Sulphur-crested cockatoo Cacatua galerita, photographed by Mfunnell.

Belongs within: Psittacidae.

The Cacatuini includes the cockatoos, mostly large, noisy and gregarious parrots found in Australasia and the islands of south-east Asia. They are characterised by the presence of a long erectile crest (Rutgers & Norris 1972).

Cacatuini [Cacatoinae, Cacatuidae, Cacatuinae, Kakatoeidae, Kakatoeinae]
    |  i. s.: Callocephalon Lesson 1837 [incl. Callocorydon Mathews 1917; Callocephaloninae, Callocorydontinae] B94
    |           `--C. fimbriatum M03
    |--Calyptorhynchus Desmarest 1826 KK05, B94 [Calyptorhynchinae]
    |    |  i. s.: C. baudinii Lear 1832 JK08 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |         C. lathami CW03
    |    |           |--C. l. lathami CW03
    |    |           |--C. l. erebus M03
    |    |           `--C. l. halmaturinus CW03
    |    |         C. magnificus ZJM03
    |    |--C. banksii (Latham 1790) JT12, WS48 [=Psittacus banksii WS48]
    |    |    |--C. b. banksii WS48
    |    |    |--C. b. graptogyne M03
    |    |    |--C. b. macrorhynchus M03 [=C. magnificus macrorhynchus RN72]
    |    |    |--C. b. naso Gould 1836 WS48 [=C. magnificus naso RN72; incl. C. banksii fitzroyi Mathews 1912 WS48]
    |    |    `--C. b. samueli M03 [=C. magnificus samueli RN72]
    |    `--+--C. funereus JT12
    |       `--C. latirostris Carnaby 1948 JT12, JK08 [=C. funereus latirostris SWK87]
    `--+--Nymphicus Wagler 1832 JT12, B94 (see below for synonymy)
       |    |--N. cornutus [incl. Platycercus caledonicus] S13
       |    |--N. hollandicus (Kerr 1792) KK05, WS48 (see below for synonymy)
       |    `--N. uveaensis S13
       `--+--Probosciger Kuhl 1820 KK05, B94 (see below for synonymy)
          |    `--P. aterrimus KK05
          |         |--P. a. aterrimus RN72
          |         |--P. a. alecto RN72
          |         |--P. a. goliath RN72
          |         |--P. a. intermedius RN72
          |         `--P. a. stenolophus RN72
          `--+--Eolophus Bonaparte 1854 KK05, B94 [Eolophinae]
             |    `--E. roseicapillus KK05
             |         |--E. r. roseicapillus RN72
             |         `--E. r. assiniclis RN72
             `--Cacatua Vieillot 1816 KK05, B94 (see below for synonymy)
                  |  i. s.: C. leadbeateri (Vigors 1831) ZJM03, WS48 (see below for synonymy)
                  |         C. pastinator JT12 [=Licmetis pastinator WS48, C. tenuirostris pastinator RN72]
                  |           |--C. p. pastinator JK08
                  |           `--C. p. butleri JK08
                  |         C. tenuirostris (Kuhl 1820) [=Psittacus tenuirostris] WS48
                  |--C. roseicapilla JT12
                  |    |--C. r. roseicapilla M03
                  |    |--C. r. albiceps M03
                  |    `--C. r. assimilis M03
                  `--+--+--C. haematuropygia JT12
                     |  `--+--C. goffiniana JT12 [=C. sanguinea goffini RN72]
                     |     `--+--C. ducorpsii JT12
                     |        `--C. sanguinea Gould 1842 JT12, WS48 [=Kakatoe sanguinea WS48]
                     |             |--C. s. sanguinea M03 (see below for synonymy)
                     |             |--C. s. gymnopis M03 [=C. pastinator gymnopis SWK87]
                     |             `--C. s. normantoni M03
                     `--+--C. ophthalmica JT12 [=C. galerita ophthalmica]
                        `--+--+--C. alba JT12
                           |  `--C. moluccensis JT12
                           `--+--C. galerita (Latham 1790) JT12, R85 [=Psittacus galeritus WS48]
                              |    |--C. g. galerita RN72 (see below for synonymy)
                              |    `--C. g. triton RN72
                              `--C. sulphurea JT12
                                   |--C. s. sulphurea RN72
                                   |--C. s. abbotti RN72
                                   |--C. s. citrinocristata RN72
                                   |--C. s. djampeana RN72
                                   |--C. s. occidentalis RN72
                                   `--C. s. parvula RN72

