Insecta

Fossil of Dasyleptus sp. from the Mazon Creek, from RCFossils.


Belongs within: Panhexapoda.
Contains: Zygentoma, Pterygota, Meinertellidae, Machilidae.

One of the most speciose of all groups of organisms, the insects dominate the terrestrial environment. The majority of insects belong to the winged clade Pterygota, but some basal clades retain the primitive wingless morphology. These latter groups, the Archaeognatha and Zygentoma, are superficially similar in having a more or less elongate body form with three long terminal filaments (the cerci and median filament), and so have been combined in the past under the name Thysanura. However, the Zygentoma share a number of synapomorphies with the Pterygota, including the presence of mandibles with a secondary articulation in addition to the single articulation found in Archaeognatha, and are now recognised a forming a clade with the winged insects (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). The Archaeognatha, bristletails, are characterised by large eyes that meet on the top of the head and a distinctly humped thorax. They jump by rapidly flexing the abdomen to propel themselves into the aire (Grimaldi & Engel 2005).

Synapomorphies (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005, many altered in derived subgroups): Antenna lacking musculature beyond the scape; chordotonal organ (Johnston's organ) present in antennal pedicel; posterior tentorium developed into transverse bar; articulations absent between coxae and sterna; tarsus subsegmented into tarsomeres; pretarsal claws articulating with apicalmost tarsomere rather than with tarsal base; ovipositor present in females formed from gonapophyses on eighth and ninth abdominal segments; long terminal filament present on dorsum of eleventh abdominal segment.

<==Insecta [Ectognatha, Ectotropha, Lepismatona, Scarabaeoda, Thysanura, Thysanuroidea]
    |--Dicondylia [Cercofilata] GE05
    |    |--Tricholepidion gertschi Wygodzinsky 1961 TW05, KZ02
    |    `--+--Zygentoma TW05
    |       `--Pterygota TW05
    `--Archaeognatha [Machilida, Machiloidea, Microcoryphia, Monocondylia] TW05
         |  i. s.: Triassomachilis Sharov 1948 KS02 [Triassomachilidae GE05]
         |           `--T. uralensis GE05
         |--Dasyleptus Brongniart 1885 FT05 [Cercopodata, Dasyleptidae R02, Monura]
         |    |--D. brongniarti Sharov 1957 K-P83
         |    `--D. sharovi GE05
         `--+--Meinertellidae R02
            `--Machilidae R02

