses AV04
    |--Chloroselas AV04
    |--Chrysoritis AV04
    `--Cigaritis AV04
         |--C. massinissa Lucas 1849 E12
         `--C. siphax Lucas 1849 E12
  Chrysophanus T27
    |--C. boldenarum T27
    |--C. feredayi L27
    `--C. salustius L27
  Thecloxurina fassii GE05
  Arcas ducalis GE05
  Lithopsyche antiqua GE05
  Aquisextana irenaei GE05
  Curetis regula GE05
  Thereus GE05
  Feniseca tarquinius GE05
  Hypochrysops NS04
    |--H. cyane NS04
    |--H. ignitus NS04
    `--H. piceatus NS04
  Cupido minimus (Fuessly 1775) JP05
  Magnastigma Nicolay 1977 BF08
    `--*M. tegula (Hewitson 1868) [=Thecla tegula] BF08
  Agrodiaetus F05
    |--A. damocles AV04
    |    |--A. d. damocles AV04
    |    `--A. d. rossicus AV04
    `--A. fabressei F05
         |--A. f. fabressei F05
         `--A. f. subbaeticus Gil-T. & Gil-Uceda 2005 F05
  Zizeeria maha TYM08
    |--Z. m. maha TYM08
    `--Z. m. kashikurai Nakamura 1930 TYM08

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AV04] Als, T. D., R. Vila, N. P. Kandul, D. R. Nash, S.-H. Yen, Y.-F. Hsu, A. A. Mignault, J. J. Boomsma & N. E. Pierce. 2004. The evolution of alternative parasitic life histories in large blue butterflies. Nature 432: 386-390.

[B08] Bálint, Z. 2008. Lepidoptera collections of historical importance in the Hungarian Natural History Museum. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 100 (17-35).

[BF08] Bálint, Z. & C. Faynel. 2008. Review of the genus Brangas Hübner, 1819 (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) with description of a new genus. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 100: 271-306.

[C82] Craw, R. C. 1982. Phylogenetics, areas, geology and the biogeography of Croizat: a radical view. Systematic Zoology 31 (3): 304-316.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261-282.

[FS54] Franz, E., & H. Schröder. 1954. Tagfalter (Lep. Rhopalocera) aus El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35: 75-87.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HH02] Hall, J. P. W., & D. J. Harvey. 2002. Basal subtribes of the Nymphidiini (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae): Phylogeny and myrmecophily. Cladistics 18: 539-569.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[J03] Jong, R. de. 2003. Are there butterflies with Gondwanan ancestry in the Australian region? Invertebrate Systematics 17: 143-156.

[JP05] Jungmann, E., & U. Poller. 2005. Neunachweise und Wiederfunde für die Schmetterlingsfauna (Insecta; Lepidoptera) des Altenburger Landes. Mauritiana 19 (2): 317-326.

[L27] Lindsay, S. 1927. A list of the Lepidoptera of Deans Bush, Riccarton, Canterbury. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 693-696.

[NS04] New, T. R., & D. P. A. Sands. 2004. Management of threatened insect species in Australia, with particular reference to butterflies. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 258-270.

Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia, 2nd ed., vol. 2, pp. 817-915. Melbourne University Press.

[O81] O'Brien, C. O. 1981. A. A. Book of New Zealand Wildlife: A guide to the native and introduced animals of New Zealand. Lansdowne Press: Auckland.

[PP02] Patrick, B., & H. Patrick. 2002. Butterflies of Fiji. Weta 24: 5-12.

[PPE03] Patrick, B., H. Patrick & E. Edwards. 2003. Tiger moths and pheromones. Weta 25: 14-17.

[TYM08] Tennent, W. J., M. Yasuda & K. Morimoto. 2008. Lansania Journal of arachnology and zoology – a rare and obscure Japanese natural history journal. Archives of Natural History 35 (2): 252-280.

[T27] Thomson, G. M. 1927. The pollination of New Zealand flowers by birds and insects. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 106-125.

[WM66] Wallace, A. R., & F. Moore. 1866. List of lepidopterous insects collected at Takow, Formosa, by Mr. R. Swinhoe. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 355-365.

Danaus

Monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus, photographed by Kenneth Harrelson.


Belongs within: Danaini.

Danaus is a diverse genus of butterflies whose larvae feed on species of milkweed Asclepias.

Characters (from Bingham 1905): Fore wing triangular, costa widely arched, apex broadly rounded; termen below apex straight or slightly concave; dorsum straight ; discoidal cell long, well over half length of wing; upper discocellular short, inclined obliquely inwards, middle curved inwards, lower curved outwards; rest of venation variable, veins 10 and 11 free, or 11 anastomosed with 12, or 10 out of 9. Hind wing generally pear-shaped; discoidal cell more than half length of wing; venation variable; discocellulars more or less in a line inclined obliquely outwards, or middle bent in two at a right angle, or upper and middle in a line, lower bent at an angle downwards; vein 3 always from before apex of cell. Antennae less than half length of fore wing; club very gradual; palpi erect, short, barely reaching top of head, third joint short; eyes naked; legs moderately long, scaled; claws of intermediate and posterior tarsi long, without paronychia or pulvilli. Male with secondary sex-marks present or absent; when present taking two forms, consisting of (1) a small fold near base of vein 2 on hind wing; or (2) patches of peculiar scent-producing scales near apices of veins 1a, 1, and 2 on hind wing, with a thickening of veins 1a and 1 where they pass through the patch. Larva subcylindrical, with two or three pairs of non-retractile tentacula. Pupa comparatively broad, ovate, contracted medially, green, waxy white, or yellow, spotted and banded with black, golden yellow and silver; sometimes entirely of a shining golden yellow.

