Diptera

Mating pair of Nymphomyia, from here.


Belongs within: Panorpoidea.
Contains: Neoneura, Tipuloidea.

The Diptera, flies, are a diverse group of insects characterised by the reduction of the hind pair of wings to small sensory knobs called halteres. Molecular analysis supports recognition of the genus Deuterophlebia, the mountain midges, as sister taxon to the remaining flies (Wiegmann et al. 2011). Deuterophlebia species live as larvae in fast-flowing streams; the adult males are characterised by the possession of remarkably long antennae. Also associated with fast-flowing streams is the genus Nymphomyia, whose species have strap-like wings with reduced venation and a long fringe. These wings are shed after mating.

Synapomorphies (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Pro- and metathorax reduced; hind wings reduced to halteres; labial palps fused into labellum; mandibles reduced; male abdominal spiracle 8 lost; sperm pump present.

<==Diptera [Archidiptera, Blephariceroidea, Blephariceromorpha, Muscida, Nematocera]
    |--Deuterophlebia Iw92 [Deuterophlebiidae WT11, Deuterophlebioidea]
    |    |--D. coloradensis WT11
    |    `--D. nipponica Kitakami 1938 Iw92
    `--+--+--Nymphomyia GE05 [Nymphomyiidae WT11, Nymphomyioidea]
       |  |    |--N. dolichopeza WT11
       |  |    |--N. succina GE05
       |  |    `--N. walkeri HN13
       |  `--Strashilidae [Nakridletia, Vosilidae] HN13
       |       |--Strashila Rasnitsyn 1992 HN13
       |       |    |--*S. incredibilis HN13
       |       |    `--S. daohugouensis Huang, Nel et al. 2013 HN13
       |       `--Vosila sinensis Vršanský, Ren & Shih 2010 [incl. Parazila saurica Vršanský, Ren & Shih 2010] HN13
       `--+--+--Psychotipinae BLM02
          |  `--Neoneura GE05
          `--Tipulomorpha GE05
               |--Vladiptera [Vladipteridae] BLM02
               |    `--V. kovalevi BLM02
               `--+--Tipuloidea GE05
                  `--+--Gnomuscidae GE05
                     `--Trichoceridae [Trichoceroidea] WT11
                          |--Mailotrichocera jurassica BLM02
                          |--Paracladura trichoptera M90
                          `--Trichocera WT11
                               |--T. brevicornis WT11
                               |--T. columbiana M90
                               `--T. garretti M90

Diptera incertae sedis:
  Stomatomyia floridensis W01
  Parapsocus R02
  Protendipedidae BLM02
  Gracilitipulidae BLM02
  Zhangobiidae BLM02
  Glyptotendipes S02
  Eretmopodites A71
  Haemagogus A71
  Sabethes A71
  Urophora A71
    |--U. jaceana A71
    |--U. radiata Macquart 1849 E12
    `--U. solstitialis B04
  Lipara lucens A71
  Philornis HSS13
    |--P. downsi HSS13
    `--P. pici SWK87
  Sarcophila japonica (Rohdendorf 1962) Iw92
  Odontosoma Townsend 1916 C92
  Dasyneura mali H74
  Arocera longirostris T27
  Antiopa Meigen 1800 BR05
  Euribia Meigen 1800 BR05
  Purpurella Robineau-Desvoidy 1853 BR05
  Volvula Gistl 1848 BR05
  Thyreophora cynophila GE05
  Melanagromyza phaseoli B88
  Pycnosoma rufifacies B88
  Pseudonapomyza cingulata B88
  ‘Eatonia’ Meunier 1905 nec Hall 1857 nec Smith 1875 S61
  Megathon zwicki GE05
  Bibiocephala GE05
  Ansorgius GE05 [Ansorgiidae BLM02]
  Sinotendipedidae BLM02
  Speiserella Kishida 1931 TYM08
  Sericocera E12
    |--S. algira Macquart 1849 E12
    `--S. fuscipennis Macquart 1849 E12
  Platypalpus algirus Macquart 1849 E12
  Psilopus algirus Macquart 1849 E12
  Jurinia angustiventris Macquart 1849 E12
  Odontomyia limbata Macquart 1849 E12
  Hydrophoria limbinervis Macquart 1849 E12
  Physegaster Macquart 1849 E12
    `--P. maculatus Macquart 1849 E12
  Dinera nigripes Macquart 1849 E12
  Borborus oeneus Macquart 1849 E12
  Amictus pulchellus Macquart 1849 E12
  Merodon pumilus Macquart 1849 E12
  Usia vestita Macquart 1849 E12
  Bayeriola salicariae MB93
  Scopeuma stercorarium Im92

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BLM02] Blagoderov, V. A., E. D. Lukashevich & M. B. Mostovski. 2002. Order Diptera Linné, 1758. The true flies (=Muscida Laicharting, 1781). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 227-240. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[BR05] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, J. Frýda, B. Hausdorf, W. Ponder, Á. Valdés & A. Warén. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1-2): 1-397.

[B04] Briese, D. T. 2004. Weed biological control: applying science to solve seemingly intractable problems. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 304-317.

[C92] Crawford, R. L. 1992. Catalogue of the genera and type species of the harvestman superfamily Phalangioidea (Arachnida). Burke Museum Contributions in Anthropology and Natural History 8: 1-60.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H74] Helson, G. A. H. 1974. Insect Pests: Identification, life history, and control of pests of farms, horticulture, gardens, and public health. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[HSS13] Hirschfeld, E., A. Swash & R. Still. 2013. The World’s Rarest Birds. Princeton University Press: Princeton (New Jersey).

