Macrolepidoptera

Scarce wormwood Cucullia artemisiae, copyright Heidrun Melzer.


Belongs within: Apoditrysia.
Contains: Rhopalocera, Drepanidae, Geometroidea, Eupterotidae, Lasiocampidae, Sphingidae, Saturnioidea, Anthelidae, Bombycidae, Arctiidae, Lymantriidae, Caradrinidae, Notodontoidea, Aganaidae, Herminiidae, Catocalinae, Hadeninae, Heliothinae, Agrotis, Acontiinae, Agaristinae, Amphipyrinae, Plusiinae, Chloephorinae, Noctua, Nolinae.

The Macrolepidoptera is a clade containing, as its name suggests, many (but not all) of the larger species of Lepidoptera. It is characterised by the complete loss of vein CuP and the larval crochets being in a crescentic series on the mesal side of the proleg. A number of macrolepidopterans also possess sound-receptive tympanal organs, thought differences in location and structure imply non-homology: Drepanidae and Geometroidea have tympanal organs on the abdomen, Noctuoidea have them on the metathorax, and Bombycoidea lack tympanal organs (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). Tympanal organs are also absent in the Calliduloidea, a small group of diurnal moths with simple antennae and wings held back to back at rest, resembling small butterflies (Common 1970). The Bombycoidea are often large, colourful moths, whose caterpillars have prominent terminal horns and often construct elaborate silken cocoons.

