Helicoidea

Kentish garden snail Monacha cantiana, copyright David Fenwick.


Belongs within: Stylommatophora.
Contains: Bradybaenidae, Triodopsinae, Polygyrinae, Helminthoglyptinae, Epiphragmophora, Rhagada, Camaeninae, Hygromiinae, Geomitrinae, Helicinae.

The Helicoidea is a large group of snails united by the lateral insertion of stimulator section A4 on section A2, and a thickened peristome. The majority of families (except Sphincterochilidae and Cepolis) are also characterised by an odontognath jaw (Hausdorf 1998). Many helicoids have a dart apparatus on the genitalia, but this is absent in Camaenidae.

<==Helicoidea [Helicacea, Holopoda, Mesodontoidea]
    |--Bradybaenidae C06
    |--Cepolis Montfort 1810 [Cepolinae] BR05
    |    `--C. varians BP90
    |--Monadenia Pilsbry 1895 [Monadeniidae, Monadeniinae] BR05
    |    |--M. fidelis BP90
    |    `--M. infumata BP90
    |--Cochlicella Férussac 1821 [Cochlicellidae, Cochlicellinae, Cochlicellini] BR05
    |    |--C. acuta CC06
    |    `--C. barbara [incl. C. ventricosa, C. ventrosa] BP90
    |--Elonidae BR05
    |    |--Elona Adams & Adams 1855 [Eloninae, Elonini] BR05
    |    `--Klikia Pilsbry 1895 [Klikiinae, Klikiini] BR05
    |--Halolimnohelicidae BR05
    |    |--Halolimnohelix Germain 1913 [Halolimnohelicinae] BR05
    |    `--Vicariihelix Pilsbry 1919 [Vicariihelicinae] BR05
    |--Polygyridae [Mesodontidae, Polygyracea] BR05
    |    |--Triodopsinae BR05
    |    `--Polygyrinae BR05
    |--Humboldtianidae BR05
    |    |--Bunnya Baker 1942 [Bunnyinae, Bunnyini] BR05
    |    |    `--B. bernardinae Baker 1942 C97
    |    `--Humboldtiana Ihering 1892 [Humboldtianinae] BR05
    |         `--H. chisosensis BP90
    |--Helicodontidae [Helicodontoidea] BR05
    |    |--Lindholmiola Hesse 1931 [Lindholmiolinae, Lindholmiolini] BR05
    |    `--Helicodontinae BR05
    |         |--Helicodonta Férussac 1821 [Helicodontini] BR05
    |         |--‘Gonostoma’ Held 1837 nec Rafinesque 1810 nec van Hasselt 1823 BR05
    |         `--Drepanostoma Porro 1836 [Drepanostomatini, Drepanostomini] BR05
    |--Sphincterochilidae [Sphincterochilacea] BR05
    |    |--Pseudoleptaxis Pilsbry 1895 [Pseudoleptaxinae] BR05
    |    `--Sphincterochilinae [Albeidae] BR05
    |         |--Albea Pallary 1910 BR05
    |         |--‘Calcarina’ Moquin-Tandon 1848 non d’Orbigny 1826 BR05
    |         `--Sphincterochila Ancey 1887 BR05
    |              `--S. boissieri AS07
    |--Trissexodontidae BR05
    |    |--Trissexodon Pilsbry 1895 [Trissexodontini] BR05
    |    |--Oestophora Hesse 1907 [Oestophorini] BR05
    |    |--Mastigophallus Hesse 1918 [Mastigophallini] BR05
    |    |--Gittenbergeria Schileyko 1991 [Gittenbergeriinae] BR05
    |    `--Caracollina Beck 1837 [Caracollinini] BR05
    |         `--C. lenticula CC06
    |--Pleurodontidae [Pleurodontinae] BR05
    |    |--Dentellaria Schumacher 1817 BR05
    |    |--Lampadion Röding 1798 [Lampadiidae] BR05
    |    |--Solaropsis Beck 1837 [Solaropsidae] BR05
    |    |--Pleurodonte Fischer von Waldheim 1807 BR05
    |    |    `--P. crusta (Dall 1890) AP90
    |    `--Caracolus Montfort 1810 [Caracolinae] BR05
    |         `--C. caracolla (Linnaeus 1758) AA88
    |--Helminthoglyptidae BR05
    |    |--Helmithoglyptinae BR05
    |    `--Sonorella Pilsbry 1900 [Sonorellales, Sonorellamorpha, Sonorellinae, Sonorellini] BR05
    |         |--S. baboquivariensis BP90
    |         |--S. hachitana BP90
    |         |--S. micra BP90
    |         |--S. micromphala BP90
    |         `--S. odorata C90
    |--Thysanophoridae [Thysanophorinae] BR05
    |    |--Hojeda Baker 1926 BP90
    |    |    `--H. inaguensis BP90
    |    |--Microphysula Cockerell & Pilsbry 1926 BP90
    |    |    `--M. ingersolli BP90
    |    `--Thysanophora Strebel & Pfeffer 1879 BR05
    |         |--T. horni BP90
    |         |--T. incrustata BP90
    |         `--T. plagioptycha BP90
    |--Xanthonychidae [Xanthonycidae] C06
    |    |  i. s.: Cryptostrakon Binney 1879 C97
    |    |           |--*C. gabbi Binney 1879 C97
    |    |           `--C. corcovadensis Cuezzo 1997 C97
    |    |--Xanthonyx Crosse & Fischer 1867 [Xanthonychinae] BR05