[HN13] Huang, D., A. Nel, C. Cai, Q. Lin & M. S. Engel. 2013. Amphibious flies and paedomorphism in the Jurassic period. Nature 495: 94-97.

[Im92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[Iw92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[MB93] Malecki, R. A., B. Blossey, S. D. Hight, D. Schroeder, L. T. Kok & J. R. Coulson. 1993. Biological control of purple loosestrife. BioScience 43 (10): 680-686.

[M90] McAlpine, J. F. 1990. Insecta: Diptera adults. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1211-1252. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[R02] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002. Superorder Psocidea Leach, 1815. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 125-133. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[S02] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002. Ecological history of the aquatic insects. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 388-426. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[S61] Southcott, R. V. 1961. Studies on the systematics and biology of the Erythraeoidea (Acarina), with a critical revision of the genera and subfamilies. Australian Journal of Zoology 9: 367-610.

[TYM08] Tennent, W. J., M. Yasuda & K. Morimoto. 2008. Lansania Journal of arachnology and zoology—a rare and obscure Japanese natural history journal. Archives of Natural History 35 (2): 252-280.

[T27] Thomson, G. M. 1927. The pollination of New Zealand flowers by birds and insects. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 106-125.

[W01] Weissman, D. B. 2001. North and Central America Jerusalem crickets (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatidae): Taxonomy, distribution, life cycle, ecology and related biology of the American species. In The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies (L. H. Field, ed.) pp. 57-72. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690-5695.

Leptoceroidea

Larva and case of Triaenodes reuteri, from Biodiversity Institute of Ontario.


Belongs within: Integripalpia.
Contains: Sericostomatoidea.

The Leptoceroidea are a group of caddisflies with the base of vein 2A in the forewing anal loop separated by a jugal fold (Ivanov & Sukatsheva 2002). Leptoceroidea may be paraphyletic with regard to the Sericostomatoidea.

Synapomorphies (from Ivanov & Sukatsheva 2002, for Leptoceroidea + Sericostomatoidea): Larva with forked lamellae only on segment 8; Gilson glands reduced on prosternum, hind legs adopting sensory function and turned upwards.

Leptoceroidea
    |--+--+--Tasimiidae GE05
    |  |  `--Odontocerum Lach 1815 BZ-M04 [Odontoceridae GE05, Odontocerinae]
    |  |       `--O. albicorne (Scopoli 1763) BZ-M04
    |  `--+--Atriplectididae GE05
    |     `--Philorheithridae GE05
    `--+--Sericostomatoidea GE05
       `--+--Limnocentropodidae IS02
          `--+--Molannidae GE05
             `--+--Calamoceras Brauer 1865 BZ-M04 [Calamoceratidae GE05, Calamoceratinae]
                |    `--C. marsupus Brauer 1865 BZ-M04
                `--Leptoceridae GE05
                     |  i. s.: Erotesis IS02
                     |         Oligoplectrum IS02
                     |         Triplectides PC66
                     |           |--T. australicus TDC06
                     |           |--T. cephalotes PC66
                     |           `--T. obsoleta PC66
                     `--Leptocerinae BZ-M04
                          |  i. s.: Leptocerus A71
                          |--Athripsodini BZ-M04
                          |    |--Athripsodes Billberg 1820 BZ-M04
                          |    |    |--A. albifrons (Linnaeus 1758) BZ-M04
                          |    |    `--A. taounate BZ-M04
                          |    `--Ceraclea Stephens 1829 BZ-M04
                          |         `--C. sobradieli (Navás 1917) BZ-M04
                          |--Mystacides Berthold 1827 [Mysacidini] BZ-M04
                          |    `--M. azurea (Linnaeus 1761) BZ-M04
                          |--Oecetis McLachlan 1877 [Oecetini] BZ-M04
                          |    `--O. grazalemae BZ-M04
                          |--Setodes Rambur 1842 [Setodini] BZ-M04
                          |    |--S. argentipunctellus McLachlan 1877 BZ-M04
                          |    `--S. portionalis S02
                          `--Triaenodini BZ-M04
                               |--Triaenodes
                               |    |--T. detruncatus Martynov 1924
                               |    |--T. reuteri
                               |    `--T. simulans Tjeder 1929 [incl. T. forsslundi Tjeder 1941]
                               `--Adicella McLachlan 1877 BZ-M04
                                    `--A. reducta (McLachlan 1865) BZ-M04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BZ-M04] Bonada, N., C. Zamora-Muñoz, M. Rieradevall & N. Prat. 2004. Trichoptera (Insecta) collected in Mediterranean river basins of the Iberian Peninsula: taxonomic remarks and notes on ecology. Graellsia 60 (1): 41-69.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[IS02] Ivanov, V. D., & I. D. Sukatsheva. 2002. Order Trichoptera Kirby, 1813. The caddisflies (=Phryganeida Latreille, 1810). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 199-220. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[PC66] Pendergrast, J. G., & D. R. Cowley. 1966. An Introduction to New Zealand Freshwater Insects. Collins: Auckland.

[S02] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002. Ecological history of the aquatic insects. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 388-426. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[TDC06] Timms, B. V., B. Datson & M. Coleman. 2006. The wetlands of the Lake Carey catchment, northeast Goldfields of Western Australia, with special reference to large branchiopods. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (4): 175-183.

[T76] Tobias, W. 1976. Köcherfliegen und Steinfliegen einiger Gewässer in Sör Varanger (Nord-Norwegen) (Trichoptera, Plecoptera). IV. Triaenodes detruncatus Martynov neu für Norwegen. Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1-3): 49-53.

Ditomyiidae

Symmerus annulatus, photographed by J. K. Lindsey.