<==Macrolepidoptera [Bombycina, Bombycites]
    |  i. s.: Cypra delicatula [incl. Cozistra membranacea] M86
    |         Artaxa M86
    |           |--A. lutea M86
    |           `--A. paraneura Meyrick 1886 M86
    |--+--Rhopalocera GE05
    |  |--+--Drepanidae GE05
    |  |  `--Geometroidea GE05
    |  `--Calliduloidea DS73
    |       |--Pterothysanidae DS73
    |       `--Cleis C70 [Calliduliidae GE05]
    |            `--C. scotti C70
    |--Bombycoidea GE05
    |    |--Eupterotidae ONE03
    |    |--Lasiocampidae ONE03
    |    |--Sphingidae ONE03
    |    |--Saturnioidea DS73
    |    |--Ratardidae DS73
    |    |--Anthelidae ONE03
    |    |--Bombycidae ONE03
    |    |--Oxytenidae NC91
    |    |--Cercophanidae NC91
    |    |--Carthaea Walker 1858 ONE03 [Carthaeidae DS73]
    |    |    `--C. saturnioides NC91
    |    |--Endromis [Endromidae] DS73
    |    |    `--E. versicolora DS73
    |    |--Lemoniidae ONE03
    |    |    |--Lemonia Hübner 1820 ONE03
    |    |    `--Sabalia Walker 1865 ONE03
    |    |--Apatelodidae [Apatelodinae] NO08
    |    |    |--Apatelodes Packard 1864 ONE03
    |    |    `--Olceclostera Butler 1874 ONE03
    |    |--Mimallonidae [Mimallonoidea] ONE03
    |    |    |--Bedosia strigifera (Felder & Felder 1874) [=Perophora strigifera] NS07
    |    |    `--Cicinnus [Lacosomidae] NS07
    |    |         |--C. despecta (Walker 1855) [incl. Perophora sanguinolenta Felder & Felder 1874] NS07
    |    |         `--C. melsheimeri P27b
    |    `--Brahmaeidae ONE03
    |         |--Dactyloceras Mell 1930 ONE03
    |         |--Spiramiopsis Hampson 1901 ONE03
    |         `--Brahmaea Walker 1855 ONE03
    |              |--B. certhia (Fabricius 1797) B66a (see below for synonymy)
    |              |--B. hearseyana B66b [incl. B. whitei Butler 1866 B66b, B66a]
    |              |--B. japonica Butler 1873 [incl. B. mniszechii Felder & Felder 1874] NS07
    |              |--B. lucina [=Phalaena attacus lucina, Bombyx lucina, Saturnia lucina] B66a
    |              `--B. lunulata Bremer 1852 [incl. B. petiveri Butler 1866, Saturnia undulata Bremer 1853] B66b
    `--Noctuoidea [Noctuites] GE05
         |--Arctiidae GE05
         |--Lymantriidae GE05
         |--Caradrinidae P27b
         |--Doidae GE05
         |--Notodontoidea GE05
         |--Aganaidae NC91
         |--Herminiidae NC91
         |--Oenosandra NC91 [Oenosandridae GE05]
         |    `--O. boisduvali NC91
         |--Chasmina [Glottulidae] WM66
         |    `--C. cygnus WM66
         |--Prodenia [Xylophasidae] WM66
         |    `--P. retina WM66
         |--Toxocampa [Toxocampidae] WM66
         |    `--T. metaspila WM66
         |--Homoptera [Homopteridae] WM66
         |    `--H. infligens WM66
         |--Anophia [Catephidae] WM66
         |    `--A. acronyctoides WM66
         |--Anthophila [Anthophilidae] WM66
         |    |--A. numida Lucas 1849 E12
         |    `--A. roseifascia WM66
         |--Remigia [Remigidae] WM66
         |    |--R. archesia WM66
         |    `--R. gregalis WM66
         `--Noctuidae [Noctuina] HM03
              |  i. s.: Graphania WFS04
              |           |--G. insignis M83
              |           |--G. mutans M83
              |           `--G. ustistriga M83
              |         Rictonis comma M83
              |         Arcyophora sylvatica A71
              |         Lobocraspis griseifusa A71
              |         Blasticorhinus A71
              |         Feredayia graminosa WFS04
              |         Cirphis unipuncta B96
              |         Periphyra sanguinipuncta B96
              |         Chalciope HM03
              |         Ophisma HM03
              |         Autoba alabastrata KN03
              |         Bena DS73
              |           |--B. africana DS73
              |           `--B. prasinana DS73
              |         Polychrysia moneta DS73
              |         Scoliopteryx libatrix [=Gonoptera libatrix] V09
              |         Pseudoips DS73
              |           |--P. fagana DS73
              |           |    |--P. f. fagana DS73
              |           |    `--P. f. britannica DS73
              |           `--P. hongrica DS73
              |         Diachrysia chrysitis [=Plusia chrysitis] V09
              |         Thysania DS73
              |           |--T. agrippina DS73
              |           `--T. zenobia DS73
              |         Aletia P27a
              |           |--A. funerea Philpott 1927 P27a
              |           `--A. moderata L27
              |         Cosmophila flava (Fabr. 1775) P27a
              |         Eumichtis saliaris P27b
              |         Araeoptera canescens P27b
