Coelonertina

Coelonertus elegantulus, photographed by Juan Enrique Barriga-Tuñón.

Belongs within: Baridinae.

The Coelonertini are a group of weevils with an elongate and parallel-sided body form and coarse sculpture. They have a relatively short beak compared to other baridine weevils.

Characters (from Casey 1922, as Coelonertini): Body form elongate and parallel or rigidly cylindrical, sculpture very coarse and close, vestiture partially squamiform, abdomen very convex. Eyes rather large and moderately separated. Beak notably short, mandibles decussate and feebly toothed. Pectoral canal very deep throughout, with its walls strongly elevated, so that it appears to be on a level above that of the adjoining surfaces, terminating abruptly at hind margin of prosternum. Femora sulcate beneath, subparallel, tibiae straight, feebly arcuate externally toward base.

<==Coelonertina
    |--Tsianina scutellata Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Coluthus cribrarius Champion 1908 D09
    |--Antesimorpha Hustache 1949 H49
    |    `--*A. uniseriata Hustache 1949 H49
    `--Coelonertus D09
         |  i. s.: C. bruchi Hustache 1949 H49
         |         C. humilis Hustache 1949 H49
         |         C. nigrirostris Solari & Solari 1906 D09
         |         C. oblongus H49
         |         C. trifasciatus Hustache 1949 H49
         `--C. (Crinacria) H49
              |--C. (C.) alboscutellatus Hustache 1949 H49
              |--C. (C.) elegantulus Hustache 1949 H49
              `--C. (C.) seriatus Hustache 1949 H49

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Casey, T. L. 1922. Notes on the Coleoptera vol. 10. Studies in the rhynchophorous subfamily Barinae of the Brazilian fauna. New Era Printing Company: Lankester (PA).

[D09] Davis, S. R. 2009. Morphology of Baridinae and related groups (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). ZooKeys 10: 1-136.

[H49] Hustache, A. 1949. Nouveaux Barinae Sud Américains. Première partie—Ambatini, Peridinetini, Pantotelini, Cyrionichyna et Optanini. Boletim do Museu Nacional, nova serie, Zoologia 95: 1-55.

Diorymerina


Diorymerus lancifer, from Davis (2009).

Belongs within: Baridinae.

The Diorymerina are a group of weevils characterised by an extremely high rounded upper profile, sometimes almost circular in side view. The dorsal surface is entirely or almost entirely smooth, and the beak is usually rather stout and strongly sculptured (though there are exceptions to this last character).

Characters (from Casey 1922, as Diorymerini): Body exceedingly convex, smooth, glabrous, without trace of scaly covering at any point, and at most, and very rarely, a few erect setae. Beak moderate in length, frequently notably short. Prosternum deeply and abruptly canalate, often capable of receiving the beak but not snugly. Femora subparallel, not spiculate beneath, sulcate along their under surface; tibiae generally angulate externally near base. Coloration usually deep black to piceo-rufous in whole or in part, rarely with a bright green metallic lustre.

<==Diorymerina
    |--Idiopsida nigra Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Matrilia longirostris Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Diorycentrinus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    `--*D. tuberculatus Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Testalthea Casey 1922 D09
    |    |--T. puncticollis [incl T. puncticollis var. punctulatus Hustache 1949] H49
    |    `--T. sublaevcollis Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Prodinus Casey 1922 D09
    |    |--P. jacobi Hustache 1949 H49
    |    `--P. strigipennis Hustache 1949 [=P. rufipennis ms] H49
    |--Diorymerus D09
    |    |--D. batesi Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--D. boliviensis Hustache 1949 [=Dyorimerus (l. c.) boliviensis] H49
    |    |--D. lancifer Guérin-Méneville 1839 D09
    |    |--D. magnificus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    `--D. splendidus Hustache 1949 H49
    `--Hiotus D09
         |  i. s.: H. boliviensis Hustache 1949 H49
         |         H. cerasus Hustache 1949 H49
         |         H. crenulatus Hustache 1949 H49
         |         H. grandis Hustache 1949 [=H. major ms] H49
         |         H. inflatus Casey 1922 D09
         |         H. semirufus Hustache 1949 H49
         |--H. (Hiotopsis) H49
         |    |--H. (H.) micronychus Hustache 1949 H49
         |    |--H. (H.) ovatulus Hustache 1949 H49
         |    |--H. (H.) punctulicollis Hustache 1949 H49
         |    |--H. (H.) rubripes Hustache 1949 H49
         |    `--H. (H.) vinosus Hustache 1949 H49
         |--H. (Melanolia) H49
         |    |--H. (M.) bifoveifrons Hustache 1949 H49
         |    |--H. (M.) continuatus Hustache 1949 H49
         |    |--H. (M.) distortus Hustache 1949 H49
         |    |--H. (M.) foveifrons Hustache 1949 H49
         |    |--H. (M.) nitidus Hustache 1949 H49
         |    |--H. (M.) rufitarsis Hustache 1949 H49
         |    `--H. (M.) tempestivus Hustache 1949 H49
         `--H. (Spermidius) H49
              |--H. (S.) luteipennis Hustache 1949 H49
              `--H. (S.) sparsesetosus Hustache 1949 H49

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Casey, T. L. 1922. Notes on the Coleoptera vol. 10. Studies in the rhynchophorous subfamily Barinae of the Brazilian fauna. New Era Printing Company: Lankester (PA).

[D09] Davis, S. R. 2009. Morphology of Baridinae and related groups (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). ZooKeys 10: 1-136.

[H49] Hustache, A. 1949. Nouveaux Barinae Sud Américains. Première partie—Ambatini, Peridinetini, Pantotelini, Cyrionichyna et Optanini. Boletim do Museu Nacional, nova serie, Zoologia 95: 1-55.

Orthosterni

Female Chaerilus celebensis, photographed by A. Tietz.

Belongs within: Scorpiones.
Contains: Buthoidea, Scorpionoidea.

The Orthosterni is a clade including the living scorpions and some fossil relatives, characterised by the presence of trichobothria on the pedipalp (Soleglad & Fet 2001).

<==Orthosterni [Orthosternina]
    |  i. s.: Corniops mapesii SF01
    |--Branchioscorpionina SF01
    `--Neoscorpionina [Chaeriloidea, Dionychopodes, Neoscorpii] SF01
         |  i. s.: Chactoidea L03
         |           |--Chactas Gervais 1844 B-TN08
         |           `--Palaeoeuscorpius Lourenço 2003 [Palaeoeuscorpiidae] L03
         |                `--*P. gallicus Lourenço 2003 L03
         |         Superstitionidae SF01
         |           |--Typhlochactas mitchelli SF01
         |           `--Superstitionia donensis SF01
         |         Palaeoburmesebuthus Lourenço 2002 S-BF04
         |           `--P. grimaldii Lourenço 2002 S-BF04
         |--Palaeopisthacanthidae SF01
         |    |--Compsoscorpius elegans SF01
         |    |--Cryptoscorpius americanus SF01
         |    `--Palaeopisthacanthus SF01
         |         |--P. schucherti SF01
         |         `--P. vogelandurdeni SF01
         `--+--Archaeobuthus Lourenço 2001 SF01, S-BF04 [Archaeobuthidae]
            |    `--*A. estephani Lourenço 2001 S-BF04
            `--+--+--Buthoidea SF01
               |  `--Pseudochactas Gromov 1998 [Pseudochactidae] SF01
               |       `--P. ovchinnikovi Gromov 1998 SF01
               `--+--Scorpionoidea SF01
                  `--Chaerilus Sim. 1877 T94 [Chaerilidae SF01, Chaerilini]
                       `--C. celebensis Pocock 1893 T94

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B-TN08] Botero-Trujillo, R., & J. A. Noriega. 2008. First record of the scorpion genus Microtityus from Colombia, with the description of a new species (Scorpiones, Buthidae). Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 259-266.

