Field of Science

Frankliniella

Western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis, from here.


Belongs within: Thripidae.

Frankliniella is a large genus of thrips, most diverse in the Neotropics though some species are cosmopolitan crop pests. These include the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and the common blossom thrips F. schultzei. They cause scarring and deformation of leaves, flowers and fruit of a wide range of crops, and can also transmit viruses between plants.

Characters (from Mound & Marullo 1996): Antennae eight-segmented (rarely seven-segmented), segments III and IV each with a forked trichome; head with ocellar setae I present, III variable in position; compound eyes usually with four pigmented ommatidia (rarely five or absent); pronotum usually with two pairs of long setae on anterior margin (sometimes reduced) and two pairs of long posteroangular setae; pronotal posterior margin with median pair of setae (pm I) shorter than submedian pair (pm II); mesonotal median setae arising at anterior margin of the sclerite; metanotal median setae arising at anterior margin of the sclerite; wings usually fully developed in both sexes, both veins with a complete row of setae, wing-scale usually with 5 veinal and one discal setae; tergite II with three lateral marginal setae, a fourth seta on extreme anterior angle of pleurotergite; tergites V–VIII with paired lateral ctenidia, on VIII anterolateral to spiracles; sternite I with three small anteromedian setae; sternites III–VII without discal setae; the three pairs of marginal setae on sternite VII arising at or close to the margin. Larvae with reduced microtrichia on antennal segment III; tergite IX with a small row of teeth on posterior margin, the distance between the pair of dorsal sensilla about twice the distance between the median dorsal setae, posterior sclerotised band usually extending anteriorly beyond dorsal setae; tergite X with sclerotised band extending at least to dorsal sensilla.