              |         Eustrotia ritsemae P27b
              |         Palthis dugulalis P27b
              |         Autographa Bar08
              |           |--A. californica KP99
              |           `--A. gamma Bar08
              |         Orrhodiella Spuler 1907 (see below for synonymy) NO08
              |         Chlumetia transversa MHG04
              |         Sesamia MHG04
              |           |--S. grisescens MHG04
              |           |--S. inferens MHG04
              |           `--S. vuteria G84
              |         Cryphia JP05
              |           |--C. algae (Fabricius 1775) JP05
              |           `--C. ravula (Hübner 1813) JP05
              |         Paracolax tristalis (Fabricius 1775) JP05
              |         Polypogon tentacularia (Linnaeus 1758) JP05
              |         Zanclognatha JP05
              |           |--Z. lunalis (Scopli 1763) JP05
              |           `--Z. tarsipennalis Treitschke 1835 JP05
              |         Laspeyria flexula (Denis & Schiffermüller 1775) JP05
              |         Lygephila pastinum (Treischke 1826) JP05
              |         Phytometra vividaria (Clerck 1759) JP05
              |         Parascotia fuliginaria (Linnaeus 1761) JP05
              |         Macdunnoughia confusa (Stephens 1850) JP05
              |         Emmelia trabealis (Scopoli 1763) JP05
              |         Shargacucullia JP05
              |           |--S. thapsiphaga (Treitschke 1826) Bal08
              |           `--S. verbasci (Linnaeus 1758) JP05
              |         Calophasia lunula (Hufnagel 1766) JP05
              |         Hoplodrina JP05
              |           |--H. ambiqua (Denis & Schiffermüller 1775) JP05
              |           `--H. blanda (Denis & Schiffermüller 1775) JP05
              |         Elaphria venustula (Hübner 1790) JP05
              |         Atypha pulmonaris (Esper 1790) JP05
              |         Mormo maura (Linnaeus 1758) JP05 [=Mania maura V09]
              |         Talpophila matura (Hufnagel 1766) JP05
              |         Actinotia polyodon (Clerck 1759) JP05
              |         Ipimorpha subtusa (Denis & Schiffermüller 1775) JP05
              |         Parastichtis suspecta (Hübner 1817) JP05
              |         Mesogona oxalina (Hübner 1803) JP05
              |         Xanthia aurago (Denis & Schiffermüller 1775) JP05
              |         Agrochola macilenta (Hübner 1809) JP05
              |         Lithophane JP05
              |           |--L. furcifera (Hufnagel 1766) JP05
              |           |--L. ornitopus (Hufnagel 1766) JP05
              |           `--L. socia (Hufnagel 1766) JP05
              |         Blepharita satura (Denis & Schiffermüller 1775) JP05
              |         Apamea JP05
              |           |--A. monoglypha [=Xylophasia monglypha] V09
              |           `--A. sublustris (Esper 1788) JP05
              |         Mesapamea JP05
              |           |--M. didyma (Esper 1788) JP05
              |           |--M. remmi Reser 1985 JP05
              |           `--M. secalis (Linnaeus 1758) JP05
              |         Amphipoea fucosa (Freyer 1830) JP05
              |         Nonagria typhae (Thunberg 1784) JP05
              |         Archanara spargannii (Esper 1790) JP05
              |         Arenostola phragmitidis (Hübner 1803) JP05
              |         Chortodes fluxa (Hübner 1809) JP05
              |         Panolis flammea (Denis & Schiffermüller 1775) JP05
              |         Egira conspicillaris (Linnaeus 1785) JP05
              |         Rhyacia lucipeta (Denis & Schiffermüller 1775) JP05
              |         Mamestra C79
              |           |--M. brassicae C79
              |           |--M. contigua P01
              |           `--M. dissimilis P01
              |         Euxoa N88
              |           |--E. auxiliaris G17
              |           |--E. messoria H91
              |           `--E. tessellata H91
              |         Sericea spectans Guenée 1852 S66
              |         Trichoplusia ni CLB99
              |         Chorizagrotis C90
              |         Copablepheron C90
              |         Crymodes C90
              |         Luperina C90
              |         Peridroma C90
              |         Speiredonia ZS10
              |           |--S. mutabilis ZS10
              |           `--S. zamis ZS10
              |         Pericyma cruegeri G84
              |         Calamia G84
              |         Xestia c-nigrum V09
              |         Dypterygia scabriuscula V09
              |         Thyas Hübner 1824 WL09
