Hylesininae

Hylesinopsis dubius, from Beaver 2010.


Belongs within: Phytophaga.
Contains: Phloeotribus, Hylurgops.

The Hylesininae were recognised as one of the two subfamilies of the bark beetles by Wood (1986), though he considered them probably paraphyletic to the Scolytinae. Most members of Hylesininae are monogamous; parthenogenesis has been suggested in Sueus and Bothrosternus, and bigynous or polygynous species are known in Phloeosinini and Polygraphini. They are most commonly phloeophagous; exceptions include the myelophagous (feeding on the pith of small stems) Bothrosternini and the mycetophagous Hyorrhynchini (Wood 1986).

Characters (from Wood 1986): Each basal margin of elytra procurved and armed by a series of marginal crenulations (or less commonly by a continuous elevated costa in some Bothrosternini, Diamerini, Polygraphini), usually with a scutellar emargination between them; scutellum usually small and rounded or depressed, absent in some groups; pronotum weakly if at all declivous on anterior half, usually unarmed by crenulations sometimes present on anterolateral areas; head usually visible from above, somewhat wider; protibia usually wider; scales or deeply divided setae a common feature.

<==Hylesininae
    |--Phloeotribini [Phloeotribidae, Phthorophloeides] W86
    |    |--Phloeotribus W86
    |    `--Aricerus Blandford 1894 [incl. Hylesinosoma Lea 1910] W86
    |         |--*A. chapuisi W86
    |         `--A. eichhoffi [incl. Hylesinus fici, *Hylesinosoma fici] W86
    |--Phrixosoma Blandford 1897 (see below for synonymy) W86
    |    |--*P. rude W86
    |    |--P. magna W86
    |    |--P. psaltes [=*Bothryperus psaltes] W86
    |    |--P. quadrioculatum [=*Neohylesinus quadrioculatus] W86
    |    `--P. striatum [=*Sphaerosinus striatus] W86
    |--Hyorrhynchini [Hyorrhynchinae, Sueinae] W86
    |    |--Sueus Murayama 1951 [incl. Neohyorrhynchus Schedl 1962] W86
    |    |    `--S. niisimai [=Hyorrhynchus niisimai, *Neohyorrhynchus niisimai; incl. *Sueus sphaerotrypoides] W86
    |    |--Hyorrhynchus Blandford 1894 W86
    |    |    `--*H. lewisi W86
    |    `--Pseudohyorrhynchus Murayama 1950 W86
    |         `--*P. wadai W86
    |--Hylastini W86
    |    |--Hylurgops W86
    |    |--Scierus LeConte 1876 W86
    |    |    `--*S. annectens W86
    |    `--Hylastes Erichson 1836 W86
    |         |--*H. ater [=Bostrichus ater] W86
    |         |--H. brunneus RW02
    |         |--H. cunicularius RW02
    |         `--H. nigrinus W86
    |--Bothrosternini [Bothrosterni] W86
    |    |--Pagiocerus Eichhoff 1868 W86
    |    |    `--P. frontalis [=Bostrichus frontalis; incl. *Pagiocerus rimosus] W86
    |    |--Sternobothrus Eggers 1943 W86
    |    |    `--*S. cancellatus [=Bothrosternus cancellatus] W86
    |    |--Bothrosternus Eichhoff 1868 W86
    |    |    |--*B. truncatus W86
    |    |    `--B. foveatus W86
    |    |--Eupagiocerus Blandford 1896 [incl. Nemopagiocerus Schedl 1962] W86
    |    |    |--*E. dentipes W86
    |    |    `--E. ater [incl. E. nevermanni, *Nemopagiocerus nevermanni] W86
    |    `--Cnesinus LeConte 1868 [incl. Nemophilus Chapuis 1869] W86
    |         |--*C. strigicollis [incl. *Nemophilus strigillatus] W86
    |         |--C. annectens W86
    |         |--C. blackmani W86
    |         |--C. costulatus W86
    |         |--C. cubensis W86
    |         |--C. panamensis W86
    |         |--C. robai W86
    |         `--C. setulosus W86
    |--Diamerini [Diameridae, Sphaerotrypini, Strombophorini] W86
    |    |--Strombophorus Hagedorn 1909 W86
    |    |    `--*S. crenatus W86