Belongs within: Sciaroidea.

The Ditomyiidae are a group of fungus gnats characterised by wings with the media and cubitus connected, and vein R4 relatively long (Tonnoir & Edwards 1927).

Characters (from Tonnoir & Edwards 1927, as Ditomyiinae): R4 present and rather long, generally half or more than half as long as Rs; Sc short and ending free; posterior divisions of pronotum with one or more longish bristles.

<==Ditomyiidae [Ditomyiinae]
    |--Centrocnemis TE27
    |    |--C. basalis Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |    |--C. fumipennis Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |    |--C. nitida Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |    |--C. tillyardi Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |    `--C. trivittata Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |--Symmerus annulatus WT11
    `--Nervijuncta Marshall 1896 (see below for synonymy) TE27
         |--*N. nigrescens Marshall 1896 TE27
         |--N. bicolor Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |--N. flavoscutellata Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |--N. harrisi Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |--N. hexachaeta Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |--N. hudsoni (Marshall 1896) [=*Cyrtoneura hudsoni, *Arctoneura hudsoni] TE27
         |--N. longicauda Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |--N. marshalli Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |--N. nigricornis Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |--N. nigricoxa Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |--N. ostensackeni Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |--N. parvicauda Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 (see below for synonymy) TE27
         |--N. pilicornis Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |--N. pulchella Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |--N. punctata Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 (see below for synonymy) TE27
         |--N. ruficeps Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 [incl. N. ruficeps var. continua Tonnoir & Edwards 1927] TE27
         |--N. tridens (Hutton 1881) [=Platyura tridens, *Casa tridens, *Huttonia tridens] TE27
         `--N. wakefieldi (Edwards 1921) (see below for synonymy) TE27

Nervijuncta Marshall 1896 [incl. Cyrtoneura Marshall 1896 (preoc.), Arctoneura Hutton 1901, Huttonia Marshall 1896 non Pickard-Cambridge 1879, Casa Hutton 1901] TE27
Nervijuncta parvicauda Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 [incl. N. parvicauda var. suffusa Tonnoir & Edwards 1927] TE27
Nervijuncta punctata Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 [incl. N. punctata var. robusta Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927] TE27
Nervijuncta wakefieldi (Edwards 1921) [=Arctoneura wakefieldi; incl. N. wakefieldi var. abbreviata Tonnoir & Edwards 1927] TE27

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[TE27] Tonnoir, A. L., & F. W. Edwards. 1927. New Zealand fungus gnats (Diptera, Mycetophilidae). Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 747-878.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690-5695.

Sciaroidea

Female Bolitophila, photographed by Kevin Hall.


Belongs within: Neoneura.
Contains: Ditomyiidae, Mycetophilidae, Keroplatidae, Sciaridae, Cecidomyiidae.

The Sciaroidea are a diverse clade of mostly lightly built flies, including the fungus gnats and related taxa. Many of its constituent taxa previously combined in the family Mycetophilidae have been divided into separate families on the basis of the latter family's non-monophyly.

Synapomorphies (from Amorim & Rindal 2007, as Mycetophiliformia): Wings with r-m directed obliquely backwards; bM absent; width of basal radial (br) + basal medial (bm) combined cells smaller than medial fork width; first sector of M3+4 longitudinal; m-cu longitudinal, with basal angle; M4 parallel to CuA along its basal one-third; A1 incomplete or absent; male sternite 9 reduced to slender strip.

<==Sciaroidea [Mycetophiliformia]
    |  i. s.: Pleciofungivora [Pleciofungivoridae] BLM02
    |         Antefungivoridae BLM02
    |         Mesosciophilidae BLM02
    |--Eoditomyia [Eoditomyiidae] GE05
    `--+--+--Ditomyiidae GE05
       |  `--Manota TE27 [Manotidae WT11, Manotinae]
       |       |--M. coxata TE27
       |       |--M. defecta TE27
       |       |--M. flavipes TE27
       |       |--M. maorica Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
       |       |--M. orientalis TE27
       |       `--M. unuifurcata TE27
       `--+--Diadocidiidae [Diadocidiinae] WT11
          |    |--Heterotricha novaezelandiae Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
          |    |--Paleoheterotricha TE27
          |    `--Diadocidia P76
          |         |--D. ferruginosa WT11
          |         `--D. spinosula P76
          `--+--+--Mycetophilidae WT11
             |  `--+--Keroplatidae WT11
             |     `--Bolitophila Meigen 1818 P86 [Bolitophilidae WT11, Bolitophilinae]
             |          |--B. aperta P76
             |          |--B. basicornis (Mayer 1951) P86
             |          |--B. (Bolitophila) caspersi Plassmann 1986 P86
             |          |--B. dubia P76
             |          |--B. glabratella P76
             |          |--B. hybrida JP76
             |          |--B. (Cliopisa) mayeri Plassmann 1986 [=B. tarsata Mayer 1951 non Odaka 1935] P86
             |          |--B. tarsata Odaka 1935 P86
             |          |--B. tasmaniensis G60
             |          `--B. tenella Winnertz 1863 P86
             `--+--Sciaridae WT11
                `--+--Lygistorrhinidae [Lygistorrhininae] WT11
                   |       |--Lebanognoriste prima GE05
                   |       |--Archeognoriste primitiva GE05
                   |       `--+--Leptognoriste GE05
                   |          |    |--L. davisi GE05
                   |          |    `--L. microstoma GE05
                   |          |--+--Palaeognoriste GE05
                   |          |  |--Lygistorrhina GE05
                   |          |  |    |--L. asiatica GE05
                   |          |  |    `--L. sanctaecatherinae WT11
                   |          |  `--+--Loyugesa khuati GE05
                   |          |     `--Seguyola GE05
                   |          `--+--Plesiognoriste GE05
                   |             |    |--P. carpenteri GE05
                   |             |    `--P. zherikhini GE05
                   |             `--Protognoriste GE05
                   |                  |--P. amplicauda GE05
                   |                  |--P. goeleti GE05
                   |                  `--P. nascifoa GE05
                   `--+--+--Rangomaramidae GE05
                      |  `--Archizelmiridae GE05
                      |       |--Burmazelmira aristica GE05
                      |       `--Zelmiarcha lebanensis GE05
                      `--Cecidomyiidae WT11

