Ballarrinae

Female of Ballarra drosera (legs removed), from Hunt & Cokendolpher (1991).


Belongs within: Neopilionidae.

The Ballarrinae is a group of very small long-legged harvestmen found in Australia, southern Africa and South America. Ballarrines are characterised by the possession of elongate pedipalps with an extremely long patella, retroflexed tibia and reduced terminal claw on the tarsus. In the Australian genera Ballarra, Plesioballarra and Arrallaba, a barbed process is present on the left side of the penis at the junction between shaft and glans; such a process is absent in the South American Americovibone lanfrancoae (the male of the South African Vibone vetusta has not been described).

Characters (from Hunt & Cokendolpher 1991): Body small, usually greater than 0.8 and less than 3.5 mm long. Integument usually thin, at the most armed with minute setae. Abdominal spiracle usually concealed beneath coxa IV. Penis shaft usually with strong dorsal keel, muscle usually long (tendon short), left ventrolateral barbed process present or lacking. Ovipositor with two or four seminal receptacles. Pedipalp patella longer than tibia and usually tarsus, dorsal angle between patella and tibia less than 180°, patella and tibia without dense pile of setae; tarsus usually concave dorsad along its length, plumose setae extend to or almost to distal tip, non-socketed setae restricted to area of distal tip or lacking; tarsal claw lacking or small, usually inserted ventrodistally, usually with on ventral tooth. Chelicerae small in most species; first segment with or without ventral spur; jaws with continuous row of teeth of subequal size in most species. Legs long and usually slender; pseudoarticulations present in all metatarsi, tibia II, and femur II in some species; tarsi each with simple claw or claw with small teeth on each side. Sexual dimorphism slight in most species.

<==Ballarrinae
    |--Vibone Kauri 1961 HC91
    |    `--*V. vetusta Kauri 1961 HC91
    |--Plesioballarra Hunt & Cokendolpher 1991 HC91
    |    `--*P. crinis Hunt & Cokendolpher 1991 HC91
    |--Arrallaba Hunt & Cokendolpher 1991 HC91
    |    `--*A. spheniscus Hunt & Cokendolpher 1991 HC91
    |--Americovibone Hunt & Cokendolpher 1991 HC91
    |    `--*A. lanfrancoae Hunt & Cokendolpher 1991 HC91
    `--Ballarra Hunt & Cokendolpher 1991 HC91
         |--*B. drosera Hunt & Cokendolpher 1991 HC91
         |--B. alpina Hunt & Cokendolpher 1991 HC91
         |--B. cantrelli Hunt & Cokendolpher 1991 HC91
         |--B. clancyi Hunt & Cokendolpher 1991 HC91
         |--B. longipalpus Hunt & Cokendolpher 1991 HC91
         `--B. molaris Hunt & Cokendolpher 1991 HC91

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[HC91] Hunt, G. S., & J. C. Cokendolpher. 1991. Ballarrinae, a new subfamily of harvestmen from the Southern Hemisphere (Arachnida, Opiliones, Neopilionidae). Records of the Australian Museum 43: 131-169.

Carex

Grey sedge Carex divulsa, from here.


Belongs within: Cyperaceae.
Contains: Carex section Echinochlaenae.

Carex is a large genus (over 1500 species) of sedges found in cool and temperate parts of the world. Some species are agricultural weeds in pasture and damp habitats. Carex contains the subgenera Carex, with usually pedunculate and unisexual flower spikes, and Vignea, with sessile and usually bisexual spikes. Members of the subgenus Primocarex have solitary, terminal flower spikes that may be either bisexual or unisexual (Healy & Edgar 1980).

Characters (from Healy & Edgar 1980): Perennial herbs, tufted, rhizomatous or stoloniferous. Stems usually three-angled and solid, rarely terete and hollow. Leaves tristichous, usually linear, mostly crowded at base of stem and sheathing, sheath closed, with a minute, membranous ligule. Plants usually monoecious, rarely dioecious. Inflorescence a spike, cluster of spikes, or panicle; bracts leaf-like or setaceous. Spikes sessile or pedunculate, unisexual or bisexual, composed of numerous one-flowered spikelets, each subtended by a glume. Flowers unisexual, perianth 0. Male flower with three stamens (rarely two). Female flower a single pistil enclosed in an utricle; style 1, branched above to two or three stigmas projecting from utricle. Nut trigonous or biconvex, enclosed within persistent utricle.