Cacatua Vieillot 1816 [incl. Cacatoes Duméril 1805 B94, Camptolophus Sundevall 1872 B94, Kakatoe Cuvier 1800 B94, Plissolophus Gloger 1842 B94, Plyctolophus Vieillot 1816 B94; Camptolophinae, Plissolophinae, Plyctolophinae]

Cacatua galerita galerita (Latham 1790) RN72, R85 [incl. Cacatoes galerita fitzroyi Mathews 1912 WS48, Cacatua galerita fitzroyi M03]

Cacatua leadbeateri (Vigors 1831) ZJM03, WS48 [=Plyctolophus leadbeateri WS48, Kakatoe leadbeateri WS48; incl. Cacatua leadbeateri aberrans Söderberg 1912 WS48, Cacatoes leadbeateri mollis Mathews 1912 WS48, Cacatua leadbeateri mollis M03, Cacatoes leadbeateri mungi Mathews 1912 WS48]

Cacatua sanguinea sanguinea M03 [incl. Licmetis tenuirostris derbyi Mathews 1916 WS48, Cacatua derbyi M03, Cacatoes sanguinea subdistincta Mathews 1912 WS48, Cacatua sanguinea subdistincta RN72, Ducorpsius sanguines westralensis Mathews 1917 WS48, Cacatua sanguinea westralensis M03]

Calyptorhynchus baudinii Lear 1832 JK08 [=C. funereus baudinii RN72; incl. C. baudinii tenuirostris Mathews 1913 WS48]

Nymphicus Wagler 1832 JT12, B94 [incl. Calopsittus Lesson 1835 B94, Leptolophus Swainson 1833 B94; Calopsittinae, Leptolophinae, Nymphicinae]

Nymphicus hollandicus (Kerr 1792) KK05, WS48 [=Psittacus hollandicus WS48, Leptolophus hollandicus WS48; incl. L. auricomis intermedius Mathews 1912 WS48, L. auricomis pallescens Mathews 1912 WS48]

Probosciger Kuhl 1820 KK05, B94 [incl. Microglossus Geoffroy St.-Hilaire 1823 B94; Microglossinae, Proboscigerinae]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1-281.

[CW03] Cooper, C. E., P. C. Withers, P. R. Mawson, R. Johnstone, T. Kirkby, J. Prince, S. D. Bradshaw & H. Robertson. 2003. Characteristics of marri (Corymbia calophylla) fruits in relation to the foraging behaviour of the forest red-tailed black cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus banksii naso). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 86 (4): 139-142.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444-448.

[JK08] Johnstone, R. E., & T. Kirkby. 2008. Distribution, status, social organisation, movements and conservation of Baudin's cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus baudinii) in south-west Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 107-118.

[KK05] Kloet, R. S. de, & S. R. de Kloet. 2005. The evolution of the spindlin gene in birds: sequence analysis of an intron of the spindlin W and Z gene reveals four major divisions of the Psittaciformes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36: 706-721.

[M03] Morcombe, M. 2003. Field Guide to Australian Birds, 2nd ed. Steve Parish Publishing.

[R85] Robertson, C. J. R. (ed.) 1985. Reader’s Digest Complete Book of New Zealand Birds. Reader’s Digest: Sydney.

[RN72] Rutgers, A., & K. A. Norris (eds.) 1972. Encyclopaedia of Aviculture vol. 2. Blandford Press: London.

[S13] Sarasin, F. 1913. Die Vögel Neu-Caledoniens und der Loyalty-Inseln. In Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1, Heft I (F. Sarasin & J. Roux, eds) pp. 1-78, pl. 1-3. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M. & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1-126.

[ZJM03] Zeffer, A., L. C. Johansson & Å. Marmebro. 2003. Functional correlation between habitat use and leg morphology in birds (Aves). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 79: 461-484.

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