    |    |--Epiphragmophora C06
    |    |--Metostracon Pilsbry 1900 [Metostracidae, Metostracinae] BR05
    |    |    `--M. mima Pilsbry 1900 C97
    |    |--Trichodiscininae BR05
    |    |    |--Trichodiscina Martens 1892 [Trichodiscinini] BR05
    |    |    `--Miraverellia Baker 1922 [Miraverelliini] BR05
    |    `--Lysinoinae [Lysinoeinae] BR05
    |         |--Lysinoe Adams & Adams 1855 [Lysinoini] BR05
    |         `--Leptariontini BR05
    |              |--Leptarionta Crosse & Fischer 1872 BR05
    |              `--Tryonigens Pilsbry 1927 [Tryonigeninae, Tryonigentinae] BR05
    |--Camaenidae [Camaenoidea] BR05
    |    |  i. s.: Plectorhagada W08
    |    |           |--P. carcharias (Pfeiffer 1864) W08
    |    |           `--P. plectilis (Benson 1853) [=Amplirhagada plectilis] W08
    |    |         Multiscapta Yu 1982 G88
    |    |           |--M. eversilabia G88
    |    |           `--M. xinyuensis Gu 1988 G88
    |    |         Exiligada negriensis Iredale 1939 S88
    |    |         Amplirhagada napierana Solem 1981 S88
    |    |         Westraltrachia commoda (Iredale 1939) S88
    |    |         Mouldingia orientalis Solem 1984 S88
    |    |         Pleurodontites diespiter (Dall 1890) AP90
    |    |         Zachrysia Pilsbry 1894 BP90
    |    |           |--Z. auricoma BP90
    |    |           `--Z. provisoria BP90
    |    |--Rhagada BR05
    |    |--Sinumelon Iredale 1930 [Sinumeloninae] BR05
    |    `--Camaeninae BR05
    |--Hygromiidae [Helicellidae, Hygromioidea] BR05
    |    |  i. s.: Monachoides incarnatus (Müller 1774) HM07
    |    |         Urticicola umbrosus (Pfeiffer 1828) HM07
    |    |         Xerolenta obvia (Menke 1828) HM07
    |    |         Candidula Kobelt 1871 BP90
    |    |           `--C. intersecta [incl. Helicella caperata] BP90
    |    |--Hygromiinae BR05
    |    |--Ponentina Hesse 1921 [Ponentiniinae, Ponentininae] BR05
    |    |--Geomitrinae BR05
    |    |--Ciliellinae BR05
    |    |    |--Ciliella Mousson 1872 [Ciliellini] BR05
    |    |    `--Canariella Hesse 1918 [Canariellidae, Canariellini] BR05
    |    `--Monachainae BR05
    |         |--Carthusiana Kobelt 1871 [Carthusianea, Carthusianini] BR05
    |         |--Euomphalia Westerlund 1889 [Euomphaliinae, Euomphaliini] BR05
    |         |--Hesseola Lindholm 1927 [Hesseolinae] BR05
    |         `--Monacha Fitzinger 1833 [Monachaini, Monachea] BR05
    |              |--M. cantiana BP90
    |              |--M. carascaloides (Bourguignat 1855) O03
    |              `--M. solidior (Mousson 1863) O03
    `--Helicidae [Cochleophora, Helicinia, Scutifera] BR05
         |  i. s.: Wladislavia Wagner 1927 BR05
         |         Labyrinthus A66
         |           |--L. bifurcatus A66
         |           |--L. furcillatus A66
         |           `--L. leprieurii A66
         |         Ammonoceras guayaquilense A66
         |         Ophiogyra A66
         |           |--O. stenogyra A66
         |           `--O. stenostrepta A66
         |         Otostomus A66
         |           |  i. s.: O. bartletti Adams 1866 A66
         |           |         O. canaliculatus A66
         |           |         O. pulcherrimus Adams 1866 A66
         |           |         O. scitus Adams 1866 A66
         |           |--O. (Leiostracus) maculatus A66
         |           |--O. (Leptomerus) heloicus A66
         |           `--O. (Mormus) A66
         |                |--O. (M.) exornatus A66
         |                `--O. (M.) toraylii A66
         |         Iberellus pyrenaicus (Rossmässler 1839) (see below for synonymy) A-Z04
         |         Eobania Hesse 1913 BP90
         |           `--E. vermiculata (Müller 1774) O03
         |--Helicinae BR05
         `--Ariantinae [Ariantidae] BR05
              |--Campylaea Beck 1837 [Campylaeinae] BR05
              |    `--C. eichwaldi S01
              |--Arianta Turton 1831 BR05
              |    `--A. arbustorum (Linnaeus 1758) HM07
              `--Helicigona Férussac 1821 [Helicigoninae, Helicigonini] BR05
                   |--H. arbustorum RP91
                   `--H. lapicida (Linnaeus 1758) HM07