Insecta incertae sedis:
  Drosicha mangiferae G01
  Clavigralla gibbosa G01
  Ramsdelepidion Kukalová-Peck 1987 K-P87
    `--*R. schusteri Kukalová-Peck 1987 K-P87
  Gaspea palaeoentognathae Z02
  Biorhiza pallida A71
  Neocolochelyna itoi Takeuchi 1951 I92
  Paratlanticus tsushimensis Yamasaki 1986 I92
  Cercomantispa shirozui Nakahara 1961 I92
  Armatocillenus sumaoi (Morita 1981) I92
  Heplochlaenius insularis Uéno 1964 I92
  Hydrochus chubu Balfour-Browne & Satô 1962 I92
  Georissus granulosus Satô 1972 I92
  Liparocephalus tokunagai Sakaguchi 1944 I92
  Schwarzerium viridicyaneum Hayashi 1956 I92
  Baryrhynchus tokarensis Ohbayashi & Satô 1966 I92
  Cyphagogus iwatensis Morimoto 1976 I92
  Ogasawarazo daitoensis Voss 1971 I92
  Xyelecia japonica Tagashi 1972 I92
  Pleroneura hikosana Togashi 1972 I92
  Nipponorhynchus I92
    |--N. bimaculatus Naito 1973 I92
    `--N. mirabilis Takeuchi 1941 I92
  Caenosclerogibba japonica Yasumatsu 1958 I92
  Pararrhynchium tsunekii Tano & Yamane 1983 I92
  Liacos melanogaster Tsuneki 1982 I92
  Strymonidia iyonis Ota & Kusunoki 1957 I92
  Pithecops I92
    |--P. corvus I92
    |    |--P. c. corvus I92
    |    `--P. c. ryukyuensis Shirôzu 1964 I92
    `--P. fulgens I92
         |--P. f. fulgens I92
         `--P. f. tsushimanus Shirôzu & Urata 1957 I92
  Tongeia fischeri (Eversmann 1843) I92
  Archiearis notha (Hübner 1808) I92
  Heliophobus texturatus (Alpheraky 1892) I92
  Cratosomus flavofasciatus H91
  Eldana saccharina H91
  Maruca testulalis H91
  Tricopria drosophilae GJR97
  Asobara tabida GJR97
  Aramigus tesselatus GJR97
  Leptopilina GJR97
    |--L. australis GJR97
    `--L. clavipes GJR97
  Schizaphis graminum SF98
  Leptophyllus Hope 1842 FT93
  Amaurocoris laticeps G89
  Aspongopus viduatus G89
  Nariscus spinosus G89
  Spilostethus G89
    |--S. macilentus G89
    `--S. militaris G89
  Anepsius encaustus G89
  Ischnopeza hirticornis G89
  Piezostethus galactinus G89
  Samea multiplicalis B04
  Neohydronomus affinus MHG04
  Araecerus fasciculatus G17a
  Lecanium G25
    |--L. baccatum G25
    |--L. capraea G17d
    `--L. viride G17a
  Stictococcus gowdeyi G17b
  Tachardia decorella G17b
  Physokermes insignicola G17b
  Eutettix tenella G17b
  Dibolia borealis G17b
  Tephrocerus gracilis G17b
  Evetria taxifoliella G17c
  Dioryctria xanthaenobares G17c
  Chelymorpha argus G17c
  Eudamus proteus G18
  Melitara junctolineella B88
  Moneilema ulkei G25
  Mytilaspis cordylinidis G29
  Cylindrococcus B88
    |--C. amplior G34
    `--C. casuarinae B88
  Proceras sacchariphagum B88
  Hypolycaena phorbas B88
  Stomopteryx simplexella B88
  Diplosis sorghicola B88
  Tryporyza VHK02
    |--T. incertulas B88
    |--T. monostigma VHK02
    |--T. nivella VHK02
    `--T. rhodoproctalis VHK02
  Actinoscytina belmontensis Tillyard 1926 F71
  Adelidium cordatum Tillyard 1917 F71
  Agetochoristella adscita Riek 1952 F71
  Anomaloscytina F71
    |--A. incompleta Evans 1943 F71
    `--A. metapteryx Davis 1942 F71
  Aphryganoneura anomala Tillyard 1926 F71
  Archaeosmylus pectinatus Riek 1952 F71
  Atelophlebis culleni (Etheridge & Olliff 1890) [=Ephemera culleni] F71
  Austroidelia perplexa Riek 1954 F71
  Austroprosbole maculata Evans 1943 F71
  Austroscytina imperfecta Evans 1943 F71
  Beaconiella F71
    |--B. fennahi Evans 1963 F71
    `--B. multivenata Evans 1963 F71
  Belpsylla reticulata Evans 1943 F71
  Clavopsyllidium minutum Davis 1942 F71