Carex Linnaeus 1753 ME70
    |--C. subg. Carex HE80
    |    |--C. sect. Acutae non Cotula subsect. Acutae Allan 1961 HE80
    |    |    |--C. coriacea Hamlin 1954 HE80 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--C. gaudichaudiana Kunth 1837 HE80 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--C. geminata Schkuhr 1801 HE80 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--C. lessoniana Steudel 1840 HE80 [incl. C. polystachya Rich. 1832 non Swartz ex Wahl. 1803 ME70]
    |    |    |--C. sinclairii Boott in Cheeseman 1906 HE80
    |    |    |--C. subdola Boott 1845 HE80
    |    |    `--C. ternaria Boott in Hooker 1844 HE80 [incl. C. martinii Petrie 1926 non Lév. & Vaniot 1902 ME70]
    |    |--C. (sect. Capitellatae) capillacea Boott 1858 HE80 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--C. sect. Echinochlaenae HE80
    |    |--C. sect. Elatae HE80
    |    |    |--C. cockayniana Kükenthal in Cheeseman 1906 HE80 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--C. elingamita Hamlin 1958 HE80
    |    |    |--C. forsteri Wahlenberg 1803 HE80 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--C. iynx Nelmes 1944 HE80
    |    |    |--C. kermadecensis Petrie 1915 HE80 [incl. C. forsteri var. insularis Oliver 1910 ME70]
    |    |    |--C. longebrachiata Boeckeler 1877 [incl. C. longifolia Brown 1810 non Host 1809] HE80
    |    |    `--C. spinirostris Colenso 1883 HE80 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--C. sect. Gynobasidae KL98
    |    |    |--C. illegitima KL98
    |    |    `--C. oedipostyla Duval-Jouve 1870 (see below for synonymy) KL98
    |    |--C. (sect. Hirtae) hirta Linnaeus 1753 HE80
    |    |--C. (sect. Maximae) pendula Hudson 1762 HE80
    |    |--C. (sect. Mitratae) breviculmis Brown 1810 HE80
    |    |--C. (sect. Pachystylae) pallescens Linnaeus 1753 HE80
    |    |--C. sect. Paludosae HE80
    |    |    |--C. bichenoviana Boott in Hooker 1858 HE80
    |    |    |--C. pumila Thunberg 1784 HE80 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--C. riparia Curtis 1783 HE80
    |    |    `--C. trifida Cavanilles 1799 HE80 [incl. C. rekkohu Petrie 1926 ME70]
    |    |--C. sect. Physocarpeae HE80
    |    |    |--C. carsei Petrie 1923 HE80
    |    |    |--C. inopinata Cook 1953 HE80
    |    |    `--C. lurida Wahlenberg 1803 HE80
    |    |--C. sect. Pseudocypereae HE80
    |    |    |--C. fascicularis Boott in Hooker 1853 HE80 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    `--C. maorica Hamlin 1957 HE80 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--C. sect. Spirostachyae HE80
    |    |    |--C. demissa Hornemann in Sprengel 1826 HE80
    |    |    `--C. flaviformis Nelmes 1955 HE80
    |    |--C. (sect. Sylvaticae) sylvatica Hudson 1762 HE80
    |    |--C. (sect. Trachychlaenae) flacca Schreber 1771 HE80
    |    `--C. (sect. Tumidae) brownii Tuckerman 1843 HE80
    |--C. subg. Primocarex HE80
    |    |--C. acicularis Boott in Hooker 1853 HE80 [incl. C. inconspicua Col. 1896 non Steud. 1855 ME70]
    |    |--C. allanii Hamlin 1962 HE80
    |    |--C. enysii Petrie 1923 HE80
    |    `--C. pyrenaica Wahlenberg 1803 HE80
    |         |--C. p. var. pyrenaica HE80
    |         `--C. p. var. cephalotes (von Mueller) Kükenthal 1909 HE80 [=C. cephalotes von Mueller 1855 ME70]
    `--C. subg. Vignea HE80
         |--C. sect. Arenariae HE80
         |    |--C. kaloides Petrie 1881 HE80
         |    |--C. kirkii Petrie 1886 HE80 [incl. C. kirkii var. membranacea Kük. in Cheesem. 1906 ME70]
         |    |    |--C. k. var. kirkii HE80
         |    |    `--C. k. var. elatior Kükenthal in Cheeseman 1906 HE80
         |    `--C. muelleri Petrie 1886 HE80 [incl. C. viridis Petrie 1881 non Honck. 1792 ME70]
         |--C. sect. Bracteosae HE80
         |    |--C. pterocarpa Petrie 1899 HE80 [incl. C. thomsonii Petrie 1886 non Boott 1858 ME70]
         |    `--C. trachycarpa Cheeseman 1892 HE80
         |--C. (sect. Canescentes) lachenalii Schkuhr 1801 HE80 (see below for synonymy)
         |--C. (sect. Divisae) divisa Hudson 1762 HE80
         |--C. sect. Inversae HE80
         |    |--C. colensoi Boott in Hooker 1853 HE80 [incl. C. picta Col. 1889 non Steud. 1855 ME70]
         |    |--C. inversa Brown 1810 HE80 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |    |--C. i. var. inversa ME70
         |    |    `--C. i. var. leichardtii Boeck. 1875 ME70
         |    `--C. resectans Cheeseman 1892 HE80 [incl. C. inversa var. radicata Cheesem. 1884 ME70]
         |--C. sect. Muehlenbergianae HE80
         |    |--C. divulsa Stokes in Withering 1787 [incl. C. muricata var. subramosa] HE80
         |    |--C. muricata Linnaeus 1753 HE80
         |    `--C. spicata Hudson 1762 HE80
         |--C. (sect. Multiflorae) vulpinoidea Michaux 1803 HE80
         |--C. sect. Ovales HE80
         |    |--C. longii Mackenzie 1923 HE80
         |    |--C. ovalis Goodenough 1794 HE80
         |    `--C. scoparia Schkuhr ex von Willdenow 1805 HE80
         |--C. sect. Paniculatae HE80
         |    |--C. appressa Brown 1810 HE80 [=C. paniculata var. appressa (Br.) Cheesem. 1884 ME70]
         |    |--C. diandra Schrank 1781 HE80
         |    |--C. paniculata Linnaeus 1759 HE80
         |    |--C. secta Boott in Hooker 1853 HE80 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |    |--C. s. var. secta HE80
         |    |    `--C. s. var. tenuiculmis Petrie 1920 HE80
         |    |--C. sectoides (Kükenthal) Edgar in Moore & Edgar 1970 HE80 (see below for synonymy)
         |    `--C. virgata Boott in Hooker 1853 HE80 (see below for synonymy)
         |--C. (sect. Stellulatae) echinata Murray 1770 HE80 (see below for synonymy)
         `--C. (sect. Stenorhynchae) otrubae Podpera 1922 HE80

