Ditrysia

Chalcoteuches phlogera, copyright CSIRO/BIO Photography Group.


Belongs within: Heteroneura.
Contains: Tineidae, Psychidae, Yponomeutoidea, Gelechioidea, Gracillariidae, Apoditrysia.

The Ditrysia is a clade containing some 98% of the species of Lepidoptera, united by the presence of an internal passage between the copulatory tract and the oviduct. Major groups in the Ditrysia include the Tineoidea, characterised by a long, telescoping oviscapt and often reduced galeae on the proboscis (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). Larva of the Tineoidea are concealed feeders, inside leaf mines or in constructed retreats. Families within the Tineoidea include the Bucculatricidae, very small moths characterised by the presence of an 'eye-cap' formed from the expanded antennal scape and a dense pecten. The Roeslerstammiidae are small moths with leaf-mining larvae at least in early instars; later instars may feed exposed on the leaf (Nielsen & Common 1991).

Synapomorphies (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Connection between copulatory opening and ovipore; large apodemes present on abdominal sternite 2; muscles in proboscis with short bands, not long fibres.

<==Ditrysia [Papilionina, Tineina, Tineites, Tortrices]
    |  i. s.: Azinis hilarella WM66
    |         Apoprogonidae NC91
    |         Epicopeia DS73 [Epicopeiidae NC91]
    |           |--E. caroli DS73
    |           `--E. polydora DS73
    |         Cerostoma Latreille 1802 L02
    |           `--*C. dorsatum [=Ypsolophus dorsatus] L02
    |--Simaethistiidae GE05
    |--Tineoidea GE05
    |    |--Pseudarbelidae DS73
    |    |--Arrhenophanidae DS73
    |    |--Acrolophidae GE05
    |    |--Tineidae GE05
    |    |--Psychidae GE05
    |    |--Eucryptogona [Eriocottidae] NC91
    |    |    `--E. trichobathra NC91
    |    |--Bucculatricidae ZS10
    |    |    |--Bucculatrix gossypii NC91
    |    |    `--Ogmograptis scribula NC91
    |    |--Douglasiidae NC91
    |    |    |--Douglasia Stainton 1854 [=Douglassia (l. c.) non Bartsch 1934] P66
    |    |    |--Tinagma leucanthes NC91
    |    |    `--Klimeschia NC91
    |    `--Roeslerstammiidae [Amphitheridae, Amphitherinae] NC91
    |         |--Amphithera heteroleuca P27
    |         |--Enchoptila idiopis P27
    |         |--Thereutis NC91
    |         |--Macarangela leucochrysa NC91, C91
    |         |--Nematobola NC91
    |         |--Chalcoteuches phlogera NC91
    |         `--Roeslerstammia NC91
    `--+--Yponomeutoidea GE05
       |--Gelechioidea GE05
       |--Gracillariidae GE05
       `--Apoditrysia GE05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C91] CSIRO. 1991. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[DS73] Dickens, M., & E. Storey. 1973. The World of Moths. Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc.: New York.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[P27] Philpott, A. 1927. The maxillae in the Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 721–746.

[P66] Powell, A. W. B. 1966. The molluscan families Speightiidae and Turridae: an evaluation of the valid taxa, both Recent and fossil, with lists of characteristic species. Bulletin of the Auckland Institute and Museum 5: 1–184, pls 1–23.

[WM66] Wallace, A. R., & F. Moore. 1866. List of lepidopterous insects collected at Takow, Formosa, by Mr. R. Swinhoe. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 355–365.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

Last updated: 25 August 2017.

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