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Amorim, D. de S., & E. Rindal. 2007. Phylogeny of the Mycetophiliformia, with proposal of the subfamilies Heterotrichinae, Ohakuneinae, and Chiletrichinae for the Rangomaramidae (Diptera, Bibionomorpha). Zootaxa 1535: 1-92.

[BLM02] Blagoderov, V. A., E. D. Lukashevich & M. B. Mostovski. 2002. Order Diptera Linné, 1758. The true flies (=Muscida Laicharting, 1781). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 227-240. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[G60] Gatenby, J. B. 1960. The Australasian mycetophilid glowworms. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 577-593.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[JP76] Joost, W., & E. Plassmann. 1976. Mycetophiliden aus dem Zentralkaukasus (Diptera: Mycetophilidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1-3): 67-68.

[P76] Plassmann, E. 1976. Vierter Nachtrag zu der Mycetophiliden-Sammlung des Senckenberg-Museums Frankfurt am Main (Diptera; Mycetophilidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1-3): 77-79.

[P86] Plassmann, E. 1986. Neun neue Pilzmücken aus der Westpaläarktis (Diptera, Nematocera, Mycetophilidae). Spixiana 9 (2): 143-150.

[TE27] Tonnoir, A. L., & F. W. Edwards. 1927. New Zealand fungus gnats (Diptera, Mycetophilidae). Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 747-878.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690-5695.

Mycetophilidae

Mycetophilid larvae, probably Epicypta, with a protective covering of faecal material, photographed by Kim Fleming.


Belongs within: Sciaroidea.
Contains: Mycetophila, Zygomyia, Allodia, Exechia, Sciophilini, Leiini, Mycomya.

The Mycetophilidae are a family of fungus gnats characterised by having the wing veins M and CuA connected, if at all, near the level of crossvein h (Vockeroth 2009).

Characters (from Vockeroth 2009): Body length 1.8–8.7 mm. Colour yellow to brown or black, often patterned. Ocelli usually three, middle ocellus sometimes small or absent. Antenna no longer than body, with scape, pedicel and usually 14 flagellomeres. Palpus usually with basal palpifer and four palpal segments, the latter sometimes 1–3 in number. Hairs and bristles present on pronotum, scutum and scutellum; pleural sclerites and prosternum bare or with varied vestiture. Wing membrane with either or both macrotrichia and microtrichia. Male and female terminalia various, but with sclerites generally as in other nematocerous families. Female with tergite 10 sometimes weak or absent; cercus articulated with last sclerotised tergite, one- or two-segmented; two unsclerotised spermathecae apparently always present.

<==Mycetophilidae
    |--Mycetophilinae TE27
    |    |--Mycetophila P86
    |    |--Zygomyia TE27
    |    |--Allodia TE27
    |    |--Exechia TE27
    |    `--Epicypta TE27
    |         |--E. dilatata Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |         `--E. immaculata Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    `--Sciophilinae TE27
         |--Sciophilini TE27
         |--Leiini TE27
         |--Mycomya TE27
         `--Synapha [Gnoristini] TE27
              |--S. apicalis Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
              |--S. cawthroni Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
              |--S. claripennis Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
              |--S. gracilis Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
              |--S. parva Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
              |--S. pulchella Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
              `--S. similis Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27

Mycetophilidae incertae sedis:
  Platyroptilon TE27
  Paratinia montana Plassmann 1976 P76a
  Rymosia Winnertz 1863 P86
    |--R. (Rymosia) adventicia Plassmann 1986 P86
    |--R. bifida Edwards 1924 P86
    |--R. caucasia Plassmann 1976 P76a
    |--R. cretensis P76c
    |--R. dziedzickii P76c
    |--R. guttata P76c
    |--R. sagulata Plassmann 1976 P76b
    `--R. spinipes Winnertz 1863 P86
  Messala JP76
    |--M. cinerea JP76
    `--M. tenella JP76
  Dziedzickia marginata P76c
  Apolephthisa subincana JP76
  Boletina Staeger 1840 P86
    |--B. dissipata Plassmann 1986 P86
    |--B. flaviventris P76c
    |--B. joosti Plassmann 1986 P86
    |--B. nigrofusca P76c
    |--B. plana Walker 1856 P86
    |--B. polaris P76c
    `--B. trivittata (Meigen 1818) P86
  Parallodia lugens JP76
  Trichonta P76c
    |--T. conjugens P76c
    |--T. falcata P76c
    `--T. mediastinalis P76c
  Phronia P76c
    |--P. cornuta P76c
    |--P. egregia P76c
    |--P. mutabilis P76c
    `--P. tenuis JP76
  Ectrepesthoneura P76b
    |--E. messaurensis P76c
    `--E. referta Plassmann 1976 P76b
  Speolepta leptogaster P76c
  Syntemna P76c
    |--S. hungarica P76c
    `--S. nitidula P76c
  Docosia Winnertz 1863 P86
    |--D. moravica P76c
    |--D. muelleri Plassmann 1986 P86
    |--D. nigra Landrock 1928 P86
    `--D. setosa Landrock 1916 P86
  Anatella P76c
    |--A. dampfi P76c
    |--A. novata P76c
    |--A. simpatica P76c
    `--A. turi P76c
  Cordyla P76c
    |--C. fusca P76c
    `--C. sixi P76c
  Coelosia Winnertz 1863 P86
    |--C. bicornis Stackelberg 1969 P86
    |--C. limpida Plassmann 1986 P86
    `--C. truncata Lundstroem 1909 P86
  Exechiopsis Tuomikoski 1966 P86
    |--E. januarii Lundstroem 1913 P86
    |--E. (Exechiopsis) perita Plassmann 1986 P86
    `--E. pseudopulchella Lundstroem 1912 P86
  Planarivora AY04
  Brachypeza radiata G60
  Pseudobrachypeza bulbosa WT11
  Neoempheria stubbsi Chandler & Ribeiro 2003 F05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AY04] Austin, A. D., D. K. Yeates, G. Cassis, M. J. Fletcher, J. La Salle, J. F. Lawrence, P. B. McQuillan, L. A. Mound, D. J. Bickel, P. J. Gullan, D. F. Hales & G. S. Taylor. 2004. Insects 'Down Under' - diversity, endemism and evolution of the Australian insect fauna: examples from select orders. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 216-234.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261-282.