    |    |--Pseudodiamerus Eggers 1933 W86
    |    |    `--*P. straitus W86
    |    |--Pernophorus Strohmeyer 1910 [=Acanthophorus Strohmeyer 1910 (preoc.)] W86
    |    |    `--*P. brevicollis [=*Acanthophorus brevicollis] W86
    |    |--Bothrosternoides Schedl 1969 W86
    |    |    `--*B. malayensis W86
    |    |--Sphaerotrypes Blandford 1894 [incl. Parasphaerotrypes Murayama 1958] W86
    |    |    |--*S. pila W86
    |    |    |--S. controversae [=*Parasphaerotrypes controversae] W86
    |    |    `--S. globosus W86
    |    |--Diamerus Erichson 1836 [incl. Acanthurus Eichhoff 1886, Lissoclastus Schaufuss 1905] W86
    |    |    |--*D. hispidus [=Hylesinus hispidus] W86
    |    |    |--D. curvifer [=Hylesinus curvifer; incl. *Acanthurus spinipennis] W86
    |    |    |--D. impar W86
    |    |    `--D. pimelioides [=*Lissoclastus pimelioides] W86
    |    `--Acacacis Lea 1910 (see below for synonymy) W86
    |         |--*A. abundans W86
    |         |--A. borneensis [=*Pseudoacacacis borneensis] W86
    |         |--A. granulicollis [=*Neodiamerus granulicollis] W86
    |         `--A. trahax [=*Trogloditica trahax] W86
    |--Hypoborini [Hypoborinae] W86
    |    |--Hypoborus Erichson 1836 W86
    |    |    `--*H. fici W86
    |    |--Zygophloeus Schedl 1958 W86
    |    |    `--*Z. australis W86
    |    |--Glochiphorus Strohmeyer 1910 W86
    |    |    `--*G. globosus W86
    |    |--Cryphyophthorus Schedl 1953 W86
    |    |    `--*C. eggersi W86
    |    |--Dacryostactus Schaufuss 1905 W86
    |    |    `--*D. kolbei W86
    |    |--Styracoptinus Wood 1962 [=Styracopterus Blandford 1896 (preoc.); incl. Afrotrypetus Bright 1981] W86
    |    |    |--*S. murex [=*Styracopterus murex] W86
    |    |    `--S. euphorbiae [=*Afrotrypetus euphorbiae] W86
    |    |--Chaetophloeus LeConte 1876 [=Pseudocryphalus Swaine 1917 non Ferrari 1869, Renocis Casey 1886] W86
    |    |    |--*C. hystrix [=Hylesinus hystrix] W86
    |    |    `--C. heterodoxus [=*Renocis heterodoxus; incl. *Pseudocryphalus brittaini] W86
    |    `--Liparthrum Wollaston 1854 (see below for synonymy) W86
    |         |--*L. bituberculatum W86
    |         |--L. albosetum W86
    |         |--L. arizonicum W86
    |         |--L. brincki [=*Dacryophthorus brincki] W86
    |         |--L. palaquium [=*Phloeochilus palaquius] W86
    |         |--L. palauense [=*Phloeotrypetus palauensis] W86
    |         `--L. squamosum [=*Erineosinus squamosus] W86
    |--Polygraphini [Carphoboridae, Polygraphidae] W86
    |    |--Serrastus Nunberg 1969 W86
    |    |    `--S. similis [=Chortastus similis; incl. *Serrastus ivoriensis] W86
    |    |--Carphobius Blackman 1943 W86
    |    |    `--*C. arizonicus W86
    |    |--Phloeographus Wood 1984 W86
    |    |    `--*P. mamibiae W86
    |    |--Cardroctonus Schedl 1966 W86
    |    |    `--*C. orientalis W86
    |    |--Bothinodroctonus Schedl 1969 W86
    |    |    `--*B. bicinctus W86
    |    |--Carphoborites Schedl 1947 [=Charphoborites (l. c.)] W86
    |    |    |--C. keilbacki Schedl 1947 W86
    |    |    `--C. posticus Schedl 1947 W86
    |    |--Chortastus Schaufuss 1905 [incl. Afrochramesus Schedl 1971] W86
    |    |    |--*C. camerunus W86
    |    |    `--*Afrochramesus’ baguenai W86
    |    |--Carphoborus Eichhoff 1864 [incl. Estenoborus Reitter 1913] W86
    |    |    |--*C. minimus [=Hylesinus minimus] W86
    |    |    |--C. perrisi [=Hylesinus perrisi; *Estenoborus perrisi] W86
    |    |    `--C. pinicolens W86
    |    `--Polygraphus Erichson 1836 (see below for synonymy) W86