[L03] Lourenço, W. R. 2003. The first scorpion fossil from the Cretaceous amber of France. New implications for the phylogeny of Chactoidea. Comptes Rendus Palevol 2: 213-219.

[S-BF04] Santiago-Blay, J. A., V. Fet, M. E. Soleglad & P. R. Craig. 2004. The second Cretaceous scorpion specimen from Burmese amber (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 2 (2): 147-152.

[SF01] Soleglad, M. E., & V. Fet. 2001. Evolution of scorpion orthobothriotaxy: A cladistic approach. Euscorpius 1: 1-38.

[T94] Thorell, T. 1894. Förteckning öfver Arachnider från Java och närgränsande öar, insamlade af docenten D:r Carl Aurivillius; jemte beskrifingar å några sydasiatiska och sydamerikanska Spindlar. Bihang till K. Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar 20 pt. 4 (4): 1-63.

Isometrus

Isometrus melanodactylus, photographed by azn4114.

Belongs within: Buthoidea.

Isometrus is a genus of scorpions found primarily in the Old World tropics, except for the pantropical I. maculatus.

See also: The world's scorpion.

Characters (from Kovařík 2003): Trichobothrial patterns orthobothriotaxic. Dorsal trichobothria of femur arranged in beta-configuration. Tibial spurs absent on all legs. Sternum subtriangular. Movable fingers of pedipalps with six rows of granules and external and internal granules. Tibiae and tarsomeres of legs I–III with setae not arranged into bristlecombs. Carapace granulated, without carinae. Mesosoma dorsally with one median carina. Telson with subaculear tooth pointed or rounded. Total length under 70 mm.

Isometrus Hemprich & Ehrenberg 1829 K92
    |--I. antillanus T89
    |--I. atomarius T89
    |--I. feae Thorell 1889 T89
    |--I. fuscus T89
    |--I. maculatus (De Geer 1778) K92 (see below for synonymy)
    |--I. melanodactylus (Koch 1867) [incl. I. papuensis Werner 1916] J98
    |--I. melanophysa (Koch 1867) [=Lychas melanophysa; incl. I. gracilis Thorell 1876] KK84
    |--I. perfidus Koch & Keyserling 1884-1885 KK84
    |--I. phipsoni T89
    |--I. scutilus [=Lychas scutilus] T89
    |--I. shoplandii Oates 1888 T89
    |--I. thorellii Koch & Keyserling 1884-1885 KK84
    `--I. variatus Thorell 1876 KK84

Isometrus maculatus (De Geer 1778) K92 [=Scorpio maculatus K92, Lychas maculatus KK84; incl. Lychas americanus Koch 1845 KK84, Centrurus (Isometrus) americanus KK84, Scorpio dentatus Herbst 1800 KK84, Buthus (Isometrus) filum Hemprich & Ehrenberg 1829 KK84, S. (Atreus) filum KK84, S. (Lichas) gabonensis Lucas 1858 KK84, S. guineensis Lucas 1858 KK84]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[J98] Jäger, P. 1998. Das Typenmaterial der Spinnentiere (Arachnida: Acari, Amblypygi, Araneae, Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones, Scorpiones, Uropygi) aus dem Museum Wiesbaden. Jahrbuecher des Nassauischen Vereins fuer Naturkunde 119: 81-91.

[K92] Karsch, F. 1892. Arachniden von Ceylon und von Minikoy gesammelt von den Herren Doctoren P. und F. Sarasin. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 36 (2): 267-310.

[KK84] Koch, L., & E. Keyserling. 1884-1890. Die Arachniden Australiens nach der Natur beschrieben und abgebildet vol. 2. Bauer & Raspe: Nürnberg.

Kovařík, F. 2003. A review of the genus Isometrus Ehrenberg, 1828 (Scorpiones: Buthidae) with descriptions of four new species from Asia and Australia. Euscorpius 10: 1-19.

[T89] Thorell, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XXI. – Aracnidi Artrogastri Birmani raccolti da L. Fea nel 1885-1887. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 521-729.

Zygobaridina

Copulating pair of Nicentrus circumcinctus, from here.


Belongs within: Baridinae.
Contains: Stegotes (Stegotes).

The Zygobaridina are a large group of weevils with an elongate but never regularly cylindrical rostrum. Species within the Zygobaridina are associated with a wide range of plant hosts; some are notable agricultural pests.

Characters (from Lacordaire 1866, as Centrinides): Rostrum elongate, often very long, rarely robust, laterally compressed at least at base, sometimes depressed over full length. Antennae more or less long and slender, rarely robust, club variable. Prosternum flat, excavated or slightly channeled. Mesosternum not forming a continuous surface with prosternum and metasternum. Pygidium very rarely visible, if so then very small. Body almost always rhombic or elliptical.