[G60] Gatenby, J. B. 1960. The Australasian mycetophilid glowworms. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 577-593.

[JP76] Joost, W., & E. Plassmann. 1976. Mycetophiliden aus dem Zentralkaukasus (Diptera: Mycetophilidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1-3): 67-68.

[P76a] Plassmann, E. 1976a. Zwei neue Pilzmücken aus dem Kaukasus (Diptera: Mycetophilidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1-3): 69-70.

[P76b] Plassmann, E. 1976b. Vier neue Mycetophiliden aus der ökologischen Station Messaure/Schweden (Diptera: Mycetophilidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1-3): 73-76.

[P76c] Plassmann, E. 1976c. Vierter Nachtrag zu der Mycetophiliden-Sammlung des Senckenberg-Museums Frankfurt am Main (Diptera; Mycetophilidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1-3): 77-79.

[P86] Plassmann, E. 1986. Neun neue Pilzmücken aus der Westpaläarktis (Diptera, Nematocera, Mycetophilidae). Spixiana 9 (2): 143-150.

[TE27] Tonnoir, A. L., & F. W. Edwards. 1927. New Zealand fungus gnats (Diptera, Mycetophilidae). Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 747-878.

Vockeroth, J. R. 2009. Mycetophilidae (fungus gnats). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1, pp. 267-278. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690-5695.

Keroplatidae

Male fungus gnat, probably Macrocera, photographed by Tony DeSantis.


Belongs within: Sciaroidea.

The Keroplatidae is a group of fungus gnats whose larvae live in webs. Larvae of at least some species feed on small animals caught in the web.

Characters (from Vockeroth 2009): Body length 2.3–8.8 mm. Colour yellow to brown or black, often patterned. Usually three ocelli, middle ocellus small or rarely absent. Antenna with fourteen flagellomeres. Scutum uniformly setose or with bare longitudinal stripes; scutellum with posterior row of setae or with dorsal surface extensively setose. Scutellum sometimes with large membranous triangular basal area. Mediotergite bare. Pleural sclerites and prosternum variously haired or bare. Wing with Sc ending in C; R2+3 present, ending in R1 or C; base of M strong, weak or absent; Rs and M briefly fused at about one-third wing length. Foretibia with one apical spur, other tibiae with one or two spurs.

<==Keroplatidae
    |  i. s.: Orfelia nemoralis TC04 [=Platyura nemoralis M83]
    |         Asindulum GE05
    |         Arachnocampa Edwards 1924 GE05, TE27
    |           |--*A. luminosa (Skuse 1891) [=Bolitophila luminosa] TE27
    |           `--A. flava WT11
    |         Planivora GE05
    |         Neoditomyia L88
    |           |--N. spinosa L88
    |           `--+--N. andina L88
    |              `--N. troglophila L88
    |--Macrocerinae GE05
    |    |--Paramacrocera Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |    |    `--*P. brevicornis Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |    `--Macrocera TE27
    |         |--M. annulata Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |         |--M. antennalis Marshall 1894 TE27
    |         |--M. campbelli Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |         |--M. centralis JP76
    |         |--M. fenestrata Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |         |--M. fusca Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |         |--M. glabrata Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |         |--M. gourlayi Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |         |--M. hudsoni Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |         |--M. inconspicua Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |         |--M. magna P76
    |         |--M. milligani Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |         |--M. montana Marshall 1896 [incl. M. howletti Marshall 1896] TE27
    |         |--M. ngaireae Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |         |--M. obsoleta Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |         |--M. parva P76
    |         |--M. pulchra Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |         |--M. ruficollis Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |         |--M. scoparia Marshall 1896 TE27
    |         `--M. unipunctata Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    `--Keroplatinae [Ceroplatinae] TE27
         |--Pseudoplatyura truncata Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |--Isoneuromyia TE27
         |--Cerotelion TE27
         |    |--C. bimaculatus Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |    |--C. dendyi (Marshall 1896) [=Ceroplatus dendyi] TE27
         |    |--C. hudsoni (Marshall 1896) [=Ceroplatus hudsoni] TE27
         |    |--C. leucoceras (Marshall 1896) [=Ceroplatus leucoceras] TE27
         |    |--C. niger Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |    |--C. tapleyi Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |    `--C. vitripennis Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |--Platyura TE27
         |    |--P. agricola Marshall 1896 TE27
         |    |--P. albovittata Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |    |--P. brevis Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |    |--P. brookesi Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |    |--P. campbelli Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |    |--P. carbonaria Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |    |--P. chiltoni Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |    |--P. curtisi Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |    |--P. harrisi Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |    |--P. lamellata Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |    |--P. maculipennis Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |    |--P. marshalli Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 [=P. flava Marshall 1896 (preoc.)] TE27
         |    |--P. novaezelandiae Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 [=P. magna Marshall 1896 (preoc.)] TE27
         |    |--P. ohakunensis Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |    |--P. philpotti Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |    |--P. proxima Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |    |--P. punctifusa Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |    |--P. ruficauda Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |    |--P. rufipectus Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |    |--P. rutila Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |    `--P. subbrevis Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         `--Ceroplatus G60
              |--C. mangalorensis Edwards 1929 G60
              `--C. mastersi Skuse 1888 G60