<==Danaus Latreille 1805 [=Danaida, Danais] B66a
    |--D. abigar (Eschscholtz 1821) [=Idea abigar] B66c
    |--D. affinis [=Papilio affinis; incl. D. cecilia Bougainville 1837] B66a
    |--D. aglea (Cramer 1782) [=Papilio aglea] B66a
    |--D. agleoides B66a
    |--D. albata (Zinken-Sommer 1831) [=Euploea albata, D. ablata (l. c.)] B66a
    |--D. alcippus (Cramer 1777) [=Papilio alcippus, Euploea alcippus; incl. E. dorippus Klug 1829] B66a
    |--D. anapis Felder 1861 B66a
    |--D. archippus (Fabricius 1793) FS54, B66a [=Papilio archippus B66a, Anosia archippus B66a]
    |--D. arema B66a
    |--D. artenice (Cramer 1782) [=Papilio artenice, Euploea artenice] B66a
    |--D. australis B66a
    |--D. azema B66a
    |--D. berenice (Cramer 1779) [=Papilio berenice, Anosia berenice] B66a
    |    |--D. b. berenice B66a
    |    |--D. b. strigosa Bates 1864 B66a
    |    `--D. b. thersippus Bates 1863 B66a
    |--D. ceylanica Felder 1863 B66c
    |--D. chionippe [=Euploea chionippe] B66b
    |--D. chloris Felder 1861 B66c [incl. Danais salvini Butler 1866 B66c, B66b]
    |--D. choaspes Butler 1866 [=Danais choaspes] B66a
    |--D. chrysippus (Linnaeus 1767) B66a (see below for synonymy)
    |--D. cleona (Cramer 1782) [=Papilio cleona] B66a
    |--D. cleophile Godart 1819 B66a
    |--D. cleothera Godart 1819 B66a
    |--D. conspicua Butler 1866 [=Danais conspicua] B66a
    |--D. crocea Butler 1866 [=Danais crocea] B66a
    |--D. damocles (Fabricius 1793) [=Papilio damocles, Euploea damocles] B66a
    |--D. daos (Boisduval 1836) [=Idea daos, Hestia daos, Ideopsis daos; incl. H. eudora Gray 1846] B66a
    |    |--D. d. daos B66a
    |    `--D. d. diardi (Van der Hoeven 1860) [=Idea diardi] B66a
    |--D. daulis B66a
    |--D. echeria (Stoll 1790) (see below for synonymy) B66a
    |--D. egialea (Cramer 1777) [=Papilio egialea, Amauris egialea] B66a
    |--D. eresimus (Cramer 1777) [=Papilio eresimus, Anosia eresima] B66a
    |--D. erippus (Cramer 1775) B66a (see below for synonymy)
    |--D. fulgurata Butler 1866 [=Danais fulgurata] B66a
    |--D. fumata Butler 1866 [=Danais fumata] B66a
    |--D. gaura (Horsfield 1829) [=Idea gaura, Hestia gaura, Ideopsis gaura] B66a
    |--D. gilippus (Cramer 1775) (see below for synonymy) B66a
    |--D. gloriola Butler 1866 [=Danais gloriola] B66a
    |--D. grammica Boisduval 1836 B66a
    |--D. hecate Butler 1866 [=Danais hecate] B66a
    |--D. hermippus Felder in Butler 1866 B66b
    |--D. inuncta Butler 1865 B66a
    |--D. ismare (Cramer 1780) B66a (see below for synonymy)
    |--D. jamaicensis Bates 1864-1865 B66c, B66a [=D. berenice var. jamaicensis B66a, D. gilippus jamaicensis B66a]
    |--D. juventa (Cramer 1779) [=Papilio juventa, Hestia juventa] B66c
    |--D. leonora Butler 1866 [=Danais leonora] B66a
    |--D. leopardus Butler 1866 [=Danais leopardus] B66a
    |--D. limniacae (Cramer 1775) [=Papilio limniacae; incl. Euploea hamata M’Leay 1827] B66a
    |--D. lixa B66a
    |--D. lotis (Cramer 1780) [=Papilio lotis; incl. D. edmondi Bougainville 1837, Hestia thoe Hübner 1816] B66a
    |--D. lutescens Butler 1866 B66b
    |--D. luzonensis Felder 1863 B66a
    |--D. manuja (Eschscholtz 1821) [=Idea manuja] B66c
    |--D. meganira Godart 1819 B66a
    |--D. melaneus (Cramer 1775) [=Papilio melaneus] B66a
    |--D. melanippus (Cramer 1777) (see below for synonymy) B66a
    |--D. melissa (Cramer 1782) [=Papilio melissa] B66a
    |--D. mitylene Felder 1860 B66c [incl. Danais pullata Butler 1866 B66c, B66a]
    |--D. nerippe B66a
    |--D. nesippus Felder 1863 B66c
    |--D. niavius (Linnaeus 1767) [=Papilio niavius, Amauris niavius, Euploea niavius] B66a
    |--D. nubila Butler 1866 B66b
    |--D. ochlea B66b
    |--D. petilia (Stoll 1790) B66a [=Papilio petilia B66a, D. chrysippus petilia PP02]
    |--D. phaedon (Fabricius 1793) [=Papilio phaedon, Euploea phaedon] B66a
    |--D. philene (Cramer 1782) [=Papilio philene, Euploea philene] B66a
    |--D. philomela (Zinken-Sommer 1831) B66c, B66a [=Euploea philomela B66a]
    |--D. phyle Felder 1863 B66a [incl. Danais erebus Butler 1866 B66c, B66a]
    |--D. plexaure Godart 1819 B66a
    |--D. plexippus (Linnaeus 1767) [=Papilio plexippus, Euploea plexippus; incl. P. genutia Cramer 1780] B66a
    |--D. pumila Boisduval 1859 B66c [incl. Danais mariana Butler 1865 B66c, B66a]
    |--D. purpurata Butler 1866 [=Danais purpurata] B66a
    |--D. schenkii B66a
    |--D. similis (Linnaeus 1758) B66a (see below for synonymy)
    |--D. sobrina Boisd. 1832 B66a
    |--D. tytia (Gray 1846) [=Euploea tytia, D. tita] B66a
    |--D. verissimus (Cramer 1772) [=Anosia verissimus] FS54
    |--D. vitrea [incl. D. oenopia Felder 1859] B66a
    |--D. vitrina Felder 1861 B66a [incl. Danais oenone Butler 1865 B66c, B66a]
    `--D. xanthippus B66b

Danaus chrysippus (Linnaeus 1767) B66a [=Papilio chrysippus B66a, Euploea chrysippus B66a; incl. P. aegyptius B66a, Danais cratippus Felder 1860 B66c]

Danaus echeria (Stoll 1790) [=Papilio echeria, Amauris echeria, Euploea echeria; incl. Danais vaillantiana Godart 1819] B66a

Danaus erippus (Cramer 1775) B66a [=Papilio erippus B66a, Anosia erippe B66a; incl. A. megalippe Hübn. 1806-1827 B66a, Idea plexippus Eschscholtz 1821 non Papilio plexippus Linnaeus 1767 B66c]

Danaus gilippus (Cramer 1775) [=Anosia gilippus; incl. Limnas ferruginea vincetoxici Hübner 1806-1827, Anosia vincetoxici] B66a

Danaus ismare (Cramer 1780) B66a [=Papilio ismare B66a, Hestia ismare B66a; incl. Danais ismareola Butler 1866 B66b, B66a]

Danaus melanippus (Cramer 1777) [=Papilio melanippus; incl. P. hegesippus Cramer 1779, Danais hegesippus, Euploea hegesippus] B66a

Danaus similis (Linnaeus 1758) B66a [=Papilio similis B66a; incl. P. aventina Cramer 1775 B66a, Danais aventina B66a, Danais similis var. chinensis Felder 1863 B66c]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Bingham, C. T. 1905. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Butterflies vol. 1. Taylor and Francis: London.

[B66a] Butler, A. G. 1866a. Monograph of the diurnal Lepidoptera belonging to the genus Danais, being a revision of the insects of that genus, with descriptions of new species in the National Collection. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 43-59.