Zygobaridina [Centrinina, Centrinini, Limnobarina] D09
    |--Acentrinops brevicollis Casey 1920 D09
    |--Andiblis seriata Casey 1922 D09
    |--Anotesiops obidosensis Casey 1922 D09
    |--Barilepis grisea (LeConte 1876) D09
    |--Bondariella mimica Hustache & Bondar 1942 D09
    |--Calandrinus grandicollis (LeConte 1876) D09
    |--Camerones semiopacus Casey 1922 D09
    |--Catapastinus caseyi Champion 1909 D09
    |--Pseudocentrinus ochraceus (Boheman 1844) D09
    |--Jopsidaspis oblongula Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Oryssus spinicollis Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Paragarnia pectoralis Hustache 1949 [=Siparoschoenus pectoralis ms] H49
    |--Farnia rubra Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Demoda vittata Casey 1922 D09
    |--Chepagra rotundicollis Casey 1922 D09
    |--Clandius cephalotes Casey 1922 D09
    |--Crostidia tenuipes Casey 1922 D09
    |--Crostis subexplanata Casey 1922 D09
    |--Crotanius trivittatus Champion 1908 D09
    |--Cylindridia prolixa (LeConte 1876) D09
    |--Dactylocrepis flabellitarsis Boheman 1844 D09
    |--Deipyrus hirsutulus Champion 1908 D09
    |--Dericinus habilis Casey 1922 D09
    |--Eucalus vitticollis (Blanchard 1851) D09
    |--Eudialomia longula Casey 1922 D09
    |--Eugeraeus Champion 1908 D09
    |--Eusomenes curtirostris Casey 1922 D09
    |--Fishonia brevinasus Casey 1922 D09
    |--Forandia duplex Casey 1922 D09
    |--Forandiopsis carinulata Casey 1922 D09
    |--Geraeopsis duplocincta Champion 1908 D09
    |--Haplostethops ellipsoideus Casey 1920 D09
    |--Iops bicolor Hustache 1939 D09
    |--Iopsidaspis truncatula Casey 1922 D09
    |--Lasiobaris geminata Champion 1908 D09
    |--Laurentius bruchi (Hustache 1949) D09
    |--Leptoladustes densus Casey 1922 D09
    |--Leptoschoinus fucatus (Klug 1829) D09
    |--Lorena simulans Casey 1922 D09
    |--Macrorevena atromicans Casey 1922 D09
    |--Melampius basalis (Hustache 1950) D09
    |--Microforandia uniformis Casey 1922 D09
    |--Montella rufipes Bondar 1948 D09
    |--Nedestes sarpedon Casey 1922 D09
    |--Neplaxa illustris Casey 1922 D09
    |--Nestrada compacta Casey 1922 D09
    |--Nicentridia angusticollis Casey 1922 D09
    |--Oomorphidius laevicollis (LeConte 1876) D09
    |--Pachybaris porosa LeConte 1876 D09
    |--Pachygeraeus laevirostris Casey 1920 D09
    |--Palmelampius heinrichi O’Brien 2000 D09
    |--Palmocentrinus butia Bondar 1949 D09
    |--Palocopsis tecta Casey 1922 D09
    |--Parafishonia setulosa Casey 1922 D09
    |--Parageraeus tumidirostris Casey 1920 D09
    |--Parasomenes curvirostris Hustache 1939 D09
    |--Peclavia hispidicollis Casey 1922 D09
    |--Peclaviopsis planipectus Casey 1922 D09
    |--Phacelobarus singularis Gyllenhal 1844 D09
    |--Pseudogeraeus macropterus Champion 1908 D09
    |--Pseudorthoris devexus Champion 1908 D09
    |--Pseudosaldius conjunctus Casey 1922 D09
    |--Psiona densa Casey 1922 D09
    |--Pycnonicentrus gilvivestis Casey 1922 D09
    |--Ranceoma uniformis Casey 1922 D09
    |--Remertus marginatus Casey 1922 D09
    |--Saldiopsis armata Casey 1922 D09
    |--Scirpicola chilensis (Blanchard 1851) D09
    |--Sodesia sparsa Casey 1922 D09
    |--Somenes spinifer Casey 1922 D09
    |--Spolatia gradata Casey 1922 D09
    |--Starcus rugulosus Casey 1922 D09
    |--Stethobaroides nudiventris Champion 1907 D09
    |--Sunilius platyrhinus Casey 1922 D09
    |--Trichodirabius longulus Casey 1920 D09
    |--Valdenus laevis Casey 1922 D09
    |--Valliopsis squamipes Casey 1922 D09
    |--Vallius sulcatus Hustache 1938 D09
    |--Zygobarinus coelestinus Blathcley & Leng 1916 D09
    |--Aniops Casey 1922 D09
    |    `--A. sculpturatus Casey 1922 D09
    |--Calorida Hustache 1949 D09, H49
    |    `--C. binocularis Casey 1922 D09
    |--Garnia Casey 1922 D09
    |    `--G. stegotopsides Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Coelonertodes Hustache 1949 H49
    |    `--*C. tessellatus Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Medisus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    `--*M. lineatulus Hustache 1949 [=M. monoceros ms] H49
    |--Stereocentrinus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    `--*S. lateralis Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Anchonotorcus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    `--*A. ruficornis Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Astegotes Hustache 1949 H49
    |    `--*A. veterator Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Allostegotes Hustache 1949 H49
    |    `--*A. longipes Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Saldiopsides Hustache 1949 H49
    |    `--*S. fryi Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Prospoliata Hustache 1949 H49
    |    `--*P. bicolorata Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Astethobaroides Hustache 1949 H49
    |    `--*A. poncticollis Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Eucrostus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    `--*E. ferrugineus Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Pachycentrinus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    `--*P. convexicollis Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Microrevena Hustache 1949 H49
    |    `--*M. ovata Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Genalia Hustache 1949 H49
    |    `--*G. rugosa Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Zygobaris LeConte 1876 D09
    |    `--Z. nitens LeConte 1876 D09
    |--Amercedes D09
    |    |--A. orthorrhinus Champion 1909 D09
    |    `--A. subulirostris Casey 1893 D09
    |--Anavallius D09
    |    |--A. castaneus Hustache 1949 [=Megavallius castaneus ms] H49
    |    `--A. ruficornis Casey 1922 D09
    |--Barilepton D09
    |    |--B. filiforme LeConte 1876 D09
    |    `--B. quadricolle LeConte 1876 D09
    |--Barinus D09
    |    |--B. bivittatus (LeConte 1878) D09
    |    `--B. cribricollis (LeConte 1876) D09
    |--Buchananius D09
    |    |--B. striatus (LeConte 1876) D09
    |    `--B. sulcatus (LeConte 1876) D09
    |--Centrinogyna D09
    |    |--C. hispidula Casey 1920 D09
    |    `--C. strigata Casey 1892 D09
    |--Microbaridia D09
    |    |--M. delicatula Casey 1922 D09
    |    `--M. pupillata Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Ladustaspis D09
    |    |--L. crocopelma Boheman 1844 D09
    |    `--L. luteola Hustache 1949 [=Odontocorgnus luteola ms] H49
    |--Ethelda D09
    |    |--E. cinerea Hustache 1949 [=E. grisea ms] H49
    |    `--E. squamosa Casey 1922 D09
    |--Rancea D09
    |    |--R. nigrirostris Hustache 1949 H49
    |    `--R. parviclava Casey 1922 D09
    |--Pseudorancea D09
    |    |--P. armata Boheman 1844 D09
    |    `--P. nitidula Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Linogarnia D09
    |    |--L. suturalis Casey 1922 D09
    |    `--L. villosula Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Lamprobaris D09
    |    |--L. boliviensis Hustache 1949 H49
    |    `--L. cucullata Champion 1908 D09
    |--Zygozalestes D09
    |    |--Z. compressirostris Hustache 1949 H49
    |    `--Z. oblongus Casey 1922 D09
    |--Zalestes D09
    |    |--Z. convexicollis Hustache 1949 H49
    |    `--Z. perpolitus Casey 1922 D09
    |--Anomoearthria H49
    |    |--*A. carulipennis H49
    |    `--A. bifasciata Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Stegotopsis H49
    |    |--S. aureocoxis Hustache 1949 H49
    |    `--S. tripartita Hustache 1949 [incl. S. tripartita var. viminalis Hustache 1949] H49
    |--Microstegotes Casey 1922 D09
    |    |--M. auxillaris H49
    |    `--M. minutus Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Micropalocus H49
    |    |--M. boliviensis Hustache 1949 H49
    |    `--M. semilucidus Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Tiretia H49
    |    |--*T. collaris [=Centrinus collaris] H49
    |    `--T. bicolor Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Reveniopsis Casey 1922 D09
    |    |--R. metzi Hustache 1949 H49
    |    `--R. seriatirostris [incl. R. seriatirostris var. ovalis Hustache 1949] H49
    |--Weiseriella Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--*W. erirrhinoides Hustache 1949 H49
    |    `--W. subrectirostrie Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Dirabius D09
    |    |--D. calvus Casey 1920 D09
    |    `--D. rectirostris (LeConte 1876) D09
    |--Eisonyx D09
    |    |--E. crassipes LeConte 1880 D09
    |    `--E. opacus Casey 1893 D09
    |--Fryella D09
    |    |--F. mutilata D09
    |    `--F. quadrituberculata Hustache 1929 D09
    |--Idiostethus D09
    |    |--I. subcalvus (LeConte 1878) D09
    |    `--I. tubulatus (Say 1831) D09
    |--Limnobaris D09
    |    |--L. bicincta Champion 1908 D09
    |    `--L. calandriformis Champion 1908 D09
    |--Linogeraeus D09
    |    |--L. urbanus (Boheman 1859) D09
    |    `--L. viduatus (Hustache 1949) D09
    |--Microcholus D09
    |    |--M. puncticollis LeConte 1876 D09
    |    `--M. striatus LeConte 1876 D09
    |--Odontocorynus D09
    |    |--O. creperus Boheman 1844 D09
    |    `--O. scutellumalbum (Say 1831) D09
    |--Oligolochus D09
    |    |--O. braccatus (Casey 1892) D09
    |    `--O. ornatus (Casey 1920) D09
    |--Orissus D09
    |    |--O. christophori Hustache 1938 D09
    |    `--O. meigeni Pascoe 1889 D09
    |--Ortycus D09
    |    |--O. cristosus Casey 1922 D09
    |    `--O. setifer (Boheman 1844) D09
    |--Pycnogeraeus D09
    |    |--P. modestus Casey 1920 D09
    |    `--P. striatirostris Casey 1920 D09
    |--Stethobaris D09
    |    |--S. commixta Blatchley & Leng 1916 D09
    |    `--S. laevimargo (Champion 1916) D09
    |--Xystus D09
    |    |--X. arnoldi (Kirby 1819) D09
    |    `--X. ater (Boheman 1844) D09
    |--Zygobarella D09
    |    |--Z. tristicula Casey 1920 D09
    |    `--Z. xanthoxyli Casey 1920 D09
    |--Camelodes D09
    |    |--C. leachii (Kirby 1819) D09
    |    |--C. rufotibialis Hustache 1949 H49
    |    `--C. tumidicollis Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Centrinites D09
    |    |--C. boliviensis Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--C. lineatulus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    `--C. strigicollis Casey 1892 D09
    |--Leptogarnia D09
    |    |--L. polita Casey 1922 D09
    |    |--L. speculifer H49
    |    `--L. tarsalis Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Roalius D09
    |    |--R. rufipes Casey 1922 D09
    |    |--R. squamulosus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    `--R. tessellatus Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Dealia D09
    |    |--D. carbonaria Hustache 1938 D09
    |    |--D. episternalis Hustache 1949 H49
    |    `--D. glabrata Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Lissobaris H49
    |    |--L. armicollis Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--L. castaneipennis Hustache 1949 [=L. brunneipennis ms] H49
    |    `--L. denticollis Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Microzalestes D09
    |    |--*M. basalis Casey 1922 H49, D09
    |    |--M. longicornis Hustache 1949 H49
    |    `--M. longirostris Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Leptosaldius H49
    |    |--L. chacoensis Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--L. semiruber Hustache 1949 H49
    |    `--L. subcinctus H49
    |--Centrinopus D09
    |    |--C. alternatus Casey 1892 D09
    |    |--C. delicatulus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--C. elegantulus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    `--C. helvinus Casey 1892 D09
    |--Geraeus D09
    |    |--G. claveri Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--G. hybridus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--G. lineellus Casey 1892 D09
    |    `--G. penicillus (Herbst 1797) D09
    |--Tenemotes D09
    |    |--T. abdominalis Casey 1922 D09
    |    |--T. laevicollis Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--T. parviclava Casey 1922 D09
    |    `--T. rufipennis Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Selasella D09
    |    |--S. accipitrina Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--S. cuneipennis Casey 1922 D09
