Vespoidea

Blue flower wasp Scolia verticalis, photographed by Arthur Chapman.


Belongs within: Aculeata.
Contains: Formicidae, Vespidae, Pompilidae.

The Vespoidea is a clade including the social wasps, ants and closely related taxa. It is characterised by reduction of the prepectus and sparse setae on the hypopharynx (this last character reversed in Rhopalosomatidae and Pompilidae); vespoids other than the Sierolomorphidae also have the metapostnotum partially invaginated and the hind wing jugal lobe reduced (Grimaldi & Engel 2005).

<==Vespoidea [Scolioidea]
    |  i. s.: Methoca [Methocidae] A71
    |           `--M. ichneumonides A71
    |--Sierolomorpha [Sierolomorphidae] GE05
    `--+--+--Rhopalosomatidae GE05
       |  |    |--Rhopalosoma nearcticum HH07
       |  |    |--Mesorhopalosoma GE05
       |  |    `--Propalosoma GE05
       |  `--+--Typhoctes [Bradynobaenidae] GE05
       |     `--+--Falsiformicidae GE05
       |        `--+--+--Formicidae GE05
       |           |  `--Armania [Armaniidae] GE05
       |           |       `--A. robusta GE05
       |           `--+--Vespidae GE05
       |              `--Scoliidae GE05
       |                   |--Campsomeris tasmaniensis H49
       |                   |--Proscolia [Proscoliinae] GE05
       |                   |--Trisciloa ferruginea ZS10
       |                   `--Scolia RBV08
       |                        |--S. bicincta HH07
       |                        |--S. distincta Lucas 1849 E12
       |                        |--S. manilae A71
       |                        |--S. ruficornis C81
       |                        |--S. varicolor Lucas 1849 E12
       |                        `--S. verticalis RBV08
       `--+--Tiphiidae GE05
          |    |  i. s.: Colocistis crassa HH07
          |    |         Architiphia rasnitsyni GE05
          |    |         Tiphia brevipennis Lucas 1849 E12
          |    |         Hemithynnus ZS10
          |    |         Rhagigaster unicolor ZS10
          |    |--Anthoboscinae GE05
          |    |--Brachycistis [Brachycistidinae] C90
          |    |--Diamma AY04 [Diamminae GE05]
          |    `--Thynninae [Thynnidae] AY04
          `--+--Pompilidae GE05
             `--+--+--Chyphotes mellipes RBV08
                |  `--+--Aglyptacros sulcatus RBV08
                |     `--Aporus niger RBV08
                `--+--Sapygidae GE05
                   |    |--Fedtschenkiinae GE05
                   |    `--Sapyga [Sapyginae] GE05
                   |         `--S. pumila RBV08
                   `--Mutillidae GE05
                        |--Dasymutilla aureola GE05, RBV08
                        |--Euphutomorpha R55
                        |--Photopsis C90
                        `--Mutilla E12
                             |--M. affinis Lucas 1849 E12
                             |--M. bicolor Lucas 1849 E12
                             |--M. capitata Lucas 1849 E12
                             |--M. dorsalis Lucas 1849 E12
                             |--M. erythrocephala Lucas 1849 E12
                             |--M. luctuosa Lucas 1849 E12
                             |--M. oraniensis Lucas 1849 E12
                             |--M. quadrimaculata Lucas 1849 E12
                             |--M. rubricollis Lucas 1849 E12
                             |--M. rubrocincta Lucas 1849 E12
                             |--M. tabida Lucas 1849 E12
                             |--M. unicincta Lucas 1849 E12
                             `--M. unimaculata Lucas 1849 E12

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[AY04] Austin, A. D., D. K. Yeates, G. Cassis, M. J. Fletcher, J. La Salle, J. F. Lawrence, P. B. McQuillan, L. A. Mound, D. J. Bickel, P. J. Gullan, D. F. Hales & G. S. Taylor. 2004. Insects 'Down Under' - diversity, endemism and evolution of the Australian insect fauna: examples from select orders. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 216-234.

[C81] Caltagirone, L. E. 1981. Landmark examples in classical biological control. Annual Review of Entomology 26: 213-232.

[C90] Crawford, C. S. 1990. Scorpiones, Solifugae, and associated desert taxa. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 421-475. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H49] Hatch, E. D. 1949. The New Zealand forms of Calochilus R. Br. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (2): 247-249.

[HH07] Hines, H. M., J. H. Hunt, T. K. O'Connor, J. J. Gillespie & S. A. Cameron. 2007. Multigene phylogeny reveals eusociality evolved twice in vespid wasps. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 104 (9): 3295-3299.

[RBV08] Rabeling, C., J. M. Brown & M. Verhaagh. 2008. Newly discovered sister lineage sheds light on early ant evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 105 (39): 14913-14917.

[R55] Rayment, T. 1955. Taxonomy, morphology and biology of sericophorine wasps with diagnoses of two new genera and descriptions of forty new species and six sub-species. Memoirs of the National Museum, Melbourne 19: 1-95.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P. & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

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