[B66b] Butler, A. G. 1866b. Supplement to a monograph of the genus Danais, founded on specimens in the collection of Mr. Osbert Salvin. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 171-175.

[B66c] Butler, A. G. 1866c. Corrections and addenda to certain papers on Lepidoptera published during the years 1865-66; with additional notes on some of the species described. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 451-458.

[FS54] Franz, E., & H. Schröder. 1954. Tagfalter (Lep. Rhopalocera) aus El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35: 75-87.

[PP02] Patrick, B., & H. Patrick. 2002. Butterflies of Fiji. Weta 24: 5-12.

Euploea

Brown king crow Euploea klugii, photographed by J. M. Garg.


Belongs within: Danaini.

Euploea, the crows, is a genus of generally dark-coloured butterflies. Euploea species are primarily found in the Oriental and Australian regions, with the highest diversity around Indonesia.

Characters (from Bingham 1905): Fore wing variable in shape, more or less triangular, comparatively broad and short, or elongate and narrow, or almost subquadrate. Costa widely arched; termen oblique, sometimes slightly convex or concave; dorsum in male always convex, in female straight or sinuous. Hind wing ovate, broad, sometimes subtriangular. Discoidal cell of both fore and hind wing broad and long, over half length of wing; in the hind wing sometimes over two-thirds the length of wing; discocellulars of fore wing sharply angulated and with a spur inwards, or slightly concave; rest of the neuration not variable; veins 11 and 12 of fore wing never anastomosed; dorsum of fore wing on the underside, and costa of hind wing on the upperside, nacreous. Antennae over half length of fore wing; club very gradual; palpi short, somewhat thick, third joint conical; fore legs with tibiae and femora subequal; tarsi much shorter in male, cylindrical, biarticulate and tapering; in female clavate, quadriarticulate; intermediate and posterior legs normal, their claws with paronychia and pulvilli. Secondary sex-marks in the male present or absent; when present consisting of peculiarly modified scales which take the appearance of a brand when on the fore wing, and of a patch different in colour from the surrounding scales on the hind wing.

<==Euploea Fabricius 1807 [incl. Crastia Hübner 1816, Salpinx Hübner 1816, Terpsichrois Hübner 1816] B66a
    |--E. abjecta Butler 1866 B66a
    |    |--E. a. abjecta TYM08
    |    `--E. a. bona Nakamura 1929 TYM08
    |--E. adyte Boisduval 1859 B66b
    |--E. aegyptus Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. aglidice Boisduval 1832 B66a
    |--E. aethiops Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. alcathoe (Godart 1819) [=Danais alcathoe] B66a
    |--E. alecto Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. amymone Godart 1819 B66a
    |--E. anthracina Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. boisduvalii Lucas 1853 B66a
    |--E. bremeri Felder 1860 B66a
    |--E. callithoe Boisduval 1832 B66a
    |--E. camaralzeman Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. chloe Guérin 1843 B66a
    |--E. climena (Cramer 1782) [=Papilio climena, Crastia climena; incl. Danais algea Godart 1819] B66a
    |--E. confusa Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. core (Cramer 1780) B66a (see below for synonymy)
    |--E. crameri Lucas 1853 B66a
    |--E. crassa Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. cratis Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. dehaani Lucas 1853 B66a
    |--E. deione Westwood 1847 B66a
    |--E. desjardinsii (Guérin 1829-1844) [=Danaida desjardinsii] B66a
    |--E. diana Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. diocletia (Hübner 1806) [=Amaura diocletia; incl. E. megilla Erichson 1834] B66a
    |--E. doleschalii Felder 1859 B66a
    |--E. dryasis (Fabricius 1793) [=Papilio dryasis, Danais dryasis] B66a
    |--E. dufresnii (Godart 1819) B66a [=Danais dufresnii B66a; incl. E. laetifica Butler 1866 B66b, B66a]
    |--E. duponchelii Boisduval 1832 B66a
    |--E. ebenina Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. eleusine (Cramer 1780) (see below for synonymy) B66a
    |--E. eleutho (Quoy & Gaim. in Freycinet 1815) B66a [=Danais eleutho B66a; incl. E. helcita Boisduval 1859 B66b]
    |--E. elisa Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. esperi Felder 1863 B66b
    |--E. eunice (Godart 1819) B66a (see below for synonymy)
    |--E. eupator Hewitson 1857-1861 B66a
    |--E. euphone Fabricius 1793 [=Danais euphone] B66a
    |--E. eurianassa Hewitson 1857-1861 B66a
    |--E. eurypon Hewitson 1857-1861 B66a
    |--E. felderi Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. frauenfeldi Felder 1863 B66b
    |--E. gamelia (Hübner 1806-1827) [=Salpinx gamelia; incl. E. faber Zinken-Sommer 1831] B66a
    |--E. gloriosa Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. godartii Lucas 1853 B66a
    |--E. goudotii Boisduval 1833 B66a
    |--E. gyllenhalii Lucas 1853 B66a
    |--E. haworthii Lucas 1853 B66a
    |--E. herbstii Boisduval 1832 B66a
    |--E. hewitsonii Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. hisme Boisduval 1832 B66a
    |--E. huebneri Moore 1857 B66a
    |--E. hyacinthus Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. hyems Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. inquinata Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. iphianassa Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. janus Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. kadu Eschscholtz 1821 B66b
    |--E. kinbergi Wallengren 1860 B66a
    |--E. klugii Moore 1857 B66a
    |--E. lapeyrousei Boisduval 1832 B66a
    |--E. ledereri Felder 1860 B66a
    |--E. leucostictos PP02
    |    |--E. l. leucostictos PP02
    |    |--E. l. macleayi PP02
    |    `--E. l. sonana Nakamura 1932 TYM08
    |--E. lewinii PP02
    |    |--E. l. lewinii PP02
    |    `--E. l. eschscholtzii PP02
    |--E. margarita Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. mazares Moore 1857 B66a
    |--E. megaera Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. melancholica Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. melina (Godart 1819) [=Danais melina] B66a
    |--E. melpomene Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. menetriesii Felder 1860 B66a
    |--E. mitra Moore 1857 B66a
    |--E. midamus (Linné 1766) (see below for synonymy) B66a
    |--E. modesta Butler 1866 B66a
    |    |--E. m. modesta B88
    |    `--E. m. lugens B88
    |--E. moesta Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. moorei Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. morosa Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. muisgechii Felder 1859 B66a
    |--E. novarae Felder 1863 B66b
    |--E. nox Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. ochsenheimeri Lucas 1853 B66a
    |--E. orope Boisduval 1832 B66a
    |--E. palla Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. pelor Westw. 1847 B66a
    |--E. phoebus Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. picina Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. pollita Erichson 1833 B66a
    |--E. priapus Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. proserpina Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. prothoe (Godart 1816) (see below for synonymy) B66a
    |--E. pumila Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. rhadamanthus (Fabricius 1793) (see below for synonymy) B66a
    |--E. rogeri (Hübner 1806) [=Crastia rogeri] B66a
    |--E. scherzeri Felder 1863 B66b
    |--E. semicirculus Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. sepulchralis Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. superba (Herbst 1783-1795) [=Papilio superba; incl. Danais alopia Godart 1819] B66a
    |--E. swainsonii (Godart 1823) [=Danais swainsonii] B66a
    |--E. swinhoei Wallace & Moore 1866 WM66
    |--E. sylvester (Fabricius 1793) [=Papilio sylvester, Danais sylvestris, Euploea sylvester] B66a
    |--E. tisiphone Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. treitschkei Boisduval 1832 B66a
    |--E. tristis Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. tulliolus (Fabricius 1793) (see below for synonymy) B66a
    |    |--E. t. tulliolus PP02
    |    `--E. t. forsteri PP02
    |--E. usipetes Hewitson 1857-1861 B66a
    |--E. vermiculata Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. vestigiata Butler 1866 B66a
    |--E. viola Butler 1866 B66a
    `--E. wallacei Felder 1860 B66a