    |    |--S. imus [=Centrininus imus] H49
    |    `--S. oblonga Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Ternova D09
    |    |--T. bipartita Casey 1922 D09
    |    |--T. elevata Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--T. lineatula Hustache 1949 H49
    |    `--T. oblongula Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Saldius D09
    |    |--S. bifoveolatus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--S. inaequalis Casey 1922 D09
    |    |--S. peruanus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    `--S. seriatus Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Stegotes H49
    |    |--S. (Stegotes) H49
    |    `--S. (Stegotielle Hustache 1949) H49
    |         |--S. (S.) albosetosa Hustache 1949 H49
    |         `--S. (S.) hirtella Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Ladustes H49
    |    |  i. s.: L. speciosus H49
    |    `--L. (Ladustella Hustache 1949) H49
    |         |--L. (L.) biguttatus Hustache 1949 H49
    |         `--L. (L.) singularis Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Diorymeropsis D09
    |    |--D. disjuncta Champion 1908 D09
    |    |--D. dispersesquamulatus Hustache 1949 [=Saldius dispersesquamulatus ms] H49
    |    |--D. humilis Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--D. vanus H49
    |    `--D. xanthoxyli (Linell 1897) D09
    |--Thestonia D09
    |    |--T. contracta Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--T. fulva Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--T. obesa Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--T. rugosicollis Hustache 1949 H49
    |    `--T. sparsa Casey 1922 D09
    |--Jops H49
    |    |--J. cribricollis Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--J. iotomioidea Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--J. latitarsis Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--J. micronyx Hustache 1949 H49
    |    `--J. rufitarsis Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Parasaldius Casey 1922 D09
    |    |--P. bifasciatus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--P. bondari Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--P. elegantulus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--P. prosternalis Hustache 1949 H49
    |    `--P. ruficornis Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Dialomia D09
    |    |--D. bactriae Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--D. brevirostris Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--D. contracta Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--D. gradata Casey 1922 D09
    |    |--D. intermedia Hustache 1949 H49
    |    `--D. subsetosa Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Catapastus D09
    |    |--C. albonotatus Linell 1897 D09
    |    |--C. conspersus Casey 1892 D09
    |    |--C. diffusus Casey 1892 D09
    |    |--C. seriatus Casey 1920 D09
    |    |--C. signatipennis Linell 1897 D09
    |    |--C. simplex Casey 1920 D09
    |    `--C. squamirostris Casey 1920 D09
    |--Plocamus D09
    |    |--P. albofasciatus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--P. apicalis Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--P. bellus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--P. brevisetis Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--P. clavisetis Champion 1908 D09
    |    |--P. echidna (LeConte 1876) D09
    |    `--P. variegatus Hustache 1949 [=P. obscurus ms] H49
    |--Revena D09
    |    |--R. brevis Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--R. exarata Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--R. laevipennis Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--R. maculiventris Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--R. rectirostris Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--R. rubiginosa Boheman 1836 D09
    |    `--R. trapezicollis Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Dimesus D09
    |    |--D. benoisti Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--D. bicolor Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--D. conicollis Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--D. minutus H49
    |    |--D. paranensis Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--D. rubricatus (Hustache 1939) D09 [=Cylindrocerus rubricatus H49]
    |    `--D. rubrotibialis Hustache 1949 [=D. rufotibialis ms] H49
    |--Diastethus D09
    |    |--D. aeneus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--D. brasiliensis Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--D. eurhinoides Champion 1907 D09
    |    |--D. intermedius Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--D. niger Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--D. nitidus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--D. squamiventris Hustache 1949 H49
    |    `--D. viridulus Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Megavallius D09
    |    |--M. auritarsis Casey 1922 D09
    |    |--M. benoisti Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--M. bilineatus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--M. bispilotus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--M. elegantulus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--M. nitidus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--M. quadrisignatus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--M. sexmaculatus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    `--M. triangularis Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Brachygeraeus H49
    |    |--B. basalis Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--B. bruchi Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--B. hipocritus H49
    |    |--B. hirtellus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--B. mediocris Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--B. minutesquamosus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--B. nigriceps Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--B. persimilis Hustache 1949 H49
    |    `--B. viduatus Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Centrinus D09
    |    |--C. amazonicus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--C. apicipennis H51a
    |    |--C. compactus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--C. curtus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--C. curvirostris Boheman 1844 D09
    |    |--C. dubitabilis Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--C. grisescens Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--C. incisus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--C. niger Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--C. striatirostris Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--C. suturalis [incl. C. suturalis var. sublineatus Hustache 1949] H49
    |    |--C. tremolerasi Hustache 1949 H49
    |    `--C. triangularis Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Cylindrocerus D09
    |    |--C. armatus H51b
    |    |--C. bisignatus H49
    |    |--C. boliviensis Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--C. brevis Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--C. claveri Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--C. columbicus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--C. comma Boheman 1844 D09
    |    |--C. dispersus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--C. fallaciosus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--C. parvulus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--C. peruvianus [=C. longiclavus ms] H49
    |    |--C. rubromaculatus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--C. trimaculatus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    `--C. urbanus Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Ovanius D09
    |    |--O. alutaceus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--O. ampeloglypteroides Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--O. asperulus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--O. brevipennis Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--O. gracilicornis Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--O. laevicollis Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--O. laevipennis Hustache 1949 [=O. laevistriatus ms] H49
    |    |--O. melanarius Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--O. minutus Hustache 1949 D09
    |    |--O. nitidus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--O. picipennis Hustache 1938 D09
    |    |--O. punctulatus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--O. rubricus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--O. rufipes Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--O. scutellatus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    `--O. singularis Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Nicentrus D09
    |    |--N. antennalis Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--N. australis H49
    |    |--N. biplagiatus [incl. N. biplagiatus var. brasiliensis Hustache 1949] H49
    |    |--N. circumcinctus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--N. columbicus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--N. corumbanus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--N. decipiens Casey 1892 D09
    |    |--N. dentirostris Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--N. episternalis Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--N. fallax H49
    |    |--N. fasciatus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--N. grossulus Casey 1893 D09
    |    |--N. jekeli H49
    |    |--N. longithorax Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--N. napoanus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--N. robustus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--N. semialbus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    |--N. suturalis Hustache 1949 H49
    |    `--N. viduatus Hustache 1949 H49
    `--Centrinaspis H49
         |--C. antennalis Hustache 1949 H49
         |--C. argentinica Hustache 1949 [incl. C. argentinica var. parvula Hustache 1949] H49
         |--C. bipunctata Hustache 1949 H49
         |--C. boliviana Hustache 1949 H49
         |--C. bosqi Hustache 1949 H49
         |--C. brachyceps Hustache 1949 H49
         |--C. bryanti Hustache 1949 H49
         |--C. cemas [incl. C. cemas var. albovariegata Hustache 1949, C. cemas var. densata Hustache 1949] H49
         |--C. ciliaris Hustache 1949 H49
         |--C. clavata Hustache 1949 H49
         |--C. conicollis Hustache 1949 H49
         |--C. convexa Hustache 1949 H49
         |--C. coroicoana Hustache 1949 H49
         |--C. curta Hustache 1949 H49
         |--C. densa Hustache 1949 H49
         |--C. densesquamulata Hustache 1949 H49
         |--C. elegantula Hustache 1949 H49
         |--C. expansa Hustache 1949 [=C. orguesensis ms] H49
         |--C. fausti Hustache 1949 H49
         |--C. ferruginea Hustache 1949 H49
         |--C. geayi Hustache 1949 H49
         |--C. griseoniger Hustache 1949 H49
         |--C. inflatipes Hustache 1949 H49
         |--C. lamella Hustache 1949 H49
         |--C. lateralis Hustache 1949 H49
         |--C. laticolles Hustache 1949 H49
         |--C. lineatula Hustache 1949 H49
         |--C. linotoides Hustache 1949 H49
         |--C. minuta Hustache 1949 H49
         |--C. multimaculata Hustache 1949 H49
         |--C. nemorosa Hustache 1949 H49
         |--C. obscura Hustache 1949 H49
         |--C. ohausi Hustache 1949 H49
         |--C. picturata Hustache 1949 H49
         |--C. polylineata Hustache 1949 H49
         |--C. prevaricata Hustache 1949 H49
         |--C. prosternalis Hustache 1949 H49
         |--C. quadrivittata [incl. C. quadrivittata var. peruviana Hustache 1949] H49
         |--C. quinquelineata Hustache 1949 H49
         |--C. rivularis Hustache 1949 H49
         |--C. similis Hustache 1949 H49
         |--C. sulcirostris Hustache 1949 H49
         |--C. sylvicola Hustache 1949 H49
         |--C. tucumanica Hustache 1949 H49
         |--C. tychioides Hustache 1949 H49
         |--C. vianai H49
         `--C. vulgaris Hustache 1949 H49