Carex incertae sedis:
  C. abdita NC01
  C. atrata O88
    |--C. a. ssp. atrata O88
    `--C. a. ssp. pullata O88
  C. atrofusca O88
    |--C. a. ssp. atrofusca O88
    `--C. a. ssp. minor nec C. fascicularis var. minor Boott in Hook. f. 1853 nec C. inversa var. minor Boott 1867 O88
  C. australis Link ex Boeck. 1877 (n. d.) ME70
  C. bicolor C55b
  C. caespitosa C55a
  C. canariensis KL98
  C. canescens HE80
    |--C. c. var. canescens HE80
    `--C. c. var. robustior HE80
  C. capitata C55b
  C. caryophyllea KL98
  C. coxiana Petrie 1926 (n. d.) ME70
  C. cruenta O88
  C. curta C55a
  C. darwini A27
    |--C. d. var. darwini ME70
    `--C. d. var. aristata Clarke ex Kük. 1899 [=C. darwinii var. urolepis (Franch.) Kükenthal 1909] ME70
  C. davalliana D06
  C. decidua D03
  C. distachya KL98
  C. ekmanii J87
  C. eleocharis MML75
  C. filicina O88
  C. filifolia CL86
  C. filiformis D03
    |--C. f. ssp. filiformis D03
    `--C. f. ssp. aematorhyncha D03
         |--C. f. ssp. a. f. aematorhyncha D03
         `--C. f. ssp. a. f. gracilis non C. ternaria var. gracilis Cheesem. 1884 D03
  C. firma PS98
  C. fusca D06
  C. gayana D03
    |--C. g. var. gayana D03
    `--C. g. var. densa D03
  C. haasteana Boeck. 1878 ME70
  C. haematostoma O88
  C. hallerana H91
  C. hattoriana P82
  C. heleonastes C55b
  C. himalaica O88
  C. hirtella O88
  C. inanis O88
  C. incurva C55b
  C. infuscata O88
  C. interior DS04
  C. irrigua C55a
  C. juncifolia C55a
  C. kobomugi STK06
  C. krulli Boeck. 1882 (n. d.) ME70
  C. laeta O88
  C. lehmannii O88
  C. leporina CA27
  C. longiacuminata Col. 1889 (n. d.) ME70
  C. macloviana BS00
  C. macrocephala T87
  C. magellanica D03
  C. maritima O88
  C. melanantha O88
  C. microglochin O88
    |--C. m. ssp. microglochin D03
    `--C. m. ssp. fuegina D03
  C. monostachya DS04
  C. mucronata C55a
  C. munda O88
  C. nakaoana O88
  C. nivalis O88
  C. novae-selandiae Boeck. 1878 (n. d.) ME70
  C. nubigena O88
  C. obscura O88
    |--C. o. var. obscura O88
    `--C. o. var. brachycarpa O88
  C. oederi A27
    |--C. o. var. oederi A27
    `--C. o. var. cataractae A27
  C. orbicularis O88
  C. paludosa C55a
  C. parva O88
  C. perraudieriana KL98
  C. persoonii [incl. C. vitilis] C55b
  C. pilulifera V09
  C. polyneura Col. 1889 (n. d.) ME70
  C. preissii GK00
  C. pseudocyperus D03
    |--C. p. ssp. pseudocyperus D03
    `--C. p. ssp. haenkeana D03
  C. pseudofoetida O88
  C. quadrangulata Col. 1885 (n. d.) ME70
  C. remota HE80
  C. richardsonii NC01
  C. rostrata GM03
  C. rotoensis Petrie 1926 (n. d.) ME70
  C. scabrifolia T03
  C. sempervirens H09
  C. sexspicata Col. 1884 (n. d.) ME70
  C. supina O88
  C. trinervis BBM02
  C. ustulata C55b
  C. vacilans G60
  C. vahlii [incl. C. alpina] C55b