Euploea core (Cramer 1780) B66a [=Papilio core B66a, Crastia core B66a, Danais cora B66a, D. coreta B66a, Papilio corus B66a; incl. Euploea corinna M’Leay 1827 B66b]

Euploea eleusine (Cramer 1780) [=Papilio eleusine, Danais eleusine, Salpinx eleusina, Terpsichrois eleusina; incl. Danais darchia M’Leay 1827, Euploea darchia] B66a

Euploea eunice (Godart 1819) B66a [=Danais eunice B66a, Danaida eunice B66a; incl. Limnas mutabilis nemertes Hübner 1806-1827 B66a, Euploea nemertes PP02, Salpinx nemertes B66a]

Euploea midamus (Linné 1766) [=Papilio midamus, Danais midamus, Limnas mutabilis midamis; incl. Papilio basilissa Cramer 1780, P. claudius Fabricius 1793, Danais claudia, P. mulciber Cramer 1776] B66a

Euploea prothoe (Godart 1816) [=Danais prothoe; incl. Terpsichrois alea Hübner 1816, Euploea pavettae Zinken-Sommer 1831] B66a

Euploea rhadamanthus (Fabricius 1793) [=Papilio rhadamanthus; incl. Danais alcidice Godart 1819, D. diocletianus Fabricius 1793, D. rhadamia Godart 1819, Terpsichrois thoosa Hübner 1806-1827] B66a

Euploea tulliolus (Fabricius 1793) [=Papilio tulliolus, Danais tulliola; incl. E. saundersii Boisduval in Butler 1866 (n. n.)] B66a

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Bingham, C. T. 1905. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Butterflies vol. 1. Taylor and Francis: London.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[B66a] Butler, A. G. 1866a. A monograph of the diurnal Lepidoptera belonging to the genus Euploea, with descriptions of many new species; founded principally on the specimens in the collection of the British Museum. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 268-302.

[B66b] Butler, A. G. 1866b. Corrections and addenda to certain papers on Lepidoptera published during the years 1865-66; with additional notes on some of the species described. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 451-458.

[PP02] Patrick, B., & H. Patrick. 2002. Butterflies of Fiji. Weta 24: 5-12.

[TYM08] Tennent, W. J., M. Yasuda & K. Morimoto. 2008. Lansania Journal of arachnology and zoology—a rare and obscure Japanese natural history journal. Archives of Natural History 35 (2): 252-280.

[WM66] Wallace, A. R., & F. Moore. 1866. List of lepidopterous insects collected at Takow, Formosa, by Mr. R. Swinhoe. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 355-365.

Drepanidae

Yellow hooktip Tridrepana fulvata, photographed by Kenichiro Nakao.


Belongs within: Macrolepidoptera.

The Drepanidae include the hook-tip moths, so named due to the hooked ends of their forewings.

Characters (from Nielsen & Common 1991): Small to medium sized; head usually smooth scaled; ocelli present or absent; chaetosemata absent; antennae filiform, lamellate or bipectinate; proboscis present and unscaled, or absent; maxillary palps minute, one-segmented or absent; labial palps short to long, porrect or upcurved; epiphysis present or absent; spurs 0-2-4, 0-2-2, 0-0-4 or 0-0-0; tarsal claws usually toothed, hind tibiae often with long scales; forewing usually broadly triangular, apex often falcate, with or without wing-locking microtrichea, often with one narrow areole, CuP absent, 1A+2A sometimes with short fork; frenulum often clubbed or absent; Sc+R1 separated from Rs at base, approximated to, or shortly fused with, Rs before or beyond end of cell, CuP absent, one or two anal veins; abdomen with paired, two-chambered tympanal organs in segment 2 with tympanum situated within a sternal component between chambers. Eggs of flat type. Larvae with ventral prolegs on segments 3 to 6 with bi- or, rarely, uniordinal crochets in a mesoseries and, usually, a small uniordinal lateroseries; anal prolegs reduced or absent, secondary setae present or absent; exposed or in rolled leaf, with end of abdomen sometimes produced and raised when resting. Pupa without dorsal spines, cremaster rudimentary, in cocoon among fallen leaves; not protruded at ecdysis.

<==Drepanidae [Drepanoidea]
    |--Oretinae S02
    `--Drepaninae S02
         |--Teldenia Moore 1882 S02
         |    `--T. vestigiata Butler 1880 S02
         |--Callidrepana Felder & Felder 1867 S02
         |    `--C. argenteola Moore in Horsfield & Moore 1859 S02
         |--Leucodrepana Hampson 1892 S02
         |    `--L. idaeoides Hampson 1892 S02
         |--Spica Swinhoe 1889 S02
         |    `--S. luteola Swinhoe 1889 S02
         |--Macrauzata Butler 1889 S02
         |    |--M. fenestraria Moore 1867 S02
         |    `--M. maxima S02
         |--Drepana Schrank 1802 S02
         |    |--D. innotata Hampson 1892 S02
         |    `--D. pallida Moore 1879 S02
         |--Albara Walker 1866 S02
         |    |--A. lilacina S02
         |    `--A. violacea Butler 1889 S02
         `--Tridrepana Swinhoe 1895 S02
              |--T. albonotata Moore 1879 S02
              |--T. fulvata S02
              `--T. sadana Moore 1865 S02

Drepanidae incertae sedis:
  Macrocilix S02
  Auzata S02
  Deroca S02
  Bapta S02
  Cilix glaucata (Scopoli 1763) S02, JP05
  Hypsidia AY04
  Dipriodonta sericea W70
  Ditrigona W70
  Tethea ocularis (Linnaeus 1767) JP05
  Theteella fluctuosa (Hübner 1803) JP05
  Falcaria lacertinaria (Linnaeus 1758) JP05
  Sabra harpagula (Esper 1785) JP05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AY04] Austin, A. D., D. K. Yeates, G. Cassis, M. J. Fletcher, J. La Salle, J. F. Lawrence, P. B. McQuillan, L. A. Mound, D. J. Bickel, P. J. Gullan, D. F. Hales & G. S. Taylor. 2004. Insects 'Down Under' - diversity, endemism and evolution of the Australian insect fauna: examples from select orders. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 216-234.