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Davis, S. R. 2009. Morphology of Baridinae and related groups (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). ZooKeys 10: 1-136.

[H49] Hustache, A. 1949. Nouveaux Barinae Sud Américains. Troisième partie—Centrinina. Boletim do Museu Nacional, nova serie, Zoologia 97: 1-143.

[H51a] Hustache, A. 1951a. Nouveaux Barinae Sud Américains. Deuxième partie—Barina. Boletim do Museu Nacional, nova serie, Zoologia 96: 1-78.

[H51b] Hustache, A. 1951b. Nouveaux Barinae Sud-Américains. 4.ème partie: Madopterina—Lyterida—Leptoschoina—Eutoxina—Madarina—Barymerina. Boletim do Museu Nacional, nova serie, Zoologia 102: 1-78.

Lacordaire, T. 1866. Histoire Naturelle des Insectes. Genera des Coléoptères, ou exposé méthodique et critique de tous les genres proposés jusqu'ici dans cet ordre d'insectes vol. 7. Librairie encyclopédique de Roret: Paris.

Eurhinina

Eurhinus festivus, photographed by Bernardo Navarrete.

Belongs within: Baridinae.

The Eurhinina are a group of weevils characterised by a brilliant metallic coloration in the adults. Larvae of the genus Eurhinus create galls in the stems of Vitaceae.

Characters (from Casey 1922): Body shining, wholly glabrous throughout; femora mutic; pygidium vertical and well developed, differing only slightly in the sexes. Posterior lobe of prosternum extending about as far as mesocoxal tangent. Antennal funicle often peculiarly modified, very thick and compact form in many species.

<==Eurhinina
    |--Barycerus collaris Gyllenhal 1836 D09
    |--Eurhinopsella Hustache 1949 [=Eurhonopsellix (l. c.)] H49
    |    `--*E. triangularis Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Pseudeurhinus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    `--*P. violaceocoeruleus Hustache 1949 H49
    |--Barycerellus Hustache 1949 H49
    |    `--*B. difformis Hustache 1949 H49
    `--Eurhinus D09
         |--E. aeneus Schoenherr 1844 D09
         |--E. ascensionensis Hustache 1949 H49
         |--E. cavicornis H49
         |--E. festivus (Fabricius 1792) D09
         |--E. lobicornis Hustache 1949 H49
         |--E. purpureus Hustache 1949 H49
         `--E. viridis H49

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Casey, T. L. 1922. Notes on the Coleoptera vol. 10. Studies in the rhynchophorous subfamily Barinae of the Brazilian fauna. New Era Printing Company: Lankester (PA).