Carex (sect. Capitellatae) capillacea Boott 1858 HE80 [=C. rara ssp. capillacea (Boott) Kük.) 1909 ME70; incl. C. wallii Petrie 1921 ME70]

Carex cockayniana Kükenthal in Cheeseman 1906 HE80 [=C. forsteri var. cockayniana (Kük.) Kük. 1909 ME70; incl. C. cinnamomea Cheeseman 1882 non Boott 1846 ME70]

Carex coriacea Hamlin 1954 HE80 [incl. C. ternaria var. pallida Cheesem. 1884 ME70, C. ternaria var. minor f. pallida (Cheesem.) Kük. 1909 ME70]

Carex (sect. Stellulatae) echinata Murray 1770 HE80 [incl. C. stellulata var. australis Kük. 1909 nec C. australis Link ex Boeck. 1877 nec C. australis Kirk 1894 ME70, C. stellulata Good. 1794 ME70]

Carex fascicularis Boott in Hooker 1853 HE80 [=C. forsteri var. fascicularis (Boott) Hook. f. 1864 ME70, C. pseudocyperus var. fascicularis (Boott) Boott 1867 ME70]

Carex forsteri Wahlenberg 1803 HE80 [incl. C. punctulata Rich. 1832 ME70, C. recurva Schkuhr 1801 non Huds. 1778 ME70, C. semiforsteri Clarke in Cheesem. 1906 ME70]