[JP05] Jungmann, E., & U. Poller. 2005. Neunachweise und Wiederfunde für die Schmetterlingsfauna (Insecta; Lepidoptera) des Altenburger Landes. Mauritiana 19 (2): 317-326.

Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia, 2nd ed., vol. 2, pp. 817-915. Melbourne University Press.

[S02] Smetacek, P. 2002. Notes on new records of hooktip moths, Lepidoptera: Drepanidae, from the Kumaon and Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 446-454.

[W70] Wilkinson, C. 1970. Adding a point to a principal coordinates analysis. Systematic Zoology 19 (3): 258-263.

Lemoniadina

Mycone metalmark Synargis mycone, photographed by Will Carter.


Belongs within: Nymphidiini.

The Lemoniadina is a somewhat poorly supported grouping of Neotropical butterflies with myrmecophilous larvae. They may be united by the presence of a pair of projections, with length longer than width, from the prothorax in late-instar larvae (Hall & Harvey 2002).

<==Lemoniadina
    |--+--Thisbe Hübner 1819 [incl. Esthemopheles Röber 1903, Uraneis Bates 1868] HH02
    |  |    |--+--T. molela (Hewitson 1865) [incl. T. palilis Stichel 1910] HH02
    |  |    |  `--T. rupestre Callaghan 2001 HH02
    |  |    `--+--T. irenea (Stoll 1780) (see below for synonymy) HH02
    |  |       `--+--T. lycorias (Hewitson 1853) (see below for synonymy) HH02
    |  |          `--+--T. hyalina (Butler 1867) [incl. T. zamuro (Thieme 1907)] HH02
    |  |             `--+--T. incubus (Hall, Lamas & Willmott 2001) HH02
    |  |                `--T. ucubis (Hewitson 1870) HH02
    |  `--Lemonias Hübner 1807 [incl. Anatole Hübner 1819] HH02
    |       |--+--L. caliginea (Butler 1867) [incl. L. rossi (Clench 1964)] HH02
    |       |  `--+--L. egaensis (Butler 1867) (see below for synonymy) HH02
    |       |     `--L. zygia Hübner 1807 (see below for synonymy) HH02
    |       |          |--L. z. zygia HH02
    |       |          `--L. z. chea Hewitson 1863 HH02 [=Anatole zygia f. chea S55]
    |       `--+--+--L. sontella (Schaus 1902) HH02
    |          |  `--L. stalachtioides (Butler 1867) [incl. L. canidia (Druce 1904), L. stellidia (Schaus 1902)] HH02
    |          `--+--L. ochracea (Mengel 1902) [incl. L. phyciodes (Hayward 1949)] HH02
    |             `--+--L. albofasciata (Godman 1903) HH02
    |                `--L. theodora (Godman 1903) HH02
    `--+--Juditha Hemming 1964 [incl. Pseudopeplia Hemming 1967] HH02
       |    |--J. odites (Cramer 1775) (see below for synonymy) HH02
       |    |    |--J. o. odites HH02
       |    |    `--J. o. praeclarum (Bates 1866) HH02
       |    `--+--+--J. inambari Hall & Harvey 2001 HH02
       |       |  `--J. pulcherrima (Butler 1867) [incl. J. felicis (Rebillard 1958)] HH02
       |       |       |--J. p. pulcherrima HH02
       |       |       `--J. p. comparata (Stichel 1911) HH02
       |       `--+--J. dorilis (Bates 1866) [=J. ipsea (Godman & Salvin 1886), J. licinias (Staudinger 1887)] HH02
       |          `--+--J. naza Hall & Harvey 2001 HH02
       |             `--+--J. azan (Westwood 1851) (see below for synonymy) HH02
       |                |    |--J. a. azan HH02
       |                |    |--J. a. completa (Lathy 1904) HH02
       |                |    `--J. a. majorina Brévignon & Gallard 1998 HH02
       |                `--+--J. caucana (Stichel 1911) HH02
       |                   `--J. molpe (Hübner 1808) [incl. J. bahiana (Stichel 1929)] HH02
       `--Synargis Hübner 1819 (see below for synonymy) HH02
            |  i. s.: S. sorane Hübner 1819 HH02
            |--+--S. fenestrella (Lathy 1932) (see below for synonymy) HH02
            |  `--+--S. paulistina (Stichel 1910) (see below for synonymy) HH02
            |     |--S. phliasus (Clerk 1764) [incl. S. hewitsoni (Rebel 1901), S. phillone (Godart 1824)] HH02
            |     |    |--S. p. phliasus HH02
            |     |    |--S. p. maravalica (Seitz 1913) HH02
            |     |    `--S. p. velabrum (Godman & Salvin 1878) HH02
            |     `--S. victrix (Rebel 1901) HH02
            `--+--+--S. sylvarum (Bates 1867) HH02
               |  `--+--S. regulus (Fabricius 1793) [incl. S. attilius (Stichel 1925), S. ingens (Stichel 1925)] HH02
               |     `--+--S. axenus (Hewitson 1876) (see below for synonymy) HH02
               |        |    |--S. a. axenus HH02
               |        |    `--S. a. ochrophlegma (Stichel 1911) HH02
               |        `--S. bifasciata (Mengel 1902) [=Ematurgina bifasciata; incl. S. mabildei (Röber 1903)] HH02
               `--+--+--S. chaonia (Hewitson 1853) [incl. S. indivisa Brévignon 1998] HH02
                  |  `--+--S. pittheus (Hoffmannsegg 1818) (see below for synonymy) HH02
                  |     `--+--S. agle (Hewitson 1853) [=S. furva (Stichel 1911), S. menalcidas (Seitz 1913)] HH02
                  |        `--+--S. dirca (Stichel 1911) HH02
                  |           `--S. ochra (Bates 1868) [incl. S. sicyon (Godman & Salvin 1878)] HH02
                  `--+--S. galena (Bates 1868) [=*Thysanota galena] HH02
                     `--+--+--S. nymphidioides (Butler 1872) [incl. S. labdacus (Godman & Salvin 1886)] HH02
                        |  `--+--S. ethelinda (Hewitson 1870) HH02
                        |     `--S. palaeste (Hewitson 1870) (see below for synonymy) HH02
                        `--+--S. gela (Hewitson 1853) [incl. S. ferruginea (Lathy 1932)] HH02
                           `--+--S. calyce (Felder & Felder 1862) (see below for synonymy) HH02
                              `--+--S. mycone (Hewitson 1865) HH02
                                 `--+--S. tytia (Cramer 1777) (see below for synonymy) HH02
                                    `--+--S. abaris (Cramer 1776) (see below for synonymy) HH02
                                       `--+--S. orestessa Hübner 1819 (see below for synonymy) HH02
                                          `--S. soranus (Stoll 1781) HH02

