Ichneumonoidea

Fossil of Praeichneumon dzhidensis, from Kopylov (2012).


Belongs within: Apocrita.
Contains: Ichneumonidae, Braconidae.

The Ichneumonoidea are a diverse group of parasitoid wasps. The two living families of ichneumonoids, Ichneumonidae and Braconidae, each include both ectoparasitic and endoparasitic representatives; endoparasitic ichneumonoids carry symbiotic polydnaviruses that affect their host's immune system and allow survival of the parasitoid larva.

Characters (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): First and second metasomal segments articulated by dorsolateral condyles on posterior margin of first tergum and anterior margin of second; first metasomal tergum divided into strongly sclerotised anterior sclerite and comparatively weakly sclerotised posterior region; prepectus fused with posterolateral margin of pronotum, spiracle immediately dorsal to prepectus; 2rs-m crossvein absent in forewing; costa and radius positioned adjacent to each other in forewing so that costal cell is effectively absent.

<==Ichneumonoidea
    |  i. s.: Heteropelma calcator A71
    |         Cedria paradoxa A71
    |         Agriotypus [Agriotypidae] A71
    |           `--A. agrotypus A71
    |         Mesochorus Gravenhorst 1829 [Mesochorinae] HP-W05
    |           `--M. pinarae Girault 1932 G32
    |--Praeichneumon [Praeichneumonidae] GE05
    `--+--Ichneumonidae GE05
       `--+--Eoichneumonidae GE05
          `--Braconidae GE05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[G32] Girault, A. A. 1932. New lower Hymenoptera from Australia and India. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 293-298).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HP-W05] Heitland, W., & H. Pschorn-Walcher. 2005. Biology and parasitoids of the peculiar alder sawfly, Platycampus luridiventris (Fallen) (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (2): 215-231.

Kopylov, D. S. 2012. New Species of Praeichneumonidae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonoidea) from the Lower Cretaceous of Transbaikalia. Paleontological Journal 46 (1): 66-72.

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