Hemiptera

Photograph and drawing of Postopsyllidium emilyae, from Grimaldi & Engel (2005). Forewing length 1.5 mm.


Belongs within: Paraneoptera.
Contains: Capsidae, Sternorrhyncha, Heteropteroidea, Fulgoromorpha, Cicadomorpha.

The Hemiptera, commonly known as bugs, are a major group of insects characterised by the possession of a sucking beak. The earliest hemipterans, the Archescytinidae, are known from the early Permian to the Triassic; members of this group had a long, thin and coiled ovipositor held underneath the abdomen that may have been used to insert eggs into plants (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). Members of more derived groups are known from the Late Permian, indicating that the major lineages of the Sternorrhyncha, Auchenorrhyncha and Heteropteroidea had diverged by that point (Shcherbakov & Popov 2002).

Earlier authors divided the Hemiptera between the suborders Heteroptera, with forewings often divided between a leathery corium and distal membrane, and Homoptera, with undivided wings. The 'Homoptera' are now recognised as paraphyletic, and are instead divided between the Sternorrhyncha, Auchenorrhyncha and Coleorrhyncha. The Protopsyllidiidae are an extinct family of plant-sucking bugs known from the late Permian to the mid-Cretaceous; they are related to the Sternorrhyncha by their possession of a strongly opisthognathous rostrum and wings lacking a vannal fold, but they differed in retaining three-segmented tarsi and ten-segmented antennae (Grimaldi & Engel 2005).

Synapomorphies (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Maxillary and labial palps lost; mouthparts developed into suctorial beak, with two pairs of mandibular and maxillary stylets lying in long grooved labium.

<==Hemiptera [Cimicida, Homoptera, Rhynchota]
    |--Archescytinidae [Archescytinina, Archescytinoidea, Paleorrhyncha] GE05
    |    |--Permothrips SP02
    |    |--Maueria SP02
    |    `--Permoscytina SP02
    |--+--Sternorrhyncha GE05
    |  `--Protopsyllidiidae [Protopsyllidioidea] GE05
    |       |--Permaphidopsis SP02
    |       |--Cicadellopsis SP02
    |       |--Postopsyllidium emilyae GE05
    |       `--Protopsyllidium F71
    |            |--P. australe Tillyard 1926 F71
    |            `--P. sinuatum Davis 1942 F71
    `--+--+--Kaltanospes [Ingruidae] SP02
       |  `--Heteropteroidea SP02
       `--Auchenorrhyncha [Cicadina] SP02
            |  i. s.: Euacanthella Evans 1938 FM08
            |         Caliscelidae FM08
            |         Eurymeloides [Eurymelidae] ZS10
            |           `--E. pulchra ZS10
            |         Errastunus ocellaris K09
            |--Fulgoromorpha GE05
            `--Cicadomorpha GE05

Hemiptera incertae sedis:
  Mesanthocoris ZBH03
  Capsidae CM07
  Pseudatomoscelis seriatus WS01
  Dysaphis plantaginea ACW01
  Nilaparvata lugens KH02
  Tricentrus gibbosulus G01
  Bagrada cruciferum G01
  Perignerus maidis G01
  Melanaspis glomerata G01
  Nasonovia ribisnigri A71
  Kikihia subalpina H05
  Heterotrephes admorsus Esaki & Miyamoto 1959 Iw92
  Suisha coreana (Matsumura 1927) Iw92
  Nipponosemia terminalis (Matsumura 1913) Iw92
  Asclepios shiranui (Esaki 1924) Iw92
  ‘Odius’ Stål 1867 non Lilljeborg 1866 C92
  Murgantia histrionica How91
  Teleonemia scrupulosa How91
  Acrosternum hilare Hok91
  Terioaphis trifolii C81
  Chromaphis juglandicola C81
  Quadraspidiotus perniciosus C81
  Antonina C81
    |--A. bambusae B88
    `--A. graminis [incl. A. indica] C81
  Amphisalta zelandica H97
  Micronecta robusta TJ06
  Eriosoma lanigerum H74
  Phera Stål 1864 K03
  Luederwaldtia Schmidt 1922 KO06
  Gargaphia solani BR07
  Atopozelus pallens M07
  Poppea evelyna MG06
  Spissistilus festinus MG06
  Archiconiopteryx GE05
  Laodelphax striatellus R96
  Daktulosphaira vitifoliae MHG04
  Froggattia Horvarth 1902 MHG04, B88
    `--F. olivinia MHG04
  Asterolecanium [Asterolecaniidae] MHG04
    `--A. pustulans MHG04
  Cephaloxys Signoret 1847 B83
  Anacornutipo lignosa S61
  Diaspidiotus alni W91
  Nipaecoccus A-G91
    |--N. aurilanatus B88
    `--N. vastator A-G91
  Ischnaspis Douglas 1887 EH09
  Pirates rufipennis Lucas 1847 E12
  Metastemma quinquemaculata Lucas 1847 E12
  Phytocoris E12
    |--P. albofasciatus Lucas 1847 E12
    |--P. femoralis Lucas 1847 E12
    |--P. instabilis Lucas 1847 E12
    `--P. rubromarginatus Lucas 1847 E12
  Haematoloecha Stäl 1874 D56
  ‘Limonia’ Carvalho 1985 nec Meigen 1803 nec Agassiz 1846 KA-Z11
  Liops Fieber 1870 KA-Z11
  Umbronia spinosa Im92
  Sagotylus confluentus Im92
  Graphocephala coccinea BM76
  Proceiphilus tesselatus BM76
  Agrioaphis kuricola BM76
  Macropis viridis BM76
  Aceratagallia uhleri BM76
  Coenocorixa expleta WL09
  Laccogrypota grandis BMW13
  Prosapia bicincta BMW13

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

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