[D09] Davis, S. R. 2009. Morphology of Baridinae and related groups (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). ZooKeys 10: 1-136.

[H49] Hustache, A. 1949. Nouveaux Barinae Sud Américains. Première partie—Ambatini, Peridinetini, Pantotelini, Cyrionichyna et Optanini. Boletim do Museu Nacional, nova serie, Zoologia 95: 1-55.

Pseudobaris

Pseudobaris nigrina, photographed by Johnnyn.

Belongs within: Baridinae.

Pseudobaris is a genus of weevils found in North and South America. At least some species are found in association with Lamiaceae.

Characters (from Blatchley & Leng 1916): Usually narrow, subcylindrical, convex species having the club of the antennae entirely pubescent; front coxae widely separated; prosternum deeply and abruptly sulcate along the middle; body above almost glabrous; pygidium large, convex and prominent, not inflexed beneath and not at all covered by the elytra; tarsal claws approximate, connate at base.

<==Pseudobaris
    |--P. angustula LeConte 1876 D09
    |--P. conica Hustache 1951 H51
    |--P. corvina H51
    |--P. cuprea Hustache 1951 H51
    |--P. curvipes Hustache 1951 H51
    |--P. femoralis Hustache 1951 H51
    |--P. grandis Hustache 1951 H51
    |--P. ibaguena Hustache 1951 H51
    |--P. kirschi Hustache 1951 H51
    |--P. longicollis Hustache 1951 H51
    `--P. subopaca Hustache 1951 H51

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Blatchley, W. S., & C. W. Leng. 1916. Rhynchophora or Weevils of North Eastern America. Nature Publishing Company: Indianapolis.

[D09] Davis, S. R. 2009. Morphology of Baridinae and related groups (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). ZooKeys 10: 1-136.

[H51] Hustache, A. 1951. Nouveaux Barinae Sud Américains. Deuxième partie – Barina. Boletim do Museu Nacional, nova serie, Zoologia 96: 1-78.

Linoma

Solenosternus oblongulus (=Linoma oblongula), photographed by Juan Enrique Barriga-Tuñón.

Belongs within: Baridinae.

Linoma was established by Casey (1922) as a genus of weevils from South America. It was later synonymised with Solenosternus by Kuschel (1983).

Characters (from Casey 1922): More elongate than Heterosternus with relatively smaller prothorax, sparse and fine sculpture and very slender beak; tarsi short, with relatively long strigose and basally subconnate claws. Antennae are inserted slightly (male) or much (female) behind middle of beak, short, club small, very short and broad, only slightly longer than wide, but little longer than the three preceding segments and abruptly formed. Prosternum very narrowly and deeply, evenly sulcate, the concavity gradually obsolete toward the suture, where the surface becomes anteriorly cuspidate, the coxae remote, separated by much more than their own width, the lobe prominent but nearly twice as wide as long, unimpressed and feebly, medially sinuate at apex. Prothorax gradually tubulate, the basal lobe rather prominent, rounded, the scutellum flat, semifree and somewhat broadly ogival, the elytra finely but sharply, deeply grooved, the pygidium small, rough and semicircular. First ventral suture absent medially.

<==Linoma
    |--L. carinata Hustache 1951 H51
    |--L. coelestis Hustache 1951 H51
    |--L. cylindrica Hustache 1951 H51
    |--L. cymba Hustache 1951 H51
    |--L. egena Hustache 1951 H51
    |--L. elongatula Hustache 1951 H51
    |--L. foveifrons Hustache 1951 H51
    |--L. lucens Hustache 1951 [=L. nigerrima ms] H51
    |--L. nigrocyanea Hustache 1951 H51
    |--L. oblongula Hustache 1951 H51
    |--L. persimilis Hustache 1951 H51
    |--L. subdentata Hustache 1951 H51
    `--L. subpilosa Hustache 1951 [=L. pilosella ms] H51

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Casey, T. L. 1922. Notes on the Coleoptera vol. 10. Studies in the rhynchophorous subfamily Barinae of the Brazilian fauna. New Era Printing Company: Lankester (PA).

[H51] Hustache, A. 1951. Nouveaux Barinae Sud Américains. Deuxième partie – Barina. Boletim do Museu Nacional, nova serie, Zoologia 96: 1-78.

Kuschel, G. 1983. New synonymies and combinations of Baridinae from the Neotropic and Nearctic regions (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Coleopterists Bulletin 37 (1): 34-44.

Heterosternus

A specimen of Solenosternus photographed by Juan Enrique Barriga-Tuñón. So far as I have been able to find, the species listed below have never been illustrated.

Belongs within: Baridinae.

This is a diverse genus of weevils found in South and Central America. Marshall (1946) identified that the genus name is preoccupied and provided the replacement name Heterothorax. Kuschel (1983) synonymised this genus with Solenosternus.

Characters (from Casey 1922): Oval to cylindric in form, always rather closely and strongly, sometimes extremely densely, punctate. Beak varying from rather short and moderately thick to longer and slender, especially in the female; antennae moderate, with oval pubescent club. Prothorax never more than feebly tubulate at apex; scutellum varying from minute and rounded to transversely quadrate in form; elytra moderately grooved, individually rounded at apex; pygidium small and semicircular. Tarsi small and slender, with the claws contiguous at base and generally feebly but sometimes quite notably diverging.

<==Heterosternus
    |--H. amictus Hustache 1951 H51
    |--H. canaliculatus Hustache 1951 H51
    |--H. corruptor Hustache 1951 H51
    |--H. denieri Hustache 1951 H51
    |--H. densepunctatus Hustache 1951 H51
    |--H. ellipticus Hustache 1951 H51
    |--H. foveolatus Hustache 1951 H51
    |--H. frontalis Hustache 1951 H51
    |--H. goyazensis Hustache 1951 H51
    |--H. gracilicornis Hustache 1951 H51
    |--H. macrophthalmus Hustache 1951 H51
    |--H. metallescens Hustache 1951 H51
    |--H. nodieri Hustache 1951 H51
    |--H. pubescens Hustache 1951 H51
    |--H. sericellus Hustache 1951 H51
    `--H. subtriangularis Hustache 1951 H51

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Casey, T. L. 1922. Notes on the Coleoptera vol. 10. Studies in the rhynchophorous subfamily Barinae of the Brazilian fauna. New Era Printing Company: Lankester (PA).

[H51] Hustache, A. 1951. Nouveaux Barinae Sud Américains. Deuxième partie – Barina. Boletim do Museu Nacional, nova serie, Zoologia 96: 1-78.

Kuschel, G. 1983. New synonymies and combinations of Baridinae from the Neotropic and Nearctic regions (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Coleopterists Bulletin 37 (1): 34-44.

Marshall, G. A. K. 1946. Taxonomic notes on Curculionidae (Col.) Journal of Natural History, series 11, 13 (98): 93-98.

Pezizales

Ascobolus carbonarius, photographed by Miro Švidroň.