  Elateridium angustius Tillyard 1917 F71
  Eochiliocycla angusta Davis 1942 F71
  Eopsyllidium delicatulum Davis 1942 F71
  Eupincombea postiva Davis 1942 F71
  Homaloscytina plana Tillyard 1926 F71
  Mesonotoperla sinuata Riek 1954 F71
  Mesophlebia antinodalis Tillyard 1916 F71
  Mesothyris westraliensis Riek 1968 F71
  Metrorhynchites grandis Tillyard 1917 F71
  Mitchelloneura permiana Tillyard 1921 F71
  Nannochoristella reducta Riek 1953 F71
  Neoageta elongata Riek 1953 F71
  Neochoristella aptata Riek 1953 F71
  Neopetromantis australis Riek 1953 F71
  Notoblattites F71
    |--N. mitchelli Tillyard 1917 F71
    `--N. wianamattensis Tillyard 1917 F71
  Orthoscytina F71
    |--O. belmontensis Tillyard 1926 F71
    |--O. indistincta Tillyard 1926 F71
    |--O. mitchelli Tillyard 1926 F71
    |--O. obliqua Tillyard 1926 F71
    |--O. pincombei Tillyard 1926 F71
    |--O. quinquemedia Tillyard 1926 F71
    |--O. subcostalis Tillyard 1926 F71
    `--O. tetraneura Tillyard 1926 F71
  Palaeovicia incerta Evans 1943 F71
  Permagra distincta Evans 1943 F71
  Permopsychops belmontensis Tillyard 1926 [incl. Permithone venosa Davis 1943] F71
  Permoberothella perplexa Riek 1953 F71
  Permobrachus F71
    |--P. dubia (Tillyard 1926) [=Permodiphthera dubia] F71
    `--P. magnus Evans 1943 F71
  Permocapitus globulus Evans 1943 F71
  Permocephalus knighti Evans 1943 F71
  Permodiphthera robusta Tillyard 1926 F71
  Permoglyphis belmontensis Tillyard 1926 F71
  Permojassus F71
    |--P. australis Tillyard 1926 F71
    `--P. dubius Tillyard 1926 F71
  Permopsyllidium F71
    |--P. affine Tillyard 1926 F71
    `--P. mitchelli Tillyard 1926 F71
  Permopsyllidops stanleyi Davis 1942 F71
  Permopsylloides insolita Evans 1943 F71
  Permorapisma biserialis Tillyard 1926 [incl. P. triserialis Tillyard 1926] F71
  Permoscarta F71
    |--P. mitchelli Tillyard 1917 F71
    `--P. triventulata Tillyard 1926 F71
  Permosyne F71
    |--P. affinis Tillyard 1924 F71
    |--P. belmontensis Tillyard 1924 F71
    |--P. mitchelli Tillyard 1924 F71
    `--P. pincombeae Tillyard 1924 F71
  Permothea latipennis Tillyard 1926 F71
  Permotheela scytinopteroides Davis 1942 F71
  Permovicia obscura Evans 1943 F71
  Phipoides elegans Riek 1953 F71
  Prohagla superba Riek 1954 F71
  Protopincombea obgscura Evans 1943 F71
  Protopsyllops minuta Evans 1943 F71
  Psocopsyllidium media Davis 1942 F71
  Psocoscytina bifida Davis 1942 F71
  Psyllidella magna Evans 1943 F71
  Psyllidiana davisia Evans 1943 F71
  Stanleyana pulchra Evans 1943 F71
  Stenoglyphis kimblensis Evans 1947 F71
  Stenoscytina australiensis Tillyard 1926 F71
  Triassagrion australiensis Tillyard 1922 F71
  Triassodoecus chinai Evans 1963 F71
  Triassophlebis stigmata Tillyard 1922 F71
  Triassopsylla plecioides Tillyard 1917 F71
  Triassocytinopsis paranotalis Evans 1956 F71
  Tripsyllidium wadei Evans 1956 F71
  Tychticoloides belmontensis Evans 1963 F71
  Tenebroides mauritanicus BC91
  Fumea casta BC91
  Paleacrita vernata Z91
  Itame argillacearia DC10
  Biloba subsecivela VHK02
  Diaphania indica [=Margaronia indica] VHK02
  Lygropia quaternalis VHK02
  Marasma suspicalis VHK02
  Psara stultalis VHK02
  Holcocera pulverea VHK02
  Noorda moringa VHK02
  Nephanteryx rhodobasalis VHK02
  Anomalococcus indicus VHK02
  Phidodonta modesta VHK02
  Bissetia steniella VHK02
  ‘Cheyletus’ nigripes Mola 1907 B49
  Stephanostoma Danielsen 1880 D56
  Phrynomorphus Curtis 1831 FG06