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[G60] Gatenby, J. B. 1960. The Australasian mycetophilid glowworms. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 577-593.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[JP76] Joost, W., & E. Plassmann. 1976. Mycetophiliden aus dem Zentralkaukasus (Diptera: Mycetophilidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1-3): 67-68.

[L88] Liebherr, J. K. 1988. General patterns in West Indian insects, and graphical biogeographic analysis of some circum-Caribbean Platynus beetles (Carabidae). Systematic Zoology 37 (4): 385-409.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: An annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1-98.

[P76] Plassmann, E. 1976. Vierter Nachtrag zu der Mycetophiliden-Sammlung des Senckenberg-Museums Frankfurt am Main (Diptera; Mycetophilidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1-3): 77-79.

[TC04] Toft, R. J., & P. J. Chandler. 2004. Three introduced species of Mycetophilidae (Diptera: Sciaroidea) established in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 43-49.

[TE27] Tonnoir, A. L., & F. W. Edwards. 1927. New Zealand fungus gnats (Diptera, Mycetophilidae). Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 747-878.

Vockeroth, J. R. 2009. Keroplatidae (predatory fungus gnats). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1, pp. 259-263. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690-5695.

Mitrocystitida

Mitrocystites styloideus, from here.


Belongs within: Ankyroida.

Mitrocystitida was identified by Parsley (1997) as a paraphyletic group with the Anomalocystitida and Lagynocystis nested within it. Members of this clade mostly have moderately to only slightly asymmetrical thecae (Ubaghs 1967).

<==Mitrocystitida [Mitrocystida]
    |  i. s.: Spermacystis Ubaghs 1967 [=Anomocystis Jaekel 1918 non Haeckel 1896] U67
    |           `--*S. ensifer (Barrande 1887) [=Anomalocystites ensifer, *Anomocystis ensifer] U67
    |         Vizcainocarpus L03
    |           |--V. dentiger L03
    |           `--V. rutai L03
    |         Promitrocystites L03
    |--Paranacystis Caster 1954 [Paranacystidae] U67
    |    `--*P. petrii Caster 1954 U67
    `--Mitrocystitidae [Mitrocystidae] U67
         |--Ovocarpus moncereti P97, L03
         `--+--Chauvelia P97
            `--+--Aspidocarpus P97
               |    |--A. bohemicus L03
               |    `--A. discoidalis L03
               `--+--Mitrocystites Barrande 1887 P97, U67 [=Mitrocystis Bather 1889 U67]
                  |    |--*M. mitra Barrande 1887 U67 [incl. M. latus Jaekel 1918 U67, J18]
                  |    |    |--M. m. mitra U67
                  |    |    `--M. m. hanusi U67
                  |    |--M. riadanensis U67
                  |    `--M. styloideus U67
                  `--+--Mitrocystella Jaekel 1901 P97, U67
                     |    |--*M. incipiens (Barrande 1887) [=Anomalocystites incipiens] U67
                     |    |    |--M. i. incipiens U67
                     |    |    `--M. i. miloni U67
                     |    `--M. barrandei U67
                     `--+--Eumitrocystella savilli Beisswenger 1994 P97, L03
                        `--+--Barrandeocarpus jaekeli Ubaghs 1979 P97, L03
                           `--+--+--Diamphidiocystis drepanon Kolata & Guensburg 1979 P97, L03
                              |  `--Lagynocystis Jaekel 1918 P97, U67 [Lagynocystidae]
                              |       `--*L. pyramidalis (Barrande 1887) U67 (see below for synonymy)
                              `--Anomalocystitida [Anomalocystida, Placocystida] U67
                                   |--Australocystidae [Australocystinae] U67
                                   |    |--Australocystis Caster 1954 U67
                                   |    |    `--*A. langei Caster 1954 U67
                                   |    `--Placocystella Rennie 1936 U67
                                   |         `--*P. capensis Rennie 1936 U67
                                   `--Anomalocystitidae (see below for synonymy) U67
                                        |  i. s.: Basslerocystis Caster 1952 U67
                                        |           `--*B. disparilis (Hall 1859) [=Anomalocystites disparilis] U67
                                        |         Victoriacystis Gill & Caster 1960 U67
                                        |           `--*V. wilkinsi Gill & Caster 1960 U67
                                        |--+--Anomalocystites Hall 1859 P97, U67 (see below for synonymy)
                                        |  |    |--*A. cornutus Hall 1859 (see below for synonymy) U67
                                        |  |    `--A. bohemicus U67
                                        |  `--Enoploura Wetherby 1879 P97, U67 [=Enopleura Springer 1913 K67]
                                        |       |--*E. balanoides (Meek 1872) (see below for synonymy) U67
                                        |       |--E. popei U67
                                        |       |--E. punctata U67
                                        |       `--E. wetherbyi U67
                                        `--+--+--Allanicytidium Caster & Gill in Ubaghs 1967 P97, U67 [Allanicytidiidae]
                                           |  |    `--*A. flemingi Caster & Gill in Ubaghs 1967 U67
                                           |  `--+--Notocarpos P97
                                           |     `--Tasmancytidium P97
                                           `--+--Ateleocystites Billings 1838 P67, U67 (see below for synonymy)
                                              |    |--*A. huxleyi Billings 1838 (see below for synonymy) U67
                                              |    `--A. guttenbergensis Kolata & Jollie 1982 L03
                                              `--+--Rhenocystis Dehm 1932 P97, U67
                                                 |    `--*R. latipedunculata Dehm 1932 U67
                                                 `--Placocystites de Koninck 1869 P97, U67 (see below for synonymy)
                                                      |--*P. forbesianus de Koninck 1869 [=*Placocystis forbesianus] U67
                                                      `--P. africanus U67