Carex gaudichaudiana Kunth 1837 HE80 [=C. vulgaris var. gaudichaudiana (Kunth) Boott 1867 ME70; incl. C. gaudichaudiana var. humilior Kük. 1909 ME70]

Carex geminata Schkuhr 1801 HE80 [incl. C. confusa Hamlin 1954 ME70, C. ternaria var. gracilis Cheesem. 1884 ME70, C. ternaria var. minor f. nigrescens Kük. 1909 ME70]

Carex inversa Brown 1810 HE80 [incl. C. inversa var. costata Kük. 1909 ME70, C. inversa var. minor Boott 1867 non C. fascicularis var. minor Boott in Hook. f. 1853 ME70, C. inversa f. parvula Kük. 1909 ME70, C. smaragdina Col. 1895 ME70]

Carex (sect. Canescentes) lachenalii Schkuhr 1801 HE80 [incl. C. lagopina Wahl. 1803 ME70, C. parkeri Petrie 1881 ME70]

Carex maorica Hamlin 1957 HE80 [incl. C. fascicularis var. minor Boott 1853 ME70, C. forsteri var. minor (Boott) Hook. f. 1864 ME70]

Carex oedipostyla Duval-Jouve 1870 [incl. C. ambigua Link 1799 non Moench 1794, C. olyssiponensis Samp. 1909 non Steudel 1855] KL98

Carex pumila Thunberg 1784 HE80 [incl. C. littorea Labill. 1806 ME70, C. pumila ssp. littorea (Labill.) Kük. 1899 ME70, C. pumila var. macrocarpa Carse 1916 ME70]

Carex secta Boott in Hooker 1853 HE80 [=C. appressa var. secta (Boott) Kük. 1909 ME70, C. paniculata var. secta (Boott) Cheesem. 1884 ME70, C. virgata var. secta (Boott) Hook. f. 1864 ME70]

Carex sectoides (Kükenthal) Edgar in Moore & Edgar 1970 HE80 [=C. appressa var. sectoides Kük. 1909 ME70, C. secta var. sectoides (Kük.) Cheesem. 1925 ME70]

Carex spinirostris Colenso 1883 HE80 [incl. C. vacillans Boott in Hook. f. 1853 non Drejer in Hartm. 1846 ME70]

Carex virgata Boott in Hooker 1853 HE80 [=C. appressa var. virgata (Boott) Kük. 1909 ME70, C. paniculata var. virgata (Boott) Cheesem. 1884 ME70]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A27] Andersen, J. C. 1927. Popular names of New Zealand plants. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 905-977.

[BS00] Ballard, H. E., Jr & K. J. Systsma. 2000. Evolution and biogeography of the woody Hawaiian violets (Viola, Violaceae): Arctic origins, herbaceous ancestry and bird dispersal. Evolution 54 (5): 1521-1532.

[BBM02] Bonte, D., L. Baert & J.-P. Maelfait. 2002. Spider assemblage structure and stability in a heterogeneous coastal dune system (Belgium). Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 331-343.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CA27] Cockayne, L., & H. H. Allan. 1927. Notes on New Zealand floristic botany, including descriptions of new species, &c. (No. 5). Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 48-72.

[CL86] Collins, E. I. & R. W. Lichvar. 1986. Vegetation inventory of current and historic black-footed ferret habitat in Wyoming. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs 8: 85-93.

[D06] Datta, A. 2006. The family Equisetaceae in India. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 48 (1-4): 1-58.

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467-510.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8—Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323-402.

[GM03] Gilbert, D., E. A. D. Mitchell, C. Amblard, G. Bourdier & A.-J. Francez. 2003. Population dynamics and food preferences of the testate amoeba Nebela tincta major-bohemica-collaris complex (Protozoa) in a Sphagnum peatland. Acta Protozoologica 42: 99-104.

[G60] Gudex, M. C. 1960. The native flora of Bryant House-Whale Bay area. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 357-362.

[HE80] Healy, A. J., & E. Edgar. 1980. Flora of New Zealand vol. III. Adventive cyperaceous, petalous and spathaceous monocotyledons. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[H09] Heltmann, H. 2009. Der Königstein (Piatra Craiului), die Perle der Burzenländer Gebirge. Mauritiana 20 (3): 515-527.