Juditha azan (Westwood 1851) [incl. J. australis (Felder 1862), J. lamis (Stoll 1780) (preocc.)] HH02

Juditha odites (Cramer 1775) [incl. J. apame (Hewitson 1865), J. laodamia (Stichel 1923), J. magnifica (Stichel 1911), J. oditis (Hübner 1819), J. orontes (Stichel 1923), J. phylacis (Godart 1824), J. phyllea (Hübner 1819), J. phylleus (Cramer 1775)] HH02

Lemonias egaensis (Butler 1867) [incl. L. reducta Brévignon 1998, L. restricta (Talbot 1928), L. suffusa (Lathy 1932)] HH02

Lemonias zygia Hübner 1807 [incl. L. baroptenosa (Stichel 1910), L. caletor (Dalman 1823), L. epone (Godart 1824), L. peristera (Stichel 1910)] HH02

Synargis Hübner 1819 [incl. Acystipoda Röber 1892, Ematurgina Röber 1903, Nymula Boisduval 1836, Thysanota Stichel 1910 non Albers 1860] HH02

Synargis abaris (Cramer 1776) [incl. S. abarissa (Hübner 1819), S. sperthias (Felder & Felder 1865), S. tenes (Doubleday 1847)] HH02

Synargis axenus (Hewitson 1876) [=Ematurgina axenus; incl. S. acervata (Seitz 1932), S. dissimilis (Hayward 1949), S. distincta (Hayward 1949), S. leucomelaina (Breyer 1930), S. perrupta (Seitz 1932), S. roeberi (Seitz 1932)] HH02

Synargis calyce (Felder & Felder 1862) [incl. S. brennus (Stichel 1910), S. manius (Stichel 1910), S. mesoleucum (Bates 1868), S. pernambuco Callaghan 1999] HH02

Synargis fenestrella (Lathy 1932) [=Thisbe fenestrella; incl. S. cayennensis (Brévignon & Gallard 1992)] HH02

Synargis orestessa Hübner 1819 [incl. S. arche (Hewitson 1865), S. cinerea (Stichel 1925), S. orestes (Cramer 1780), S. pseudomandana (Röber 1927)] HH02

Synargis palaeste (Hewitson 1870) [incl. S. grande (Godman 1903), S. salvator (Stichel 1911)] HH02

Synargis paulistina (Stichel 1910) [incl. S. enimanga (Seitz 1917), S. pedronia (Stichel 1910), S. velatum (Stichel 1914)] HH02

Synargis pittheus (Hoffmannsegg 1818) [incl. S. cavifascia (Butler 1877), S. pelope (Hübner 1819), S. pelops (Cramer 1777), S. quinoni (Weeks 1906)] HH02

Synargis tytia (Cramer 1777) [incl. S. arctos (Hewitson 1853), S. ariadne (Stichel 1911), S. eroe (Hewitson 1865), S. gnosis (Boisduval 1836)] HH02

Thisbe irenea (Stoll 1780) [incl. T. atlantis Stichel 1910, T. belides Stichel 1910, T. belise (Stoll 1781), T. branca Penz & DeVries 2001, T. interjecta Talbot 1928, T. prodiga Stichel 1929] HH02

Thisbe lycorias (Hewitson 1853) [incl. T. adelphinum (Godman & Salvin 1878), T. germanus (Godman & Salvin 1886), T. incarum Seitz 1916] HH02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[HH02] Hall, J. P. W., & D. J. Harvey. 2002. Basal subtribes of the Nymphidiini (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae): phylogeny and myrmecophily. Cladistics 18: 539-569.

[S55] Schröder, H. 1955. Eine Falter-Ausbeute aus dem westlichen Bolivien. (Ins. Lepid. Rhopal.) Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 329-338.

Eupterotidae

Jana tantalus, photographed by Mike Nyenes.


Belongs within: Macrolepidoptera.
Contains: Eupterote.

The Eupterotidae are a mostly Old World family of moths, the majority of species of which are nocturnal though a small number are day-flying.

Characters (from Nielsen & Common 1991): Antennae bipectinate to apex in both sexes; proboscis very weak or absent; maxillary palps absent; labial palps short; epiphysis sometimes present, tibial spurs 0-2-2; fore wing usually with retinaculum, areole absent, R2 and R3 usually fused, and R2 or R2+3 arising from R4 beyond its junction with R5, CuP vestigial or absent; hind wing with frenulum usually present, functional, Sc and Rs well separated, usually connected by R1, CuP vestigial or absent, two anal veins. Larva with dense secondary setae, often branched, dorsal verrucae of abdominal segment 1 simialr to those of 2-8, crochets biordinal, shorter series with subapical spur or dentate. Pupa in flimsy cocoon of silk mixed with larval hairs.