Belongs within: Pezizomycotina.
Contains: Pezizaceae, Thecotheus, Pyronemataceae, Helvellaceae.

The Pezizales is a clade of fungi including, among others, the morels and truffles.

Characters (from Kirk et al. 2008): Operculate discomycetes; cupfungi. Stroma absent. Ascomata apothecial or cleistothecial, rarely absent, often large, discoid, cupulate or ± globose, sometimes stalked, often brightly coloured; excipulum usually thick-walled, fleshy or membranous, composed of thin-walled pseudoparenchymatous cells. Interascal tissue of simple or moniliform paraphyses, often pigmented and swollen at the apices, absent in some cleistothecial taxa. Asci elongated, persistent, thin-walled, usually without obvious apical thickening, opening by a circular pore (operculum) or vertical split, the wall sometimes blueing in iodine, the asci cylindrical to ± globose and usually indehiscent in cleistothecial taxa. Ascospores usually ellipsoidal, aseptate, hyaline to strongly pigmented, often ornamented, usually without a sheath. Anamorphs hyphomycetous where known, usually with sympodial proliferation. Saprobes on soil and very rotten wood, some coprophilous, mycorrhizal, some hypogeous (and then mycorrhizal).

Pezizales [Otideaceae, Pezizomycetes]
    |--+--Pezizaceae JK06
    |  `--Ascobolaceae EB03Outline
    |       |--Clestoiodophanus EB03Outline
    |       |--Cubonia EB03Outline
    |       |--Saccobolus EB03Outline
    |       |--Thecotheus EB03Outline
    |       `--Ascobolus JK06 [incl. Seliniella Arx & Müller 1955 RS99]
    |            |--A. carbonarius LK04
    |            |--A. crenulatus JK06
    |            |--A. denudatus HWB03
    |            |--A. immersus [incl. *Seliniella macrospora Arx & Müller 1955] RS99
    |            `--A. lineolatus ST99
    `--+--+--Pyronemataceae JK06
       |  `--Sarcoscyphaceae EB03Outline
       |       |--Aurophora EB03Outline
       |       |--Chorioactis EB03Outline
       |       |--Desmazierella acicola EB03Outline, E99
       |       |--Geodina EB03Outline
       |       |--Kompsoscypha EB03Outline
       |       |--Nanoscypha EB03Outline
       |       |--Pseudopithyella EB03Outline
       |       |--Sarcoscypha coccinea JK06
       |       |--Thindia EB03Outline
       |       |--Wynnea EB03Outline
       |       |--Cookeina EB03Outline [incl. Boedijnopeziza EB03Notes]
       |       |    `--C. instititia [=*Boedijnopeziza instititia] EB03Notes
       |       `--Pithya LK04
       `--+--Caloscypha JK06 [anam. Geniculodendron EB03Notes; Caloscyphaceae]
          |    `--C. fulgens JK06 [anam. Geniculodendron pyriforme EB03Notes]
          `--+--Helvellaceae JK06
             `--+--‘Gyromitra’ melaleucoides LK04
                `--+--Discinaceae EB03Outline
                   |    |--Gymnohydnotrya EB03Outline
                   |    |--Hydnotrya EB03Outline
                   |    |--Pseudorhizina sphaerospora EB03Outline, RS99
                   |    `--Gyromitra JK06
                   |         |--G. californica JK06
                   |         `--G. esculenta GS02
                   `--Morchellaceae EB03Outline
                        |--Disciotis venosa LK04
                        |--Verpa conica LK04
                        `--Morchella JK06
                             |--M. deliciosa J87
                             |--M. elata GS02
                             `--M. esculenta JK06

Pezizales incertae sedis:
  Loculotuber EB03Outline
  Microeurotium EB03Outline
  Orcadia Sutherland 1915 EB03Outline, RS99
    `--*O. ascophylli Sutherland 1915 [incl. O. pelvetiana Sutherland 1915] RS99
  Inermisia aggregata JKW03
  Carbomyces [Carbomycetaceae] EB03Outline
  Glaziella [Glaziellaceae] EB03Outline
  Karstenella [Karstenellaceae] EB03Outline
  Rhizina [Rhizinaceae] EB03Outline
  Ascodesmidaceae EB03Outline
    |--Ascodesmis EB03Outline
    `--Eleutherascus EB03Outline
  Terfeziaceae H03
    |--Delastria rosea H03
    `--Terfezia H03
         |--T. claveryi H03
         `--T. leptoderma H03
  Tuberaceae EB03Outline
    |--Choiromyces EB03Outline
    |--Dingleya EB03Outline
    |--Labyrinthomyces EB03Outline
    |--Reddelomyces EB03Outline
    `--Tuber EB03Outline
         |--T. brumale PHK96
         |--T. magnatum SL02
         |--T. melanosporum LS01
         `--T. puberulum RS99
  Sarcosomataceae EB03Outline
    |--Donadinia EB03Outline
    |--Galiella EB03Outline
    |--Korfiella EB03Outline
    |--Neournula EB03Outline
    |--Plectania nigrella EB03Outline, GS02
    |--Pseudoplectania EB03Outline
    |--Sarcosoma EB03Outline
    |--Selenaspora EB03Outline
    |--Strobiloscypha EB03Outline
    |--Urnula hiemalis EB03Outline, JKW03
    `--Wolfina EB03Outline

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[E99] Eriksson, O. E. (ed.) 1999. Notes on ascomycete systematics. Nos 2440-2755. Myconet 2: 1-41.

[EB03Notes] Eriksson, O. E., H. O. Barah, R. S. Currah, K. Hansen, C. P. Kurtzman, T. Laessøe & G. Rambold (eds.) 2003. Notes on ascomycete systematics. Nos 3580-3623. Myconet 9: 91-103.

[EB03Outline] Eriksson, O. E., H. O. Barah, R. S. Currah, K. Hansen, C. P. Kurtzman, G. Rambold & T. Laessøe (eds.) 2003. Outline of Ascomycota – 2003. Myconet 9: 1-89.

[GS02] Gibas, C. F. C., L. Sigler, R. C. Summerbell & R. S. Currah. 2002. Phylogeny of the genus Arachnomyces and its anamorphs and the establishment of Arachnomycetales, a new eurotiomycete order in the Ascomycota. Studies in Mycology 47: 131-139.

[H03] Healy, R. A. 2003. Mattirolomyces tiffanyae, a new truffle from Iowa, with ultrastructural evidence for its classification in the Pezizaceae. Mycologia 95 (4): 765-772.

[HWB03] Henk, D. A., A. Weir & M. Blackwell. 2003. Laboulbeniopsis termitarius, an ectoparasite of termites newly recognized as a member of the Laboulbeniomycetes. Mycologia 95 (4): 561-564.

[JKW03] Jacobs, K., T. Kirisits & M. J. Wingfield. 2003. Taxonomic re-evaluation of three related species of Graphium, based on morphology, ecology and phylogeny. Mycologia 95 (4): 714-727.