Anomalocystites Hall 1859 P97, U67 [=Anomalocystis Bather 1889 U67, Anomocystis Haeckel 1896 U67]

*Anomalocystites cornutus Hall 1859 [=*Anomalocystis cornuta, *Anomocystis cornuta] U67

Anomalocystitidae [Anomalocystidae, Anomocystida, Atelocystida, Basslerocystinae, Enoplourinae, Placocystidae, Placocystinae, Placocystitidae] U67

Ateleocystites Billings 1838 P97, U67 [=Atelecystis Bather 1889 U67, Ateleocystis Lindström 1888 U67, Atelocystis Haeckel 1896 U67]

*Ateleocystites huxleyi Billings 1838 [=*Atelecystis huxleyi, *Ateleocystis husleyi, *Atelocystis huxleyi] U67

*Enoploura balanoides (Meek 1872) [=Anomalocystites (Ateleocystites) balanoides] U67

*Lagynocystis pyramidalis (Barrande 1887) U67 [=Anomalocystites pyramidalis U67, Anomalocystis pyramidalis J18]

Placocystites de Koninck 1869 P97, U67 [=Placocystis Haeckel 1896 U67]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[J18] Jaekel, O. 1918. Phylogenie und System der Pelmatozoen. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 3: 1-128.

[K67] Kesling, R. V. 1967. Cystoids. In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. S. Echinodermata 1. General characters. Homalozoa-Crinozoa (except Crinoidea) (R. C. Moore, ed.) vol. 1 pp. S85-S267. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[L03] Lefebvre, B. 2003. Funtional morphology of stylophoran echinoderms. Palaeontology 46 (3): 511-555.

[P97] Parsley, R. L. 1997. The echinoderm classes Stylophora and Homoiostelea: Non Calcichordata. Paleontological Society Papers 3: 225-248.

[U67] Ubaghs, G. 1967. Stylophora. In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. S. Echinodermata 1. General characters. Homalozoa-Crinozoa (except Crinoidea) (R. C. Moore, ed.) vol. 2 pp. S495-S565. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

Mycomya

Mycomya sp., photographed by Stephen Cresswell.


Belongs within: Mycetophilidae.

Mycomya is a cosmopolitan genus of fungus gnats.

Characters (from Tonnoir & Edwards 1927): Two ocelli placed together; fine tibial setae arranged in regular longitudinal row; wings without macrotrichia on the membrane.

<==Mycomya Rondani 1856 [Mycomyiini] P86
    |--M. aequa Plassmann 1986 P86
    |--M. brunnea P76
    |--M. clavigera P76
    |--M. danielae P76
    |--M. exigua P76
    |--M. fasciata JP76
    |--M. flavicollis JP76
    |--M. flavilatera Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |--M. fulva P76
    |--M. furcata Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |--M. hiisi Väisänen 1979 P86
    |--M. maculata P76
    |--M. ornata P86
    `--M. plagiata Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[JP76] Joost, W., & E. Plassmann. 1976. Mycetophiliden aus dem Zentralkaukasus (Diptera: Mycetophilidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1-3): 67-68.

[P76] Plassmann, E. 1976. Vierter Nachtrag zu der Mycetophiliden-Sammlung des Senckenberg-Museums Frankfurt am Main (Diptera; Mycetophilidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1-3): 77-79.

[P86] Plassmann, E. 1986. Neun neue Pilzmücken aus der Westpaläarktis (Diptera, Nematocera, Mycetophilidae). Spixiana 9 (2): 143-150.

[TE27] Tonnoir, A. L., & F. W. Edwards. 1927. New Zealand fungus gnats (Diptera, Mycetophilidae). Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 747-878.

Sciophilini

Sciophila sp., photographed by pwalter.


Belongs within: Mycetophilidae.

The Sciophilini is a group of sciophiline fungus gnats distinguished by the presence of macrotrichia on the wings (Tonnoir & Edwards 1927).

Characters (from Tonnoir & Edwards 1927): Wing with macrotrichia on the membrane; microtrichia sometimes absent. Postnotum usually with hairs or bristles; Sc nearly always long; last section of R1 several times as long as r-m, which is oblique; 7th abdominal segment usually large and visible.

