Rosaceae

Common pear Pyrus communis, photographed by Sten Porse.


Belongs within: Rosales.
Contains: Crataegus, Cotoneaster, Roperculina, Colurieae, Rubus, Prunus, Sorbus.

The Rosaceae are a diverse family of flowering plants, varying from trees to herbs and climbers, cosmopolitan in distribution but most diverse in the Northern Hemisphere temperate zone. The family is divided between four subfamilies, distinguishing features of which include the fruits: Rosoideae generally produce aggregate fruits, while Amygdaloideae produce drupes and Pyroideae produce pomes. The Spiraeoideae have been recognised as a group of shrubs mostly producing aggregate fruits, but monophyly of this group is uncertain.

Characters (from Flora of China): Trees, shrubs, or herbs, deciduous or evergreen. Stems erect, scandent, arching, prostrate, or creeping, armed or unarmed. Buds usually with several exposed scales, sometimes with only 2. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, simple or compound; stipules paired, free or adnate to petiole, rarely absent, persistent or deciduous; petiole usually 2-glandular apically; leaf blade often serrate at margin, rarely entire. Inflorescences various, from single flowers to umbellate, corymbose, racemose or cymose-paniculate. Flowers usually actinomorphic, bisexual, rarely unisexual and then plants dioecious. Hypanthium (formed from basal parts of sepals, petals, and stamens) free from or adnate to ovary, short or elongate. Sepals usually 5, rarely fewer or more, imbricate; epicalyx segments sometimes also present. Petals as many as sepals, inserted below margin of disk, free, imbricate, sometimes absent. Disk lining hypanthium, usually entire, rarely lobed. Stamens usually numerous, rarely few, always in a complete ring at margin of or above disk; filaments usually free, very rarely connate; anthers small, didymous, rarely elongate, 2-locular. Carpels 1 to many, free, or ± connate and then adnate to inner surface of cupular receptacle; ovary inferior, semi-inferior, or superior; ovules usually 2 in each carpel, rarely 1 or several, anatropous, superposed. Styles as many as carpels, terminal, lateral, or basal, free or sometimes connate. Fruit a follicle, pome, achene, or drupe, rarely a capsule, naked or enclosed in persistent hypanthium and sometimes also by sepals. Seeds erect or pendulous, sometimes winged, usually exalbuminous, very rarely with thin endosperm; cotyledons mostly fleshy and convex abaxially, rarely folded or convolute.

<==Rosaceae
    |--Rosoideae EH03
    |    |  i. s.: Ulmarieae EH03
    |    |--Filipendula EH03
    |    |    |--*F. vulgaris EH03
    |    |    `--F. ulmaria EH03
    |    `--+--Roperculina EH03
    |       |--Colurieae EH03
    |       `--Rubeae EH03
    |            |--Dalibarda EH03
    |            |--Rubus EH03
    |            `--Rubacer odoratus [=Rubus odoratus] M27
    |--Amygdaloideae [Prunoideae] T00
    |    |--Exochorda T00
    |    |--Omleria T00
    |    |--Princepia T00
    |    |--Prunus EH03
    |    |--Laurocerasus caroliniana M93
    |    |--Amygdalus C55b
    |    |    |--A. communis C55b
    |    |    `--A. nana C55a
    |    `--Persica C55b
    |         |--P. laevis C55b
    |         `--P. vulgaris C55b
    |--Spiraeoideae T00
    |    |  i. s.: Adenostoma T00
    |    |         Lyonothamnus T00
    |    |         Neviusia T00
    |    |         Physocarpus T00
    |    |         Rhodotypos T00
    |    |         Spiraea WM09
    |    |           |--S. arcuata O88
    |    |           |--S. bella O88
    |    |           |--S. diversifolia O88
    |    |           `--S. tomentosa WM09
    |    |--Kerrieae T00
    |    `--Dryadeae T00
    |         |--Purshia EH03
    |         |--Cowania EH03
    |         |--Cercocarpus EH03
    |         `--Dryas EH03
    |              |--D. integrifolia O88
    |              `--D. octopetala EH03
    `--Maloideae [Pyroideae] G07a
         |--Kageneckia T00
         |--Vauquelinia T00
         |--Lindleya T00
         |--Porteranthus T00
         |--Malus G07b
         |    |--M. domestica TG88
         |    |--M. pumila FP01
         |    |--M. sieboldii [incl. Pyrus toringo] LO98
         |    `--M. sylvestris SW03
         |--Docynia Decaisne 1874 G05
         |    |--D. hookeriana Decaisne 1874 G05
         |    `--D. indica (Wallich) Decaisne 1874 (see below for synonymy) G05
         |         |--D. i. var. indica G05
         |         `--D. i. var. griffithiana (Decaisne) Ghora 2005 [=D. griffithiana Decaisne 1874] G05
         |--Sorbus G07a
         `--Pyrus G07b
              |--P. amygdaliformis EP91
              |--P. aria C55a
              |--P. communis R-CT01
              |--P. hondoensis TS93
              |--P. malus SW03
              |--P. pashia H42
              |--P. pyraster R-CT01
              `--P. pyrifolia [incl. P. communis var. sinensis] LO98