<==Eupterotidae
    |--‘Hemijana’ variegata Rothschild 1917 NO08a
    |--Ganisa Walker 1855 NO08a
    |    `--*G. postica Walker 1855 NO08a
    |--Pandala Walker 1855 NO08a
    |    `--*P. dolosa Walker 1855 NO08a
    |--Melanothrix Felder & Felder 1874 NO08a
    |    `--M. nymphaliaria (Walker 1866) [=Gnophos nymphaliaria; incl. *M. pulchricolor Felder & Felder 1874] NO08a
    |--Pseudoganisa Schultze 1910 NO08a
    |    `--*P. currani Schultze 1910 [incl. Apha gonioptera (West 1932)] NO08a
    |--Pseudojana Hampson 1893 NO08a
    |    |--*P. incandescens (Walker 1855) [=Jana incandescens] NO08a
    |    `--P. clemensi Schultze 1907 ONE03
    |--Poloma Walker 1855 [incl. Sarvena Walker 1865] NO08a
    |    |--*P. angulata Walker 1855 NO08a (see below for synonymy)
    |    `--P. nahor (Druce 1896) [=Phasicnecus nahor, Stenoglene nahor] NO08a
    |--Preptos Schaus 1892 NO08a
    |    |--*P. oropus Schaus 1892 [incl. P. norax Druce 1893] NO08a
    |    `--P. hidalgoensis Beutelspacher-B. 1983 NO08a
    |--Neopreptos Draudt 1930 NO08a
    |    |--*N. clazomenia (Druce 1886) [=Coloradia clazomenia] NO08a
    |    `--N. marathusa (Druce 1886) [=Coloradia marathusa] NO08a
    |--Apona Walker 1856 [incl. Pachyclea Gistel 1857] NO08a
    |    |--‘Gastropacha’ caschmirensis Kollar in Kollar & Redtenbacher 1844 (see below for synonymy) NO08a
    |    |--A. gyraleus (Orhant 2000) [=Ganisa gyraleus] NO08a
    |    `--A. ligustri (Mell 1930) NO08a
    |--Apha Walker 1855 [incl. Preptothauma Draudt 1931] NO08a
    |    |--*A. subdives Walker 1855 NO08a
    |    |--‘Brachytera’ aequalis Felder & Felder 1874 NO08a
    |    |--A. floralis Butler 1881 NO08a
    |    `--*Preptothauma’ oxydiata Draudt 1931 NO08a
    |--Panacela Walker 1865 (see below for synonymy) NO08a
    |    |--*P. rufescens Walker 1865 NO08a
    |    |--P. lewinae (Lewin 1805) (see below for synonymy) NO08a
    |    |--P. nyctopa (Turner 1922) [=*Mallodeta nyctopa] NO08a
    |    `--P. syntropha Turner 1922 ONE03
    |--Eupterotinae [Cotanini] NO08a
    |    |--Eupterote NO08a
    |    |--Palirisa Moore 1884 NO08a
    |    |    `--*P. lineosa (Walker 1855) [=Jana lineosa] NO08a
    |    |--Dreata Walker 1855 NO08a
    |    |    `--*D. hades Walker 1855 NO08a
    |    |--Rarisquamosa Bethune-Baker 1910 NO08a
    |    |    `--*R. arfaki Bethune-Baker 1910 NO08a
    |    |--Sangatissa Moore 1883 NO08a
    |    |    `--*S. subcurvifera (Walker 1865) NO08b [=Dreata subcurvifera NO08b, Messata subcurvifera NO08a]
    |    |--Nisaga Walker 1855 NO08a
    |    |    |--*N. simplex Walker 1855 NO08a
    |    |    `--N. rufescens Hampson 1895 NO08a
    |    |--Paracydas Bethune-Baker 1908 NO08a
    |    |    |--*P. biagi Bethune-Baker 1908 NO08a
    |    |    `--P. postpallida Rothschild 1917 NO08a
    |    |--Lasiomorpha Joicey & Talbot in Joicey et al. 1916 NO08a
    |    |    |--*L. noakesi Joicey & Talbot in Joicey et al. 1916 NO08a
    |    |    `--L. meeki (Rothschild 1917) NO08a
    |    |--Melanergon Bethune-Bake 1904 NO08a
    |    |    `--M. vidua (Walker 1865) [=Cotana vidua; incl. *M. proserpina Bethune-Baker 1904] NO08a
    |    |         |--M. v. vidua NO08a
    |    |         `--M. v. fergussonis Rothschild 1917 NO08a
    |    |--Cotana Walker 1865 (see below for synonymy) NO08a
    |    |    |--*C. rubrescens Walker 1865 [incl. *Nervicompressa unistrigata Bethune-Baker 1904] NO08a
    |    |    |--*Hypercydas’ calliloma Turner 1903 NO08a
    |    |    |--‘Nervicompressa’ albomaculata Bethune-Baker 1904 [incl. *Epicydas ovata Bethune-Baker 1908] NO08a
    |    |    `--C. serranotata (Lucas 1894) ONE03
    |    `--Sphingognatha Felder & Felder 1874 NO08a
    |         |--*S. asclepiades Felder & Felder 1874 NO08a
    |         |--‘Pseudojana’ pallidipennis Hampson 1895 NO08a
    |         |    |--P. p. pallidipennis NO08a
    |         |    `--P. p. grandis Rothschild 1917 NO08a
    |         `--S. strix (Bryk 1944) [=Apha strix] NO08a
    |--Janinae [Janidae] NO08a
    |    |--Tissanga Aurivillius in Distant 1903 [Tissanginae, Tissangini] NO08a
    |    |    `--*T. pretoriae (Distant 1892) [=Sangatissa pretoriae] NO08a
    |    |--Hemijana Aurivillius 1901 NO08a
    |    |    `--*H. subrosea (Aurivillius 1893) [=Jana subrosea] NO08a
    |    |--Camerunia Aurivillius 1893 NO08a
    |    |    `--‘Homochroa’ orphne Schaus in Schaus & Clements 1893 [incl. *Camerunia insignis Aurivillius 1893] NO08a
    |    |--Epijana Holland 1893 NO08a
    |    |    `--E. cosima (Plotz 1880) [incl. *E. lanosa Holland 1893] NO08a
    |    |--Parajana Aurivillius 1906 NO08a
    |    |    `--*P. gabunica (Aurivillius 1892) (see below for synonymy) NO08a
    |    |--Pterocerota Hampson 1905 NO08a
    |    |    `--*P. virginea Hampson 1905 NO08a
    |    |--Drepanojana Aurivillius 1893 NO08a
    |    |    `--*D. fasciata Aurivillius 1893 NO08a
    |    |--Vianga Fletcher 1982 [=Viana Walker in Chapman 1869 non Adams & Adams 1856] NO08a
    |    |    `--*V. velutina (Walker in Chapman 1869) [=*Viana velutina] NO08a
    |    |--Catajana Strand 1910 NO08a
    |    |    `--*C. bimaculata (Dewitz 1879) [=Dreata bimaculata, Hemijana bimaculata] NO08a
    |    |--Urojana Gaede 1915 NO08a
    |    |    `--*U. eborea Gaede 1915 NO08a
    |    |--Gonojana Aurivillius 1893 NO08a
    |    |    `--*G. dimidiata Aurivillius 1893 NO08a
    |    |--Hibrildes Druce 1888 [incl. Anengya Karsch 1895; Hibrildidae, Hibrildinae, Hibrildini] NO08a
    |    |    |--*H. norax Druce 1888 [incl. *Anengya spiritalis Karsch 1895] NO08a
    |    |    `--H. crawshayi Butler 1896 [incl. H. ansorgei Kirby 1896, H. venosus Kirby 1896] NO08a
    |    |--Acrojana Aurivillius 1901 NO08a
    |    |    |--*A. sciron (Druce 1888) [=Jana sciron] NO08a
    |    |    `--A. rosacea (Butler 1874) NO08a
    |    |--Hoplojana Aurivillius 1901 NO08a
    |    |    |--*H. indecisa Aurivillius 1901 NO08a
    |    |    |--H. rhodoptera (Gerstäcker 1871) ONE03
    |    |    `--H. zernyi Gschwandner 1923 NO08a
    |    |--Stenoglene Felder & Felder 1874 [incl. Phasicnecus Butler 1894] NO08a
    |    |    |--*S. hilaris Felder & Felder 1874 NO08a
    |    |    |--*Phasicnecus’ gregorii Butler 1894 NO08a
    |    |    |--S. obtusa (Walker 1865) ONE03 [incl. S. tristis Felder & Felder 1874 NS07]
    |    |    `--S. rosea (Druce 1886) ONE03
    |    `--Jana Herrich-Schäffer 1854 NO08a
    |         |--*J. eurymas Herrich-Schäffer 1854 NO08a
    |         |--J. caesarea Weymer 1909 NO08a
    |         |--J. palliatella Viete 1954 NO08a
    |         |--J. tantalus Herrich-Schäffer 1854 ONE03
    |         |--J. tripunctata Aurivillius 1897 [=Hoplojana tripunctata] NO08a
    |         |    |--J. t. tripunctata NO08a
    |         |    `--J. t. roseata Rothschild 1917 NO08a
    |         `--J. yokoana (Bethune-Baker 1927) [=Dreata yokoana] NO08a
    `--Striphnopteryginae [Phialidae, Phialini, Striphnopteryges, Striphnopterygidae] NO08a
         |--Ebbepterote Oberprieler, Nässig & Edwards 2003 NO08a
         |    `--*E. expansa (Lucas 1891) NO08a (see below for synonymy)
         |--Striphnopteryx Wallengren 1858 NO08a
         |    `--*S. edulis (Boisduval 1847) [=Bombyx edulis] NO08a
         |--Trichophiala Aurivillius 1879 NO08a
         |    `--*T. devylderi Aurivillius 1879 NO08a
         |--Marmaroplegma Wallengren 1860 NO08a
         |    `--*M. paragarda Wallengren 1860 [=M. paraguda (l. c.), Rhabdosia paragarda] NO08a
         |--Cyrtojana Aurivillius 1911 NO08a
         |    `--*C. trilineata Aurivillius 1911 NO08a
         |--Schistissa Aurivillius 1901 NO08a
         |    `--*S. uniformis Aurivillius 1901 NO08a
         |--Paraphyllalia Gaede 1927 NO08a
         |    `--*P. degenera (Walker 1855) [=Dreata degenera] NO08a
         |--Bantuana Distant 1906 NO08a
         |    `--*B. cregoei Distant 1906 NO08a
         |--Teratojana Hering 1937 NO08a
         |    `--*T. flavina Hering 1937 NO08a
         |--Rhabdosia Hübner 1820 NO08a
         |    |--*R. vaninia (Stoll in Cramer 1781) [=Phalaena vaninia] NO08a
         |    `--R. patagiata (Aurivillius 1911) ONE03
         |--Lichenopteryx Felder & Felder 1874 NO08a
         |    |--*L. despecta Felder & Felder 1874 NO08a
         |    `--L. scotina Hering 1932 NO08a
         |--Janomima Aurivillius 1901 NO08a
         |    |--*J. mariana (White 1843) [=Bombyx mariana] NO08a
         |    `--J. westwoodi Aurivillius 1902 ONE03
         |--Papuapterote Nässig & Oberprieler 2008 NO08a
         |    |--*P. styx (Bethune-Baker 1908) [=Eupterote styx, Apona styx, Sphingognatha styx, Tagora styx] NO08a
         |    |--P. crenulata (Joicey & Talbot 1916) NO08a
         |    `--P. punctata (Joicey & Talbot 1916) NO08a
         |--Phyllalia Walker 1855 [incl. Homochroa Wallengren 1858 non Hübner 1825] NO08a
         |    |--P. patens (Boisduval 1847) NO08a (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--P. acuta Strand 1911 NO08a
         |    |--P. alboradiata Aurivillius 1911 NO08a
         |    |--P. flavicostata Fawcett 1903 ONE03
         |    |--‘Homochroa’ ornata Felder & Felder 1874 NS07
         |    |--P. thunbergii (Boisduval 1847) ONE03
         |    `--P. valida (Felder & Felder 1874) [=Homochroa valida] NS07
         `--Phiala Wallengren 1860 (see below for synonymy) NO08a
              |--P. costipuncta (Herrich-Schäffer 1855) (see below for synonymy) NO08a
              |--P. arrecta (Distant 1899) ONE03
              |--P. cunina (Cramer 1780) (see below for synonymy) NO08a
              |--P. dasypoda Wallengren 1860 NO08a
              |--‘Euchera’ esomelana Bethune-Baker 1927 NO08a
              |--P. incana (Distant 1897) ONE03
              `--P. sigyna (Aurivillius 1893) [=Jana sigyna, Stenoglene sigyna] NO08a