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[B49] Baker, E. W. 1949. A review of the mites of the family Cheyletidae in the United States National Museum. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 99 (3238): 267-320.

[BC91] Baker, G. T., & A. Chandrapatya. 1991. Fine structure of the chorion of the broak mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Prostigmata: Tarsonemidae). In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 325-328. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[B04] Briese, D. T. 2004. Weed biological control: applying science to solve seemingly intractable problems. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 304-317.

[D56] Dawes, B. 1956. The Trematoda with special reference to British and other European forms. University Press: Cambridge.

[DC10] Drummond, F. A., J. A. Collins, B. Choate, D. Woodman, D. T. Jennings, H. Y. Forsythe, Jr & J. C. Cokendolpher. 2010. Harvestman (Opiliones) fauna associated with Maine lowbush blueberry fields in the major production areas of Washington and Hancock counties. Environmental Entomology 39 (5): 1428-1440.

[FT05] Fayers, S. R., & N. H. Trewin. 2005. A hexapod from the Early Devonian Windyfield Chert, Rhynie, Scotland. Palaeontology 48 (5): 1117-1130.

[FT93] Fensome, R. A., F. J. R. Taylor, G. Norris, W. A. S. Sarjeant, D. I. Wharton & G. L. Williams. 1993. A classification of living and fossil dinoflagellates. Micropaleontology Special Publication 7: i-viii, 1-351.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1-167.

[FG06] Frost, D. R., T. Grant, J. Faivovich, R. H. Bain, A. Haas, C. F. B. Haddad, R. O. de Sá, A. Channing, M. Wilkinson, S. C. Donnellan, C. J. Raxworthy, J. A. Campbell, B. L. Blotto, P. Moler, R. C. Drewes, R. A. Nussbaum, J. D. Lynch, D. M. Green & W. C. Wheeler. 2006. The amphibian tree of life. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 297: 1-370.

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso «Esploratore» dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880.—IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 5-72.

[GJR97] Giordano, R., J. J. Jackson & H. M. Robertson. 1997. The role of Wolbachia bacteria in reproductive incompatibilities and hybrid zones of Diabrotica beetles and Gryllus crickets. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 94: 11439-11444.

[G17a] Girault, A. A. 1917a. New Javanese Hymenoptera. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 59-71).

[G17b] Girault, A. A. 1917b. Descriptiones stellarum novarum. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 80-101).

[G17c] Girault, A. A. 1917c. Descriptiones hymenopterorum chalcidoidicarum variorum cum observationibus. III. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 102-111).

[G17d] Girault, A. A. 1917d. Descriptiones hymenopterorum chalcidoidicarum variorum cum observationibus. V. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 116-131).

[G18] Girault, A. A. 1918. North American Hymenoptera Trichogrammatidae. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 142-152).

[G25] Girault, A. A. 1925. An essay on when a fly is lovable, the ceremony of baptizing some and unlovely hate. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 187-190).

[G29] Girault, A. A. 1929. Description of a case of lunacy in Homo and of six-legged articulates. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 262-265).

[G34] Girault, A. A. 1934. New Capsidae and Hymenoptera, with note on an unmentionable. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 311-314).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[G01] Gupta, S. K. 2001. A conspectus of natural enemies of phytophagous mites and mites as potential biocontrol agents of agricultural pests in India. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 484-497. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[H91] Hokkanen, H. M. T. 1991. Trap cropping in pest management. Annual Review of Entomology 36: 119-138.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[KZ02] Klass, K.-D., O. Zompro, N. P. Kristensen & J. Adis. 2002. Mantophasmatodea: A new insect order with extant members in the Afrotropics. Science 296: 1456-1459.

[KS02] Kluge, N. Yu., & N. D. Sinitshenkova. 2002. Order Ephemerida Latreille, 1810. The true mayflies (=Ephemeroptera Hyatt et Arms, 1891 (s. l.); =Euephemeroptera Kluge, 2000. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 89-97. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[K-P83] Kukalová-Peck, J. 1983. Origin of the insect wing and wing articulation from the arthropodan leg. Canadian Journal of Zoology 61: 1618-1669.

[K-P87] Kukalová-Peck, J. 1987. New Carboniferous Diplura, Monura, and Thysanura, the hexapod ground plan, and the role of thoracic side lobes in the origin of wings (Insecta). Canadian Journal of Zoology 65: 2327-2345.

[MHG04] Maynard, G. V., J. G. Hamilton & J. F. Grimshaw. 2004. Quarantine—phytosanitary, sanitary and incursion management: an Australian entomological perspective. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 318-328.

[R02] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002. Subclass Lepismatona Latreille, 1804. The wingless insects (=Thysanura Latreille 1796, s. l.) In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 69-74. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[SF98] Saikkonen, K., S. H. Faeth, M. Helander & T. J. Sullivan. 1998. Fungal endophytes: a continuum of interactions with host plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 319-343.

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240-257.

[VHK02] Verma, M., M. Hayat & S. I. Kazmi. 2002. The species of Elasmus from India (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eulophidae). Oriental Insects 36: 245-306.

[Z91] Zhang, Z. Q. 1991. Biology of mites of Allothrombiinae (Acari: Trombidiidae) and their potential role in pest control. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 513-520. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Ecological history of the terrestrial insects. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 331-388. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

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