Rosaceae incertae sedis:
  Crataegus PCM03
  Parinari P02
  Mespilus germanica PCM03, R-CT01
  Cydonia Y98
    |--C. oblonga Y98
    |--C. sinensis C55b
    `--C. vulgaris C55b
  Osteomeles YY22
  Maddenia YY22
  Nuttalia YY22
  Parastemon YY22
  Sibiraea YY22
  Lecostomion YY22
  Pygeum YY22
  Eriobotrya japonica H06 [=Photinia japonica LO98]
  Aruncus dioicus O88
    |--A. d. ssp. dioicus O88
    `--A. d. ssp. triternatus O88
  Cotoneaster H06
  Pourthiaea villosa LO98
    |--P. v. var. villosa LO98
    `--P. v. var. laevis [incl. Eleagnus longipes] LO98
  Photinia G07b
    |--P. × fraseri Dress 1961 CD07
    |--P. glabra LO98
    `--P. pyrifolia DI03
  Chaenomeles sinensis [=Pyrus chinensis] LO98
  Rhaphiolepis umbellata MH98
    |--R. u. var. umbellata MH98
    `--R. u. var. integerrima MH98
  Pyracantha H06
    |--P. angustifolia H06
    `--P. crenulata H06
  Micromeles Decaisne 1874 [=Pyrus sect. Micromeles Hooker 1878, Sorbus sect. Micromeles Rehder 1927] G07b
    |--M. corymbifera G07b
    |--M. cuspidata G07b
    |--M. griffithii G07b
    |--M. meghalayensis G07b
    |--M. polycarpa G07b
    |--M. rhamnoides G07b
    `--M. thomsonii G07b
  Amelanchier H91
    |--A. canadensis H59
    |--A. ovalis H91
    `--A. vulgaris C55a
  Sorbaria tomentosa V09
  Adenostema fasciculata PL12

Docynia indica (Wallich) Decaisne 1874 [=Pyrus indica Colebr. ex Wallich 1831, Cydonia indica (Wallich) Spach 1834, Eriolobus indica (Wallich) Schneid. 1906] G05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1-E44.

[DI03] Denboh, T., T. Ichimura, D. Hendrayanti & A. W. Coleman. 2003. Closterium moniliferum-ehrenbergii (Charophyceae, Chlorophyta) species complex viewed from the 1506 group I intron and ITS2 of nuclear rDNA. Journal of Phycology 39: 960-977.

[EP91] Emmanouel, N. G., & H. Panou. 1991. A study on mites associated with bark and twigs of various trees in Attica (Greece). In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 523-532. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[EH03] Eriksson, T., M. S. Hibbs, A. D. Yoder, C. F. Delwiche & M. J. Donoghue. 2003. The phylogeny of Rosoideae (Rosaceae) based on sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA and the trnL/F region of chloroplast DNA. International Journal of Plant Science 164 (2): 197-211.

[FP01] Freitas, S. de, & N. D. Penny. 2001. The green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) of Brazilian agro-ecosystems. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 52: 245-395.

[G05] Ghora, C. 2005. A new combination in Docynia indica (Wall.) Decne. (Rosaceae). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47 (1-4): 149-150.

[G07a] Ghora, C. 2007a. Sorbus sujoyi Ghora (Rosaceae)—a new species from north east India. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 199-200.

[G07b] Ghora, C. 2007b. Notes on the genus Micromeles Decne. (Rosaceae) in India. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 207-210.

[H59] Healy, A. J. 1959. Contributions to a knowledge of the adventive flora of New Zealand, no. 7. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 86 (1): 113-118.

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201-222.

[H42] Hill, G. F. 1942. Termites (Isoptera) from the Australian Region (including Australia, New Guinea and islands south of the Equator between 140°E. longitude and 170°W. longitude). Commonwealth of Australia Council for Scientific and Industrial Research: Melbourne.

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255-260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263-276.

[M93] Mockford, E. L. 1993. North American Psocoptera (Insecta). Sandhill Crane Press, Inc.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180-190.

[M27] Murray, B. J. 1927. Four fungi on the endemic species of Rubus in New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 218-225.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[PL12] Peñalver, E., C. C. Labandeira, E. Barrón, X. Delclòs, P. Nel, A. Nel, P. Tafforeau & C. Soriano. 2012. Thrips pollination of Mesozoic gymnosperms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (22): 8623-8628.

[PCM03] Phipps, J. B., S. Cafferty & J. A. Macklin. 2003. Lectotypification of Crataegus coccinea L. and its conspecificity with C. pedicellata Sarg. (Rosaceae). Taxon 52: 337-338.

[P02] Pickford, M. 2002. Early Miocene grassland ecosystem at Bukwa, Mount Elgon, Uganda. Comptes Rendus Palevol 1: 213-219.

[R-CT01] Ragusa-di Chiara, S., & H. Tsolakis. 2001. Phytoseiid faunas of natural and agricultural ecosystems in Sicily. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 522-529. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[SW03] Song, D., & Q. Wang. 2003. Systematics of the longicorn beetle genus Coptomma Newman (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae). Invertebrate Systematics 17: 429-447.

[TG88] Tepfer, D., A. Goldmann, N. Pamboukdjian, M. Maille, A. Lepingle, D. Chevalier, J. Dénarié & C. Rosenberg. 1988. A plasmid of Rhizobium meliloti 41 encodes catabolism of two compounds from root exudate of Calystegium sepium. Journal of Bacteriology 170 (3): 1153-1161.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: Dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441-647.

[TS93] Tsurusaki, N., & D. Song. 1993. Occurrence of Crosbycus dasycnemus (Crosby) (Opiliones, Palpatores, Ceratolasmatidae) in China. Japanese Journal of Entomology 61 (1): 175-176.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183-194.

[WM09] Wang, H., M. J. Moore, P. S. Soltis, C. D. Bell, S. F. Brockington, R. Alexandre, C. C. Davis, M. Latvis, S. R. Manchester & D. E. Soltis. 2009. Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (10): 3853-3858.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

[Y98] Yannitsaros, A. 1998. Additions to the flora of Kithira (Greece) I. Willdenowia 28: 77-94.

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