    |         |--P. poligraphus (Linnaeus 1758) (see below for synonymy) W86
    |         |--P. camerunus [=*Ozophagus camerunus] W86
    |         |--P. grandiclava [=*Pseudopolygraphus grandiclava] W86
    |         |--P. quadrioculatus [=*Spongotarsus quadrioculatus] W86
    |         `--P. rufipennis [=Apate (*Lepisomus) rufipennis] W86
    |--Hylesinini [Alniphagini, Dactylipalpi, Hylastinides, Hylesinen, Phloeobori, Phloeotrupides] W86
    |    |--Hylastinus Bedel 1888 W86
    |    |    `--*H. obscurus [=Ips obscurus] W86
    |    |--Kissophagus Chapuis 1869 W86
    |    |    `--*K. hederae [=Hylesinus hederae] W86
    |    |--Pteleobius Bedel 1888 W86
    |    |    `--*P. vittatus [=Bostrichus vittatus] W86
    |    |--Cryptocurus Schedl 1957 [incl. Hyloperus Browne 1970] W86
    |    |    `--*C. spinipennis [incl. *Hyloperus bicornis]
    |    |--Neopteleobius Nobuchi 1971 W86
    |    |    `--*N. scutulatus [=Hylesinus scutulatus] W86
    |    |--Phloeoborus Erichson 1836 [incl. Phloeotrupes Erichson 1836] W86
    |    |    |--*P. rudis W86
    |    |    `--P. grandis [=*Phloeotrupes grandis] W86
    |    |--Dactylipalpus Chapuis 1869 (see below for synonymy) W86
    |    |    |--D. transversus [=*Dactylopselaphus transversus] W86
    |    |    `--D. cicatricosus [=*Ethadopselaphus cicatricosus] W86
    |    |--Alniphagus Swaine 1918 [incl. Hylastinoides Spessivitzev 1919] W86
    |    |    |--*A. aspericollis [=Hylesinus aspericollis] W86
    |    |    `--A. alni [=Hylastes alni, *Hylastinoides alni] W86
    |    |--Rhopalopselion Hagedorn 1909 [incl. Hapalogenius Hagedorn 1912] W86
    |    |    |--*R. bituberculatum W86
    |    |    `--R. globosus [=*Hapalogenius globosus] W86
    |    |--Ficicis Lea 1910 [incl. Ficiphagus Murayama 1958] W86
    |    |    |--*F. varians W86
    |    |    `--‘Hylesinus’ porcatus [incl. *Ficiphagus goliathoides] W86
    |    |--Hylesinus Fabricius 1801 [incl. Leperisinus Reitter 1913] W86
    |    |    |--*H. crenatus W86
    |    |    |--H. antipodius W86
    |    |    `--H. varius [=Bostrichus varius; incl. B. fraxini, *Leperisinus fraxini] W86
    |    `--Hylesinopsis Eggers 1920 (see below for synonymy) W86
    |         |--*H. dubius W86
    |         |--H. africanus [=*Pseudophloeotribus africanus] W86
    |         |--H. baphiae [=*Glochicopterus baphiae] W86
    |         |--H. brinckei [=Metahylesinus brinckei, *Hapalophloeus brinckei] W86
    |         |--H. endroedyi [=*Hemihylesinus endroedyi] W86
    |         |--H. joveri [=*Trypographus joveri] W86
    |         |--H. planicollis [=*Chilodendron planicolle] W86
    |         `--H. togonus [=*Pseudohylesinus togonus, *Metahylesinus togonus] W86
    |--Phloeosinini [Phloeosinides] W86
    |    |--Dendrosinus Chapuis 1869 W86
    |    |    `--*D. globosus [=Hyulesinus globosus] W86
    |    |--Hyleops Schedl 1938 W86
    |    |    `--*H. glabratus W86
    |    |--Pseudochramesus Blackman 1939 W86
    |    |    `--*P. acuteclavatus [=Chramesus acuteclavatus] W86
    |    |--Phloeosinopsoides Schedl 1964 [=Phloeosinopsis Schedl 1964 non Schedl 1936] W86
    |    |    `--*P. triseriatus [=*Phloeosinopsis triseriatus] W86
    |    |--Phloeocranus Schedl 1942 [incl. Diamerides Browne 1949] W86
    |    |    `--*P. bruchoides [incl. *Diamerides litseae] W86
    |    |--Phloeoditica Schedl 1962 W86
    |    |    `--*P. curta [=Kissophagus curtus] W86
    |    |--Carphotoreus Wood 1973 W86
    |    |    `--*C. alni [=Chaetophloeus alni] W86
    |    |--Catenophorus Nunberg 1956 W86
    |    |    `--*C. congonus W86
    |    |--Phloeosinites Hagedorn 1907 W86