Cotana Walker 1865 [incl. Epicydas Bethune-Baker 1908, Hypercydas Turner 1903, Nervicompressa Bethune-Baker 1904] NO08a

*Ebbepterote expansa (Lucas 1891) NO08a [=Darala expansa NO08a, Eupterote expansa ONE03; incl. Eu. doddi Turner 1911 ONE03]

‘Gastropacha’ caschmirensis Kollar in Kollar & Redtenbacher 1844 [=*Pachyclea caschmirensis; incl. *Apona pallida Walker 1856] NO08a

Panacela Walker 1865 [incl. Lewinibombyx Strand 1929, Mallodeta Turner 1922 non Butler 1876, Semuta Walker 1865; Panacelinae] NO08a

Panacela lewinae (Lewin 1805) [=Bombyx lewinae, *Lewinibombyx lewinae, Ocinara lewinae; incl. *Semuta pristina Walker 1865] NO08a

*Parajana gabunica (Aurivillius 1892) [=Jana gabunica; incl. P. lamani Aurivillius 1906, J. marmorata Holland 1893] NO08a

Phiala Wallengren 1860 (nom. cons. prop.) [incl. Euchera Hübner 1825 (nom. rej. prop.), Heteromorpha Herrich-Schäffer 1855 nec Hübner 1822 nec Kirby 1823 nec Hodgson 1843, Stibolepis Butler 1878] NO08a

Phiala costipuncta (Herrich-Schäffer 1855) [=*Heteromorpha costipuncta; incl. Dasychira atomaria Walker 1855, *Phiala xanthosoma Wallengren 1860] NO08a

Phiala cunina (Cramer 1780) [=Phalaena cunina, *Euchera cunina, Stibolepis cunina; incl. *S. nivea Butler 1878] NO08a

Phyllalia patens (Boisduval 1847) NO08a [=Bombyx patens NO08a, *Homochroa patens NO08a; incl. Cirina cana Felder & Felder 1874 NS07, Dreata concolor Walker 1855, *Phyllalia concolor Walker 1855 non Dreata concolor Walker 1855 NO08a, Cirina forda (Westwood 1849) NO08a]

*Poloma angulata Walker 1855 NO08a [incl. *Sarvena incompta Walker 1865 NO08a, Homochroa janula Felder & Felder 1874 NSp07]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[NO08a] Nässig, W. A., & R. G. Oberprieler. 2008a. An annotated catalogue of the genera of Eupterotidae (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Bombycoidea). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (1): 53-80.

[NO08b] Nässig, W. A., & R. G. Oberprieler. 2008b. Errata et addenda. Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (2): 124.

[NS07] Nässig, W. A., & W. Speidel. 2007. On the authorships of the Lepidoptera Atlas of the "Reise der Novara", with a list of the taxa of Bombycoidea [s. l.] therein described (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Bombycoidea). Senckenbergiana Biologica 87 (1): 63-74.

Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia, 2nd ed., vol. 2, pp. 817-915. Melbourne University Press.

[ONE03] Oberprieler, R. G., W. A. Nässig & E. D. Edwards. 2003. Ebbepterote, a new genus for the Australian ‘Eupterote’ expansa (T. P. Lucas), with a revised classification of the family Eupterotidae (Lepidoptera). Invertebrate Systematics 17: 99-110.