Fulmarinae

Pair of broad-billed prions Pachyptila vittata, photographed by Mike Danzenbaker.

Belongs within: Procellariiformes.
Contains: Pterodroma, Procellariinae.

The Fulmarinae include the fulmars, prions and gadfly petrels. They include the more aerial members of the petrel family, feeding by seizing prey from above the water's surface, and usually have the lachrymal bone fused in order to strengthen the skull (Campbell & Lack 1985).

<==Fulmarinae [Fulmaridae, Wagellidae] WH02
    |--+--+--Thalassoica antarctica (Gmelin 1789) JT12, R85
    |  |  `--Pagodroma Bonaparte 1856 JT12, B94 [Pagodromidae]
    |  |       `--P. nivea (Forster 1777) R85
    |  |            |--P. n. nivea R85
    |  |            `--P. n. major Bonaparte 1856 R85
    |  `--+--Daption Stephens 1826 JT12, B94 [Daptionidae]
    |     |    `--D. capense (Linnaeus 1758) WH02 [=Procellaria capensis WS48]
    |     |         |--D. c. capense R85
    |     |         `--D. c. australe Mathews 1913 R85
    |     `--+--Macronectes Richmond 1905 JT12, B94 [Macronectidae]
    |        |    |--M. giganteus (Gmelin 1789) WH02 [=Procellaria gigantea WS48, Ossifraga gigantea WH02]
    |        |    `--M. halli Mathews 1912 WH02 [=M. giganteus halli FST81]
    |        `--Fulmarus Stephens 1826 JT12, B94 [incl. Wagellus Gray 1840 B94]
    |             |--F. capensis FP64
    |             |--F. glacialis WH02
    |             `--F. glacialoides (Smith 1840) R85
    `--+--+--Pterodroma JT12
       |  `--+--Procellariinae JT12
       |     `--+--Bulweria Bonaparte 1843 JT12, B94 [Bulweriidae]
       |        |    |--B. bifax HSS13
       |        |    |--B. bulwerii JT12
       |        |    `--B. fallax FP64
       |        `--Pseudobulweria JT12
       |             |--P. becki JT12 [=P. rostrata becki HR96]
       |             |--P. macgillivrayi JT12
       |             `--P. rostrata JT12
       |                  |--P. r. rostrata HR96
       |                  `--P. r. trouessarti HR96
       `--+--+--Lugensa brevirostris (Lesson 1831) JT12, R85
          |  `--Pelecanoides Lacépède 1799 JT12, B94 (see below for synonymy)
          |       |  i. s.: P. cymatotrypetes Olson 1985 B93
          |       |         P. exsul Salvin 1896 WH02 [=P. urinatrix exsul R85]
          |       |--P. garnotii JT12
          |       `--+--P. urinatrix Gmelin 1789 JT12, WH02
          |          |    |--P. u. urinatrix HWT01
          |          |    `--P. u. chathamensis HWT01
          |          `--+--P. georgicus Murphy & Harper 1916 JT12, WH02
          |             `--P. magellani JT12
          `--+--Halobaena caerulea (Gmelin 1789) JT12, WH02 [=Procellaria caerulea WS48]
             `--Pachyptila Illiger 1811 JT12, B94 [Pachyptilidae, Pachyptilinae]
                  |  i. s.: P. belcheri (Mathews 1912) (see below for synonymy) WS48
                  |         P. crassirostris (Mathews 1912) WH02
                  |           |--P. c. crassirostris HR96
                  |           `--P. c. pyramidalis HR96
                  |         P. salax Olson 1985 B93
                  |--P. turtur (Kuhl 1820) JT12, WS48 (see below for synonymy)
                  |    |--P. t. turtur FST81
                  |    `--P. t. subantarctica [incl. P. turtur fallai] FST81
                  `--+--P. vittata (Forster 1777) JT12, WH02 (see below for synonymy)
                     `--+--P. desolata (Gmelin 1789) JT12, WS48 (see below for synonymy)
                        |    |--P. d. desolata (see below for synonymy) B93
                        |    `--P. d. alter FST81
                        `--P. salvini (Mathews 1912) JT12, WS48 (see below for synonymy)
                             |--P. s. salvini [=P. vittata salvini] M03
                             |--P. s. crozeti FST81
                             `--P. s. macgillivrayi HR96

Pachyptila belcheri (Mathews 1912) [=Heteroprion belcheri; incl. H. belcheri serventyi Mathews 1935] WS48

Pachyptila desolata (Gmelin 1789) JT12, WS48 [=Procellaria desolata WS48; incl. Heteroprion desolatus alexanderi Mathews & Iredale 1921 WS48]

Pachyptila desolata desolata [incl. P. desolata banksi, Heteroprion desolata peringueyi Mathews 1912] B93

Pachyptila salvini (Mathews 1912) JT12, WS48 [=Prion vittatus salvini WS48; incl. Pa. salvini whittelli Mathews 1938 WS48]

Pachyptila turtur (Kuhl 1820) JT12, WS48 [=Procellaria turtur WS48; incl. Pseudoprion turtur dertrum Mathews 1938 WS48]

Pachyptila vittata (Forster 1777) JT12, WH02 [=Procellaria vittata WS48; incl. Pa. vittata balaena Mathews 1938 WS48, Prion vittata keyteli Mathews 1912 B93, Prion vittatus missus Mathews 1912 WS48]

Pelecanoides Lacépède 1799 JT12, B94 [incl. Haladroma Illiger 1811 B94; Haladromidae, Pelecanoidi, Pelecanoididae]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1-281.

[B93] Brooke, R. K. 1993. Annotated catalogue of the Aves type specimens in the South African Museum. Annals of the South African Museum 102 (10): 327-349.

Campbell, B., & E. Lack. 1985. A Dictionary of Birds. A. & C. Black.

[FST81] Falla, R. A., R. B. Sibson & E. G. Turbott. 1981. Collins Guide to the Birds of New Zealand and Outlying Islands 2nd ed. with addenda. Collins: Auckland.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[HR96] Heather, B. D., & H. A. Robertson. 1996. The Field Guide to the Birds of New Zealand. Viking: Auckland.

[HSS13] Hirschfeld, E., A. Swash & R. Still. 2013. The World's Rarest Birds. Princeton University Press: Princeton (New Jersey).

[HWT01] Holdaway, R. N., T. H. Worthy & A. J. D. Tennyson. 2001. A working list of breeding bird species of the New Zealand region at first human contact. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 28: 119-187.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444-448.

[M03] Morcombe, M. 2003. Field Guide to Australian Birds, 2nd ed. Steve Parish Publishing.

[R85] Robertson, C. J. R. (ed.) 1985. Reader’s Digest Complete Book of New Zealand Birds. Reader’s Digest: Sydney.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M. & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1-126.

[WH02] Worthy, T. H., & R. N. Holdaway. 2002. The Lost World of the Moa: Prehistoric life of New Zealand. Indiana University Press: Bloomington (Indiana).

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