<==Sciophilini
    |--Phthinia longiventris Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |--Trizygia TE27
    |--Neotrizygia Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |    `--*N. obscura Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |--Morganiella Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |    `--*M. fusca Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |--Taxicnemis Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |    |--*T. ‘hirta’ (Marshall 1896) (see below for synonymy) TE27
    |    `--T. flava Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |--Sciophila TC04
    |    |--S. adamsi P76
    |    |--S. hirta Meigen 1818 TC04
    |    |--S. ocreata Philippi 1865 TC04
    |    `--S. parviareolata Santos Abreu 1920 TC04
    |--Allocotocera [incl. Euryceras Marshall 1896] TE27
    |    |--A. anaclinoides (Marshall 1896) [=*Euryceras anaclinoides] TE27
    |    |--A. cephasi Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |    |--A. crassipalpis Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |    `--A. dilatata Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |--Aphelomera TE27
    |    |--A. elongata Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |    |--A. forcipata Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |    |--A. longicauda Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |    |--A. majuscula Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |    |--A. marshalli Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |    |--A. opaca Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |    `--A. skusei Marshall 1896 TE27
    |--Parvicellula Marshall 1896 TE27
    |    |--*P. triangula Marshall 1896 TE27
    |    |--P. apicalis Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |    |--P. fascipennis Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |    |--P. gracilis Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |    |--P. hamata Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |    |--P. nigricoxa Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |    |--P. obscura Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |    |--P. ruficoxa Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    |    `--P. subhamata Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
    `--Aneura Marshall 1896 TE27
         |--*A. boletinoides Marshall 1896 TE27
         |--A. appendiculata Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |--A. bispinosa Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |--A. defecta Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |--A. fagi (Marshall 1896) [=Sciophila fagi] TE27
         |--A. filiformis Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |--A. fusca Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |--A. longicauda Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |--A. longipalpis Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         |--A. nitida Tonnoir in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27
         `--A. pallida Edwards in Tonnoir & Edwards 1927 TE27

*Taxicnemis ‘hirta’ (Marshall 1896) [=Sciophila hirta non Meigen 1818; incl. T. hirta var. bivittata Tonnoir & Edwards 1927] TE27

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[P76] Plassmann, E. 1976. Vierter Nachtrag zu der Mycetophiliden-Sammlung des Senckenberg-Museums Frankfurt am Main (Diptera; Mycetophilidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1-3): 77-79.

[TC04] Toft, R. J., & P. J. Chandler. 2004. Three introduced species of Mycetophilidae (Diptera: Sciaroidea) established in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 43-49.

[TE27] Tonnoir, A. L., & F. W. Edwards. 1927. New Zealand fungus gnats (Diptera, Mycetophilidae). Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 747-878.

Cincta

Trochocystites bohemicus, photographed by J. R. Barbour.


Belongs within: Echinodermata.

The Cincta are a Middle Cambrian group of non-pentamerous echinoderms, with a shape broadly reminiscent of a frying pan or a tennis racquet. The flattened theca bears an elongate, rigid stele; cinctans possibly lived with the stele angled into the sediment to anchor the animal in place.

Characters (from Ubaghs 1967): Homalozoa with skeleton composed of theca and stele; theca depressed in plane (extension plane) passing through main orifices and stele attachment, with convex surface (superior face) and opposite flat or slightly concave surface (inferior face) united in girdling frame of thick marginal plates; superior face formed within marginals by numerous loosely joined plates termed supracentrals except near pole opposed to stele where they fuse or are replaced by row of stout suranal plates; at absteleal pole and excavated in marginal frame is large thecal orifice inferred to mark location of anus; it is protected by apparently movable plate designated as operculum; adjacent is smaller circular orifice that probably represents mouth; periphery of theca adjacent to presumed mouth bearing one or generally two epithecal grooves hollowed in outer face of marginals, grooves conpected to mouth and protected by multitude of minute cover plates; inferior thecal face formed within marginals of close-fitting polygonal infracentrals, without orifices. Stele tapered, depressed in same plane as theca, with convex superior face in form of ridge and flat or slightly convex inferior face which meet laterally as angled keels, constructed of two rows of opposed or alternating ossicles (dimeres) between which variable number of small irregular platelets commonly are intercalated on superior and inferior faces; narrow axial cavity of stele confluent with thecal cavity.

<==Cincta [Homostelea, Marginata]
    |  i. s.: Asturicystis EL11
    |         Protocinctus EL11
    |--Gyrocystidae U67
    |    |--Decacystis Gislén 1927 U67
    |    |    `--*D. hispanica Gislén 1927 U67
    |    `--Gyrocystis Jaekel 1918 [incl. Sucocystis Termier & Termier 1958] U67
    |         |--G. barrandei (Munier-Chalmas & Bergeron 1889) (see below for synonymy) U67
    |         `--*Sucocystis’ theronensis Termier & Termier 1958 U67
    `--Trochocystitidae [Trochocystidae] U67
         |--Trochocystoides Jaekel 1918 U67
         |    `--*T. parvus Jaekel 1918 U67
         `--Trochocystites Barrande 1887 [=Trochocystis Haeckel 1896; incl. Trigonocystis Haeckel 1896] U67
              |--*T. bohemicus Barrande 1887 [=*Trochocystis bohemicus] U67
              |--T. longifossatus Jaekel 1918 J18
              `--*Trigonocystis’ trigona Haeckel 1896 U67

Gyrocystis barrandei (Munier-Chalmas & Bergeron 1889) [=Trochocystites barrandei; incl. T. occidentalis Jaekel 1901, *Gyrocystis platessa Jaekel 1918] U67

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[EL11] Erwin, D. H., M. Laflamme, S. M. Tweedt, E. A. Sperling, D. Pisani & K. J. Peterson. 2011. The Cambrian conundrum: early divergence and later ecological success in the early history of animals. Science 334: 1091-1097.

[J18] Jaekel, O. 1918. Phylogenie und System der Pelmatozoen. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 3: 1-128.

[U67] Ubaghs, G. 1967. Homostelea. In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. S. Echinodermata 1. General characters. Homalozoa-Crinozoa (except Crinoidea) (R. C. Moore, ed.) vol. 2 pp. S565-S581. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).