[JK06] James, T. Y., F. Kauff, C. L. Schoch, P. B. Matheny, V. Hofstetter, C. J. Cox, G. Celio, C. Gueidan, E. Fraker, J. Miadlikowska, H. T. Lumbsch, A. Rauhut, V. Reeb, A. E. Arnold, A. Amtoft, J. E. Stajich, K. Hosaka, G.-H. Sung, D. Johnson, B. O'Rourke, M. Crockett, M. Binder, J. M. Curtis, J. C. Slot, Z. Wang, A. W. Wilson, A. Schüßler, J. E. Longcore, K. O'Donnell, S. Mozley-Standridge, D. Porter, P. M. Letcher, M. J. Powell, J. W. Taylor, M. M. White, G. W. Griffith, D. R. Davies, R. A. Humber, J. B. Morton, J. Sugiyama, A. Y. Rossman, J. D. Rogers, D. H. Pfister, D. Hewitt, K. Hansen, S. Hambleton, R. A. Shoemaker, J. Kohlmeyer, B. Volkmann-Kohlmeyer, R. A. Spotts, M. Serdani, P. W. Crous, K. W. Hughes, K. Matsuura, E. Langer, G. Langer, W. A. Untereiner, R. Lücking, B. Büdel, D. M. Geiser, A. Aptroot, P. Diederich, I. Schmitt, M. Schultz, R. Yahr, D. S. Hibbett, F. Lutzoni, D. J. McLaughlin, J. W. Spatafora & R. Vilgalys. 2006. Reconstructing the early evolution of Fungi using a six-gene phylogeny. Nature 443: 818-822.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, D. W. Minter & J. A. Stalpers (eds) 2008. Dictionary of the Fungi, 10th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[LS01] Lumbsch, H. T., I. Schmitt, H. Döring & M. Wedin. 2001. Molecular systematics supports the recognition of an additional order of Ascomycota: The Agyriales. Mycological Research 105 (1): 16-23.

[LK04] Lutzoni, F., F. Kauff, C. J. Cox, D. McLaughlin, G. Celio, B. Dentinger, M. Padamsee, D. Hibbett, T. Y. James, E. Baloch, M. Grube, V. Reeb, V. Hofstetter, C. Schoch, A. E. Arnold, J. Miadlikowska, J. Spatafora, D. Johnson, S. Hambleton, M. Crockett, R. Shoemaker, G.-H. Sung, R. Lücking, T. Lumbsch, K. O'Donnell, M. Binder, P. Diederich, D. Ertz, C. Gueidan, K. Hansen, R. C. Harris, K. Hosaka, Y.-W. Lim, B. Matheny, H. Nishida, D. Pfister, J. Rogers, A. Rossman, I. Schmitt, H. Sipman, J. Stone, J. Sugiyama, R. Yahr & R. Vilgalys. 2004. Assembling the fungal tree of life: progress, classification, and evolution of subcellular traits. American Journal of Botany 91 (10): 1446-1480.

[PHK96] Prescott, L. M., J. P. Harley & D. A. Klein. 1996. Microbiology (3rd ed.) Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).

[RS99] Rossman, A. Y., G. J. Samuels, C. T. Rogerson & R. Lowen. 1999. Genera of Bionectriaceae, Hypocreaceae and Nectriaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycetes). Studies in Mycology 42: 1-248.

[ST99] Saenz, G. S., & J. W. Taylor. 1999. Phylogenetic relationships of Meliola and Meliolina inferred from nuclear small subunit rRNA sequences. Mycological Research 103 (8): 1049-1056.

[SL02] Schweigkofler, W., K. Lopandic, O. Molnár & H. Prillinger. 2002. Analysis of phylogenetic relationships among Ascomycota with yeast phases using ribosomal DNA sequences and cell wall sugars. Organisms Diversity & Evolution 2: 1-17.

Physciaceae

Heterodermia leucomelos, from here.

Belongs within: Lecanoromycetidae.

The Physciaceae are a family of lichenised fungi associated with green algae, often found growing on nitrogen-rich substrates.

Characters (from Cannon & Kirk 2007): Thallus crustose, foliose or fruticose. Ascomata apothecial, sessile, occasionally immersed, usually with a distinct margin. Interascal tissue composed of ± branched and anastomosing paraphyses, often with swollen and/or pigmented apices. Asci with a J+ apical cap, with a conical or funnel-shaped more weakly staining apical cushion, usually with a J+ gelatinized outer layer. Ascospores usually septate, usually dark brown with thickened walls and septa. Anamorphs pycnidial.

<==Physciaceae
    |--Amandinea EB03
    |--Anaptychia ciliaris EB03, RS99
    |--Australiaena EB03
    |--Awasthia EB03
    |--Dermatiscum EB03
    |--Dermiscellum EB03
    |--Dimelaena EB03
    |--Diploicia EB03
    |--Diplotomma EB03
    |--Dirinaria EB03
    |--Hafellia EB03
    |--Hyperphyscia EB03
    |--Mischoblastia EB03
    |--Mobergia EB03
    |--Phaeophyscia EB03
    |    |--P. decolor (Kashiwadani) Essl. 1978 [=Physcia decolor Kashiwadani 1975] S03
    |    `--P. hispidula J87
    |--Phaeorrhiza EB03
    |--Physciella EB03
    |--Physconia EB03
    |--Pyxine EB03
    |--Redonia EB03
    |--Rinodina EB03
    |--Rinodinella EB03
    |--Santessonia namibensis EB03, E99
    |--Tornabea EB03
    |--Buellia EB03
    |    |--*B. disciformis E99
    |    `--B. aethalea E99
    |--Gassicurtia EB03
    |--Physcia EB03
    |    |--P. aipolia E99
    |    |--P. alba J87
    |    |--P. caesia F33
    |    `--P. tribacia F33
    `--Heterodermia EB03
         |--H. chondroidea Web. & Awasthi 1971 S03
         |--H. circinalis J87
         |--H. comosa J87
         |--H. diademata BB05
         |--H. japonica BB05
         |--H. leucomelos J87
         |    |--H. l. ssp. leucomelos J87
         |    `--H. l. ssp. boryi J87
         `--H. lutescens J87

Nomen illegitimum: Buellia parasema E99

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BB05] Banik, D. & P. Bujarbarua. 2005. Lichens on Agapetes D. Don ex G. Don (Ericaceae) in India. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47 (1-4): 59-62.

Cannon, P. F., & P. M. Kirk. 2007. Fungal Families of the World. CABI.

[E99] Eriksson, O. E. (ed.) 1999. Notes on ascomycete systematics. Nos 2440-2755. Myconet 2: 1-41.

[EB03] Eriksson, O. E., H. O. Barah, R. S. Currah, K. Hansen, C. P. Kurtzman, G. Rambold & T. Laessøe (eds.) 2003. Outline of Ascomycota – 2003. Myconet 9: 1-89.

[F33] Frey, E. 1933. Cladoniaceae (unter Ausschluss der Gattung Cladonia), Umbilicariaceae. In Die Flechten (Dr. L. Rabenhorst’s Kryptogamenflora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz vol. 9) sect. 4, part 1. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft M. B. H.: Leipzig (reprinted 1971. Johnson Reprint Corporation: New York).

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[RS99] Rossman, A. Y., G. J. Samuels, C. T. Rogerson & R. Lowen. 1999. Genera of Bionectriaceae, Hypocreaceae and Nectriaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycetes). Studies in Mycology 42: 1-248.

[S03] Sinha, G. P. 2003. Additions to the lichen flora of India from Sikkim. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1-4): 221-224.