Iberellus pyrenaicus (Rossmässler 1839) [=Helix hispanica var. pyrenaica; incl. H. companyonii Aleron in Companyo 1837 (n. n.), Iberellus companyonii, H. minoricensis Mittre 1842] A-Z04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AS07] Aardt, W. J. van, & S. S. J. Steytler. 2007. Shell permeability and desiccation physiology of the freshwater snail Bulinus (Bulinus) tropicus (Krauss). Malacologia 49 (2): 339-349.

[A66] Adams, H. 1866. List of land and freshwater shells collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the Upper Amazons, and on the River Ucayali, eastern Peru, with descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 440-445.

[A-Z04] Alonso-Zarazaga, M. A. 2004. Precisiones sobre un artículo nomenclatural acerca de la validez “taxonómica” de Iberellus companyonii (Aleron, 1837) recientemente publicado (Mollusca, Pulmonata, Helicidae). Graellsia 60 (1): 101-105.

[AA88] Auffenberg, K. & T. Auffenberg. 1988. Density, spatial distribution, activity patterns, and biomass of the land snail, Geophorus bothropoma Moellendorff (Prosobranchia: Helicinidae). Nautilus 102 (1): 40-45.

[AP90] Auffenberg, K. & R. W. Portell. 1990. A new fossil land snail (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Polygyridae) from the Middle Miocene of northern Florida. Nautilus 103 (4): 143-148.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, J. Frýda, B. Hausdorf, W. Ponder, Á. Valdés & A. Warén. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1-2): 1-397.

[BP90] Burch, J. B., & T. A. Pearce. 1990. Terrestrial Gastropoda. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 201-309. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[CC06] Cameron, R. A. D., L. M. Cook, G. A. Goodfriend & M. B. Seddon. 2006. Fossil land snails of Porto Santo, Madeiran archipelago: change and stasis in Pleistocene to Recent times. Malacologia 49 (1): 25-59.

[C90] Crawford, C. S. 1990. Scorpiones, Solifugae, and associated desert taxa. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 421-475. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[C97] Cuezzo, M. G. 1997. Cryptostrakon corcovadensis, a new species of semislug from Costa Rica (Helicoidea: Xanthonychidae) with comments on the systematic position of the genus. American Malacological Bulletin 14 (1): 1-8.

[C06] Cuezzo, M. G. 2006. Systematic revision and cladistic analysis of Epiphragmophora Doering from Argentina and southern Bolivia (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora: Xanthonychidae). Malacologia 49 (1): 121-188.

[G88] Gu H.-L. 1988. Fossils of land snails from Xinyu Formation (early Tertiary) of Qingjiang Basin, Jiangxi Province. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 27 (1): 111-124.

Hausdorf, B. 1998. Phylogeny of the Limacoidea sensu lato (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora). Journal of Molluscan Studies 64 (1): 35-66.

[HM07] Honek, A., & Z. Martinkova. 2007. A field method for quantifying the grazing activity of slugs, with particular reference to Arion lusitanicus (Mollusca). Malacologia 49 (2): 273-281.

[O03] Örstan, A. 2003. The rediscovery of Zonites algirus in İstanbul, Turkey (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Zonitidae). Zoology in the Middle East 29: 75-78.

[RP91] Raut, S. K., & A. Panigrahi. 1991. The mite Fuscuropoda marginata (C. L. Koch) for the control of pest slugs Laevicaulis alte (Férussac). In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 683-687. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[S88] Solem, A. 1988. Non-camaenid land snails of the Kimberley and Northern Territory, Australia. I. Systematics, affinities and ranges. Invertebrate Taxonomy 4: 455-604.

[S01] Sturany, R. 1901. Csigák és kagylók [Mollusken]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy], Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy], pp. 69-74. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[W08] Wilson, B. 2008. Terrestrial gastropods of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 21-24.

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