Fulgoromorpha

Ricania japonica, copyright Vakhtang Janjghava.


Belongs within: Euhemiptera.
Contains: Fulgoridae, Issidae, Tropiduchidae, Dictyopharidae, Delphacidae, Achilidae, Flatidae, Derbidae, Cixiidae.

The Fulgoromorpha are plant-sucking bugs including the modern Fulgoroidea and their possible predecessors, the Permian Coleoscytidae. Fulgoroids can be distinguished from other living hemipterans by their antennae being located ventrally to the eyes and having an enlarged, more or less bulbous pedicel with wart-like sensilla. Families of fulgoroids include the Meenoplidae, characterised by have one or both of the anal veins of the forewing granulate. The Dictyopharidae are medium-sized fulgoroids with rather narrow wings that commonly have the head strongly prolonged anteriorly (Carver et al. 1991).

Synapomorphies (from Shcherbakov & Popov 2002): Mesonotum with longitudinal carinae; tegula concealing forewing base; basicubital triangle short in forewing; coxae separated mesally.

Fulgoromorpha
    |  i. s.: Boreocixius K-P91
    |         Tricrosbia K-P91
    |--Coleoscytidae [Coleoscytoidea] SP02
    `--Fulgoroidea SP02
         |  i. s.: Surijokocixius K-P91 [Surijokocixiidae SP02]
         |         Fulgoridae SP02
         |         Issidae SP02
         |         Nogodinidae SP02
         |           |  i. s.: Salona panorpaeformis CGW91
         |           |         Nurunderia chrysopoides CGW91
         |           `--Lipocalliini [Lipocalliinae, Nogodininae] FM08
         |                |--Lipocallia Kirkaldy 1906 FM08
         |                `--Bilbilicallia Jacobi 1928 FM08
         |         Kinnaridae RD77
         |           |--Bytrois nemoralis RD77
         |           `--Oeclidius RH88
         |                |--O. antricola RH88
         |                |--O. hades RH88
         |                `--O. minos RH88
         |         Tropiduchidae SP02
         |         Tettigometridae E02
         |           |--Tetigometra virescens G20
         |           `--Phalix titan RD77
         |         Meenoplidae RH88
         |           |  i. s.: Meenoplus cancavus Remane & Hoch 1988 RH88
         |           `--Nisiinae MC13
         |                |--Suva koebelei Kirkaldy 1906 CGW91, K08
         |                |--Nisia K08
         |                |    |--N. atrovenosa K08
         |                |    `--N. serrata C96
         |                `--Phaconeura CGW91
         |                     |--P. caesa CGW91
         |                     |--P. froggatti CGW91
         |                     `--P. pluto RH88
         |         Hypochthonella [Hypochthonellidae] RH88
         |           `--H. caeca RH88
         |         Lalacidae GE05
         |           |--Carpopodus difficilis GE05
         |           `--Lalax mutabilis Hamilton 1990 RJ93
         |         Pyrilla B88
         |           |--P. aberrans B88
         |           `--P. perpusilla B88
         |         Dictyopharidae F05
         |         Eurybrachyidae K91
         |           |  i. s.: Gelastopsis insignis C91
         |           |         Eurybrachys tomentosa RD77
         |           `--Platybrachyini [Platybrachinae]
         |                |--Olonia CGW91
         |                |--Dardus abbreviatus CGW91, R70
         |                `--Platybrachys K91
         |                     |--P. decemmacula K91
         |                     |--P. leucostigma C91
         |                     `--P. maculipennis CGW91
         |         Achilixidae CGW91
         |         Acanaloniidae CGW91
         |           |--Acanalonia L88
         |           `--Philatis RD77
         |         Lophopidae CGW91
         |           |--Lophops saccharicida CGW91
         |           `--Kasserota CGW91
         |         Gengidae CGW91
         |           |--Gengis panoplites RD77
         |           `--Microeurybrachys vitrifrons RD77
         |         Caliscelis RD77 [Caliscelidae FM08]
         |         Mundopoides aptianus P92
         |--Delphacidae E02
         `--+--Achilidae E02
            |--Flatidae E02
            |--Derbidae E02
            |--+--Cixiidae E02
            |  `--Valvifulgoria RJ93 [Fulgoridiidae GE05]
            |       `--V. tiantungensis Lin 1986 RJ93
            `--Ricaniidae E02
                 |--Scolypopa australis (Walker 1851) H82
                 |--Ricania japonica E02
                 |--Orosanga YS01
                 |--Qiyangiricania cesta Lin 1986 RJ93
                 `--Tritophania P92

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[C96] Chow, Y. S. 1996. Biology and life stages of Charletonia taiwanensis Tsai and Chow (Erythraeidae) in Taiwan. In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 359–361. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[C91] CSIRO. 1991. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[E02] Emeljanov, A. F. 2002. Contribution to classification and phylogeny of the family Cixiidae (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha). Denisia 2002: 103–112.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[FM08] Fletcher, M. J., & M. L. Moir. 2008. Gunawardenea, a new genus of squat leafhoppers from Western Australia, with description of two new species (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae). Records of the Western Australian Museum 24 (4): 429–436.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H82] Helmore, D. W. 1982. Drawings of New Zealand insects. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of New Zealand 8: 1–52.

[K91] Kathirithamby, J. 1991. Strepsiptera. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 684–695. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[K08] Kirkaldy, G. W. 1908. A catalogue of the Hemiptera of Fiji. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 345–391, pl. 4.

[K-P91] Kukalová-Peck, J. 1991. Fossil history and the evolution of hexapod structures. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 141–179. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[L88] Liebherr, J. K. 1988. General patterns in West Indian insects, and graphical biogeographic analysis of some circum-Caribbean Platynus beetles (Carabidae). Systematic Zoology 37 (4): 385–409.

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[RH88] Remane, R., & H. Hoch. 1988. Cave-dwelling Fulguroidea (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha) from the Canary Islands. Journal of Natural History 22: 403–412.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[R70] Riek, E. F. 1970. Strepsiptera. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 622–635. Melbourne University Press.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[SP02] Shcherbakov, D. E., & Yu. A. Popov. 2002. Superorder Cimicidea Laicharting, 1781: Order Hemiptera Linné, 1758. The bugs, cicadas, plantlice, scale insects, etc. [=Cimicida Laicharting, 1781, =Homoptera Leach, 1815+Heteroptera Latreille, 1810). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 143–157. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[YS01] Yoshizawa, K., & T. Saigusa. 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of paraneopteran orders (Insecta: Neoptera) based on forewing base structure with comments on monophyly of Auchenorrhycha (Hemiptera). Systematic Entomology 26: 1–13.

Last updated: 5 October 2017.

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