Incurvarioidea

Yucca moth Tegeticula yuccasella, photographed by David Beadle.


Belongs within: Heteroneura.

The Incurvarioidea are a group of small moths of which larvae include leaf-miners, gall-makers or internal borers of plants.

Characters (from Nielsen & Common 1991): Small to very small; ocelli and chaetosemata absent; antennae short to markedly longer than fore wing, scape without eye-cap, often with pecten; proboscis long, short or absent, scaled near base; maxillary palps 5-segmented to reduced; labial palps 3-segmented (rarely absent), second segment with lateral bristles; epiphysis usually present; tibial spurs 0-2-4 (rarely 0-2-2); wings usually with microtrichia, hind wing usually with frenulum and pseudofrenular bristles; male often with rows of blunt spines (pectinifers) on valva and with arrow-shaped juxta; female with long vestibulum supported by strong muscle tendons ('guy wires') and piercing ovipositor for inserting eggs in plant tissues. Larva apodous or with short prolegs, crochets in transverse rows, anal prolegs and crochets usually absent; leaf-miners later cutting out or forming flattened cases used as portable shelters while leaf-skeletonising or feeding on flowers or for pupation, or gall-makers of internal borers in stems and twigs. Pupa protruded from case at ecdysis.

<==Incurvarioidea
    |--Crinopterygidae KK03
    |--Incurvariidae KK03
    |    |--Perthida glyphopa KK03, SC04
    |    `--Incurvaria masculella DG03
    |--Adelidae KK03
    |    |--Chalceopla WRM02
    |    |    |--C. cyanella P27
    |    |    `--C. simpliciella WRM02
    |    `--Adela GE05
    |         |--A. bella P27
    |         |--A. pantherella Guénée 1849 E12
    |         |--A. septentrionalis WRM02
    |         `--A. trigrapha WRM02
    |--Heliozelidae KK03
    |    |--Plesiozela Karsholt & Kristensen 2003 KK03
    |    |    |--*P. nielseni Karsholt & Kristensen 2003 (see below for synonymy) KK03
    |    |    `--P. patagonica Karsholt & Kristensen 2003 KK03
    |    `--+--Heliozela resplendella (Stainton 1851) KK03
    |       |--Antispila cornifoliella KK03, WRM02
    |       `--Coptodisca KK03
    |            |--C. kalmiella WRM02
    |            `--C. splendiferella G17
    |--Prodoxidae HD03
    |    |  i. s.: Greya politella GE05, WRM02
    |    `--Prodoxinae GE05
    |         |--Prodoxus quinquepunctella GE05, WRM02
    |         |--Parategeticula GE05
    |         `--Tegeticula GE05
    |              |--T. alba P27
    |              |--T. corruptrix GE05
    |              |--T. intermedia GE05
    |              `--T. yuccasella WRM02
    `--Cecidosidae HD03
         |--Xanadoses Hoare & Dugdale 2003 HD03
         |    `--*X. nielseni Hoare & Dugdale 2003 HD03
         `--+--+--Ptisanora Meyrick 1913 [incl. Liopseustis Meyrick 1928] HD03
            |  |    `--*P. trivialis Meyrick 1913 [incl. P. planicola Meyrick 1928] HD03
            |  `--Scyrotis Meyrick 1909 HD03
            |       |--*S. athleta Meyrick 1909 HD03
            |       |--S. diplopsamma Meyrick 1918 HD03
            |       `--S. granosa Meyrick 1912 HD03
            `--+--Cecidoses Curtis 1835 HD03
               |    `--*C. eremita Curtis 1835 HD03
               |--Eucecidoses Brèthes 1916 HD03
               |    `--*E. minutanus Brèthes 1916 HD03
               |--Oliera Brèthes 1916 HD03
               |    `--*O. argentinana Brèthes 1916 HD03
               `--Dicranoses Kieffer & Jörgensen 1910 [incl. Ridiaschina Brèthes 1916] HD03
                    |--*D. capsulifex Kieffer & Jörgensen 1910 HD03
                    `--D. congregatella Brèthes 1916 HD03

*Plesiozela nielseni Karsholt & Kristensen 2003 [=P. obliqua Nielsen ex Karsholt & Kristensen 2003 (n. n.)] KK03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[DG03] Davis, D. R., & P. Gentili. 2003. Andesianidae, a new family of monotrysian moths (Lepidoptera: Andesianoidea) from South America. Invertebrate Systematics 17: 15-26.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[G17] Girault, A. A. 1917. Descriptiones stellarum novarum. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 80-101).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HD03] Hoare, R. J. B., & J. S. Dugdale. 2003. Description of the New Zealand incurvarioid Xanadoses nielseni, gen. nov., sp. nov. and placement in Cecidosidae (Lepidoptera). Invertebrate Systematics 17: 47-57.

[KK03] Karsholt, O., & N. P. Kristensen. 2003. Plesiozela, gen. nov. from temperate South America: Apparent sister-group of the previously known Heliozelidae (Lepidoptera: Incurvarioidea: Heliozelidae). Invertebrate Systematics 17: 39-46.

Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia, 2nd ed., vol. 2, pp. 817-915. Melbourne University Press.

[P27] Philpott, A. 1927. The maxillae in the Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 721-746.

[SC04] Stone, C., & N. C. Coops. 2004. Assessment and monitoring of damage from insects in Australian eucalypt forests and commercial plantations. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 283-292.

[WRM02] Wiegmann, B. M., J. C. Regier & C. Mitter. 2002. Combined molecular and morphological evidence on the phylogeny of the earliest lepidopteran lineages. Zoologica Scripta 31 (1): 67-81.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="http://www.fieldofscience.com/">FoS</a> = FoS