              |         Eulepidotis T62
              |           |--E. geminata T62
              |           |--E. metamorpha T62
              |           `--E. preclara Todd 1962 T62
              |         Acronycta menyanthidis P01
              |         Dyschorista suspecta P01
              |         Agrophila trabealis P01
              |         Eculidia P01
              |           |--E. glyphica P01
              |           `--E. mi [incl. E. mi var. litterata] P01
              |         Simplica rectalis P01
              |         Pechypogon barbalis P01
              |         Bellura obliqua M10
              |           |--B. o. obliqua M10
              |           `--B. o. gargantua M10
              |         Homodes NC91
              |         Platagarista macleayi NC91
              |         Peripyra sanguinipuncta N91
              |         Thalpochares M87
              |           |--T. coccophaga Meyrick 1887 M87
              |           `--T. communimacula M87
              |--Catocalinae HM03
              |--Diloba Boisduval 1837 [incl. Heteromorpha Hübner 1822 (nom. rej.); Dilobinae] NO08
              |--Hadeninae M83
              |--Heliothinae M99
              |--Sympistinae M99
              |--Agrotis M99
              |--Acontiinae GE05
              |--Agaristinae ZS10
              |--Amphipyrinae MC13
              |--Plusiinae MC13
              |--Chloephorinae MC13
              |--Pantheinae NC91
              |--Noctua M99
              |--Nolinae NC91
              |--Catoblemma [Erastriinae] C70
              |--Austrazenia NC91 [Stiriinae M99]
              |    `--A. tusa NC91
              |--Lophoptera [Stictopterinae] NC91
              |    `--L. vittigera NC91
              |--Rivula [Rivulinae] NC91
              |    |--R. ommatopis NC91
              |    `--R. sericealis V09
              |--Hypenodinae NC91
              |    |--Trigonistis NC91
              |    `--Schrankia NC91
              |--Euteliinae NC91
              |    |--Penicillaria jocosatrix NC91
              |    |--Pataeta carbo NC91
              |    `--Bombotelia jocosatrix C70
              |--Sarrothripinae NC91
              |    |--Nanaguna breviuscula NC91
              |    `--Calathusa NC91
              |--Acronictinae NC91
              |    |--Acronicta megacephala V09
              |    `--Craniophora ligustri (Denis & Schiffermüller 1775) NC91, JP05
              |--Hypena [Hypenidae, Hypeninae] NC91
              |    |--H. laceratalis NC91
              |    |--H. obesalis P01
              |    |--H. rostralis (Linnaeus 1758) JP05
              |    `--H. scabra P27b
              |--Calpinae [Calpidae] O06
              |    |--Orsa Walker 1865 O06
              |    |    `--*O. erythrospila Walker 1865 O06
              |    `--Oresia WM66
              |         |--O. emarginata WM66
              |         `--O. rectistria WM66
              |--Ophiderinae [Ophideridae] HM03
              |    |--Lacera HM03
              |    |--Oxyodes HM03
              |    `--Ophideres WM66
              |         |--O. cajeta WM66
              |         |--O. fullonica WM66
              |         `--O. salaminia WM66
              `--Cuculliinae M99
                   |--Neogalea sunia NC91
                   `--Cucullia JP05
                        |--C. absinthii (Linnaeus 1761) JP05
                        |--C. argentina P01
                        |--C. artemisiae (Hufnagel 1766) JP05
                        |--C. fraudatrix Eversmann 1837 JP05
                        |--C. mixta Freyer 1842 Bal08
                        `--C. scopariae P01

Brahmaea certhia (Fabricius 1797) B66a [=Bombyx certhia B66a; incl. Bo. spectabilis Hope 1841 B66a, Bo. wallichii Gray 1832 B66a, Brahmaea wallichii DS73]

Orrhodiella Spuler 1907 [=Heteromorpha Failla-Tedaldi 1890 nec Hübner 1822 nec Kirby 1823 nec Hodgson 1843 nec Herrich-Schäffer 1855] NO08

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

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[WM66] Wallace, A. R., & F. Moore. 1866. List of lepidopterous insects collected at Takow, Formosa, by Mr. R. Swinhoe. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 355–365.

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[WFS04] Winks, C. J., S. V. Fowler & L. A. Smith. 2004. Invertebrate fauna of boneseed, Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera (L.) T. Norl. (Asteraceae: Calenduleae), an invasive weed in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 61–72.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

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