<==Frankliniella Karny 1910 B06 [incl. Bolbothrips Crawford 1945 MM96, Exophthalmothrips Moulton 1933 MM96]
    |--*F. intonsa [=Thrips intonsa] MM96
    |--F. aeschyli Girault 1927 G27
    |--F. akaina Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
    |--F. aliaepennae Berzosa 2006 B06
    |--F. altura Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
    |--F. ameliae Hood 1925 MM96
    |--F. amigoi Berzosa & Maroto 2003 B06
    |--F. annulipes Hood 1915 JR-SM-G05 [incl. F. ingentissima Priesner 1933 MM96]
    |--F. aurea Moulton 1948 MM96
    |--F. aureominuta Johansen 1981 MM96
    |--F. aztecus (Crawford 1945) [=*Bolbothrips aztecus] MM96
    |--F. bagnalliana Hood 1925 B06 [incl. F. inutilis Priesner 1932 MM96, F. varitibia Moulton 1948 MM96]
    |--F. bispinosa MM96
    |--F. bondari Hood 1942 [incl. F. alba Moulton 1948, F. bratleyi Watson 1942] MM96
    |--F. borinquen Hood 1942 MM96
    |--F. brevicaulis Hood 1937 MM96
    |--F. breviseta Moulton 1948 MM96
    |--F. bruneri Watson 1926 B06 [incl. F. inornata Moulton 1936 MM96, F. pseudotritici Priesner 1932 MM96]
    |--F. brunnea Priesner 1932 B06 (see below for synonymy)
    |--F. cassiae Berzosa 2006 B06
    |--F. cephalica Crawford 1910 MM96
    |--F. chamulae Johansen 1981 MM96
    |--F. citripes Hood 1916 B06
    |--F. colombiana Moulton 1948 MM96
    |--F. cotobrusensis Retana & Mound 1995 MM96
    |--F. crotalariae Mound & Marullo 1996 B06
    |--F. cubensis Hood 1925 MM96
    |--F. curiosa Priesner 1932 MM96
    |--F. curta Hood 1942 [incl. Isochaetothrips unicolor Moulton 1933] MM96
    |--F. desertileonidum Watson 1942 [incl. F. oneillae Johansen 1979] MM96
    |--F. desmodii Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
    |--F. difficilis Hood 1925 MM96
    |--F. distinguenda Bagnall 1919 [incl. Isochaetothrips varicornis Moulton 1933, F. verbesinae Sakimura 1967] MM96
    |--F. diversa Hood 1935 MM96
    |--F. espeletiae Berzosa 2006 B06
    |--F. fallaciosa Priesner 1933 MM96
    |--F. floydandrei Sakimura & O’Neill 1979 MM96
    |--F. fulvipennis Moulton 1933 [incl. F. chiapaensis Johansen 1981] MM96
    |--F. fulvipes Bagnall 1919 B06 [incl. F. sulfuripes Hood 1937 MM96]
    |--F. fusca (Hinds 1902) [=Euthrips fusca] MM96
    |--F. gardeniae Moulton 1948 MM96
    |--F. gemina MM96
    |--F. georgiensis Beshear 1982 MM96
    |--‘Euthrips’ gossypii Morgan 1913 [incl. Frankliniella gossypiana Hood 1936] MM96
    |--F. gracilis Berzosa 2006 B06
    |--F. hansoni Retana & Mound 1995 MM96
    |--F. hemerocallis Crawford 1948 MM96
    |--F. incerta Berzosa 2006 B06
    |--F. insularis (Franklin 1908) MM96 (see below for synonymy)
    |--F. invasor Sakimura 1972 MM96
    |--F. jamaicensis Sakimura & O’Neill 1979 MM96
    |--F. kelliae Sakimura 1981 MM96
    |--F. kiesteri Retana & Mound 1995 MM96
    |--F. lichenicola Johansen & Mojica 1989 MM96
    |--*Exophthalmothrips’ longipennis MM96
    |--F. lorena Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
    |--F. mekokara Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
    |--F. melanommata Williams 1913 MM96
    |--F. minuta (Moulton 1907) [=Euthrips minuta] MM96
    |--F. mixteca Johansen 1981 MM96
    |--F. molesta Priesner 1932 MM96
    |--F. montanosa Retana & Mound 1994 B06
    |--F. moultoni MM96
    |--F. musaeperda Hood 1952 MM96
    |--F. nigricauda Hood 1925 MM96
    |--F. occidentalis (Pergande 1895) B06 (see below for synonymy)
    |--F. otites Berzosa & Maroto 2003 B06
    |--F. panamensis Hood 1925 B06
    |--F. paramorum Berzosa 2006 B06
    |--F. parvula Hood 1925 MM96
    |--F. pasta Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
    |--F. peruviana MM96
    |--F. pineticola Hood 1942 B06
    |--F. pintada Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
    |--F. pulchella Hood 1935 B06
    |--F. ramirezi Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
    |--F. regentis Berzosa 2006 B06
    |--F. regia Hood 1942 B06
    |--F. regina Hood 1937 B06
    |--F. rodeos MM96
    |--F. rostrata Priesner 1932 B06
    |--F. salviae Moulton 1948 MM96
    |--F. sanramona Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
    |--F. schultzei Trybom 1910 B06 [incl. F. ipomoeae Moulton 1948 MM96, F. sulphurea MM96]
    |--F. simplex Priesner 1924 B06 [incl. F. inutilis f. adadusta Moulton 1948 MM96]
    |--F. spinosissima Johansen & Mojica 1989 B06
    |--F. standleyana Hood 1935 B06
    |--F. sueoa Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
    |--F. talamanca Mound & Marullo 1996 MM96
    |--F. tolucensis Watson 1942 MM96
    |--F. torquis Berzosa 2006 B06
    |--F. trinidadensis Hood 1942 [incl. F. lactea Moulton 1948] MM96
    |--F. trisetosa Hood 1942 B06
    |--F. tritici MM96
    |--F. trybomi Karny 1920 GM79
    |--F. vargasi Retana & Mound 1994 B06
    |--F. varipes Moulton 1933 MM96
    |--F. wedeliae Berzosa 2006 B06
    |--F. williamsi Hood 1915 B06
    |--F. zeteki Hood 1925 MM96
    `--F. zurqui Retana & Mound 1995 MM96

Frankliniella brunnea Priesner 1932 B06 [incl. F. fuscipennis Moulton 1948 MM96, F. inopinata Moulton 1948 MM96, Euthrips cephalica var. reticulata Crawford 1910 non E. insularis var. reticulata Crawford 1909 MM96, F. tridacana Hood 1937 MM96]

Frankliniella insularis (Franklin 1908) MM96 [=Euthrips insularis MM96, Franklinothrips (l. c.) insularis G30; incl. Frankliniella fortissima Priesner 1925 MM96, E. insularis var. reticulata Crawford 1909 MM96]

Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande 1895) B06 [=Euthrips occidentalis MM96; incl. F. dianthi Moulton 1948 MM96, F. syringae Moulton 1948 MM96]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B06] Berzosa, J. 2006. Some new Neotropical species of Frankliniella Karny in the Senckenberg collection, Frankfurt am Main (Germany) (Insecta, Thysanoptera, Thripidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 86 (1): 55-74.

[G27] Girault, A. A. 1927. Some new wild animals. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 208-210).

[G30] Girault, A. A. 1930. New pests from Australia. IX. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 278-279).

[GM79] Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 1-400.

[JR-SM-G05] Johansen, R. M., A. P. Retana-Salazar & A. Mojica-Guzmán. 2005. A review of the New World bryophyte-feeding genus Wegenerithrips Johansen 1983 (Insecta, Thysanoptera, Thripidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (1): 61-83.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1-487.

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