    |    |    `--*P. rehi W86
    |    |--Cladoctonus Strohmeyer 1911 (see below for synonymy) W86
    |    |    |--*C. affinis W86
    |    |    |--C. banosus [=*Hoplites banosus, *Hoplitontus banosus] W86
    |    |    `--C. interruptus [=Hoplites interruptus; incl. *Hoplitophthorus sentosus] W86
    |    |--Olonthogaster Motschulsky 1866 (see below for synonymy) W86
    |    |    |--*O. nitidicollis [=*Holonthogaster nitidicollis] W86
    |    |    |--O. asper [=*Hyledius asper] W86
    |    |    |--O. spinifer [=Phloeosinus spinifer; incl. *Phloeosinopsis armatus] W86
    |    |    `--O. sumatranus [=*Hylurgulus sumatranus] W86
    |    |--Phloeosinus Chapuis 1869 W86
    |    |    |--*P. thujae [=Hylesinus thujae] W86
    |    |    |--P. bicolor W86
    |    |    |--P. cristatus W86
    |    |    |--P. cupressi B88
    |    |    `--P. punctatus W86
    |    `--Chramesus LeConte 1868 (see below for synonymy) W86
    |         |--*C. hickoriae W86
    |         |--C. annectans [=*Prochramesus annectans] W86
    |         |--C. incomptus W86
    |         |--C. quadridens W86
    |         |--C. rotundatus [incl. Dendrosinus bonnairei, *Thaumasinulus bonnairei] W86
    |         `--C. tuberculatus [=*Rhopalopleurus tuberculatus] W86
    `--Tomicini [Dendroctonides, Hylurgini, Xylechinides] W86
         |--Xylechinites Hagedorn 1907 W86
         |    `--*X. anceps Hagedorn 1907 W86
         |--Hylurgus Latreille 1807 W86
         |    `--*H. ligniperda [=Hylesinus ligniperda] W86
         |--Pachycotes Sharp 1877 W86
         |    `--P. peregrinus [=Hylesinus peregrinus; incl. *P. ventralis] W86
         |--Sinophloeus Brèthes 1922 W86
         |    `--*S. porteri W86
         |--Xylechinosomus Schedl 1963 W86
         |    `--*X. taunayi [=Xylechinus taunayi] W86
         |--Dendrotrupes Broun 1881 W86
         |    `--D. vestitus [incl. *D. costiceps] W86
         |--Hylurgopinus Swaine 1918 W86
         |    `--*H. rufipes [=Hylastes rufipes] W86
         |--Pseudoxylechinus Wood & Huang 1986 W86
         |    `--*P. uniformis W86
         |--Hylurgonotus Schedl 1951 W86
         |    |--H. tuberculatus [=Hylurgus tuberculatus; incl. *Hylurgonotus brunneus] W86
         |    `--H. antipodius W86
         |--Chaetoptelius Fuchs in Reitter 1913 (see below for synonymy) W86
         |    |--*C. vestitus [=Hylesinus vestitus, *Chaetophorus vestitus] W86
         |    `--C. mundulus [=*Homarus mundulus, *Acrantus mundulus] W86
         |--Pseudohylesinus Swaine 1917 W86
         |    |--P. sericeus [=Hylurgus sericeus; incl. *P. grandis] W86
         |    `--P. nebulosus W86
         |--Hylurdrectonus Schedl 1938 [incl. Xylogopinus Schedl 1972] W86
         |    |--*H. piniarius W86
         |    `--H. corticinus [incl. *Xylogopinus araucariae, H. araucariae] W86
         |--Tomicus Latreille 1802-1803 (see below for synonymy) W86
         |    |--*T. piniperda (Linnaeus 1758) (see below for synonymy) W86
         |    |--T. minor JKW03
         |    `--T. puellus W86
         |--Dendroctonus Erichson 1836 W86
         |    |--*D. micans [=Bostrichus micans] W86
         |    |--D. frontalis A-B91
         |    |--D. pseudotsugae RW02
         |    `--D. valens RW02
         `--Xylechinus Chapuis 1869 (see below for synonymy) W86
              |--*X. pilosus [=Hylesinus (Dendroctonus) pilosus] W86
              |--X. australis [=*Xylechinops australis] W86
              |--X. chiliensis [=*Squamasinulus chiliensis] W86
              |--X. gummensis [=*Pruniphagus gummensis] W86
              `--X. montanus W86

Acacacis Lea 1910 [incl. Neodiamerus Schedl 1971, Pseudoacacacis Schedl 1963, Trogloditica Sampson 1922] W86

Chaetoptelius Fuchs in Reitter 1913 [=Chaetophorus Fuchs 1912; incl. Acrantus Broun 1882, Homarus Broun 1881 non Weber 1795] W86

Chramesus LeConte 1868 [incl. Prochramesus Wood 1956, Rhopalopleurus Chapuis 1869, Thaumasinulus Reitter 1913] W86

Cladoctonus Strohmeyer 1911 [incl. Hoplites Eggers 1923 nec Hübner 1816 nec Koch 1869 nec Neumayr 1875, Hoplitontus Wood 1961, Hoplitophthorus Wood 1961] W86

Dactylipalpus Chapuis 1869 [=Dactylopselaphus Gemminger & Harold 1872; incl. Ethadopselaphus Blandford 1896] W86

Hylesinopsis Eggers 1920 [incl. Chilodendron Schedl 1953, Glochicopterus Schedl 1954, Hapalophloeus Schedl 1966, Hemihylesinus Schedl 1967, Metahylesinus Eggers 1922, Pseudohylesinus Eggers 1919 non Swaine 1917, Pseudophloeotribus Eggers 1933, Trypographus Schedl 1950] W86

Liparthrum Wollaston 1854 [=Leiparthrum; incl. Dacryophthorus Schedl 1971, Erineosinus Blackman 1920, Phloeochilus Schedl 1953, Phloeotrypetus Wood 1960] W86

Olonthogaster Motschulsky 1866 [=Holonthogaster Gemminger & Harold 1872; incl. Hyledius Sampson 1921, Hylurgulus Eggers 1927, Phloeosinopsis Schedl 1936] W86

Phrixosoma Blandford 1897 [incl. Bothryperus Hagedorn 1909, Neohylesinus Eggers 1920, Sphaerosinus Eggers 1929; Phrixosomini] W86

Polygraphus Erichson 1836 [incl. Lepisomus Kirby 1837, Ozophagus Eggers 1919, Pseudopolygraphus Seitner 1911, Spongotarsus Hagedorn 1908, Urdugraphus Beeson 1941 (n. n.)] W86

Polygraphus poligraphus (Linnaeus 1758) [=Dermestes poligraphus; incl. Hylesinus pubescens, *Polygraphus pubescens] W86

Tomicus Latreille 1802-1803 [=Blastophagus Eichhoff 1864 non Gravenhorst 1827, Myelophilus Eichhoff 1878] W86

*Tomicus piniperda (Linnaeus 1758) [=Dermestes piniperda, *Blastophagus piniperda, Hylesinus piniperda, *Myelophilus piniperda] W86

Xylechinus Chapuis 1869 [incl. Pruniphagus Murayama 1958, Squamasinulus Nunberg 1964, Xylechinops Browne 1973] W86

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A-B91] Athias-Binche, F. 1991. Ecology and evolution of phoresy in mites. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 27-41. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[JKW03] Jacobs, K., T. Kirisits & M. J. Wingfield. 2003. Taxonomic re-evaluation of three related species of Graphium, based on morphology, ecology and phylogeny. Mycologia 95 (4): 714-727.

[RW02] Reay, S. D., & P. J. Walsh. 2002. Relative attractiveness of some volatiles to the introduced pine bark beetles, Hylastes ater and Hylurgus ligniperda (Curculionidae: Scolytinae). New Zealand Entomologist 25: 51-56.

[W86] Wood, S. L. 1986. A reclassification of the genera of Scolytidae (Coleoptera). Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs 10: 1-126.

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