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255-260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[KL98] Kiffe, K., K. Lewejohann. 1998. Ein Neufund von Carex oedipostyla Duval-Jouve (Cyperaceae) auf Teneriffa, Kanarische Inseln. Willdenowia 28: 117-122.

[MML75] McDaniel, B., D. K. Morihara & J. K. Lewis. 1975. A new species of Tuckerella from South Dakota and a key with illustrations of all known described species. Acarologia 17 (1): 274-283.

[ME70] Moore, L. B. & E. Edgar. 1970. Flora of New Zealand vol. 2. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Monocotyledones except Gramineae. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[NC01] Nekola, J. C., & B. F. Coles. 2001. Systematics and ecology of Gastrocopta (Gastrocopta) rogersensis (Gastropoda: Pupillidae), a new species of land snail from the Midwest of the United States of America. Nautilus 115 (3): 105-114.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[P82] Pickard, J. 1982. Catastrophic disturbance and vegetation on Little Slope, Lord Howe Island. Australian Journal of Ecology 7: 161-170.

[PS98] Prosser, F., & S. Scortegagna. 1998. Primula recubariensis, a new species of Primula sect. Auricula Duby endemic to the SE Prealps, Italy. Willdenowia 28: 27-46.

[STK06] Suzuki, S., N. Tsurusaki & Y. Kodama. 2006. Distribution of an endangered burrowing spider Lycosa ishikariana in the San'in Coast of Honshu, Japan (Araneae: Lycosidae). Acta Arachnologica 55 (2): 79-86.

[T03] Takeda, S. 2003. Mass wandering in the reproductive season by the fiddler crab Uca perplexa (Decapoda: Ocypodidae). Journal of Crustacean Biology 23 (3): 723-728.

[T87] Tsurusaki, N. 1987. Two species of Homolophus newly found from Hokkaido, Japan (Arachnida: Opiliones: Phalangiidae). Acta Arachnologica 35: 97-107.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183-194.

Bromeliaceae

Air plant Tillandsia ionantha, from here.


Belongs within: Poales.
Contains: Bromelioideae.

The Bromeliaceae, bromeliads, are a family of herbaceous plants found primarily in the neotropics (a single species, Pitcairnia feliciana, is native to west Africa). Bromeliads have a vase-like growth form that often encourages the formation of phytotelmata (pooling of water within plants). Members of the genus Puya, found in the Andes mountains, are noted for their monocarpic life cycle in which the plants die after a single flowering event. Except for numerous species grown as ornamentals, the most economically significant species is the pineapple Ananas comosus grown for its fruit. The Bromeliaceae have been divided between three subfamilies; however, the 'Pitcairnioideae' (with spiny leaves, capsular fruits and wingless seeds) are paraphyletic with regard to the rest of the family. The Tillandsioideae have spineless leaves, capsular fruits and winged seeds (BSI) and are mostly epiphytic or lithophytic species.

Characters (from Luther & Brown): Herbs, perennial, terrestrial, among or on rocks, or epiphytic. Roots usually present, often poorly developed in epiphytic taxa. Stems very short to very elongate. Leaves usually spirally arranged, forming water-impounding rosette, occasionally lax and/or two-ranked, simple, margins serrate or entire, trichomes nearly always covering surface, peltate, water-absorbing. Inflorescences terminal or lateral, sessile to scapose, simple or compound; bracts usually present, conspicuous. Flowers bisexual or functionally unisexual, radially symmetric to slightly bilaterally symmetric; perianth in two distinct sets of three; stamens in two series of three; ovary inferior or superior; placentation axile. Fruits capsules or berries. Seeds plumose, winged, or unappendaged.

Bromeliaceae [Bromeliales, Pitcairnioideae]
    |  i. s.: Encholirium SHZ05
    |         Dyckia SHZ05
    |         Deuterocohnia SHZ05
    |         Rhodostachys littoralis D03
    |--+--Ayensua SHZ05
    |  `--Brocchinia SHZ05
    |       |--+--B. micrantha (Baker) Mez 1894 SHZ05
    |       |  `--B. steyermarkii Smith 1951 SHZ05
    |       `--+--B. reducta Baker 1882 SHZ05
    |          `--B. tatei Smith 1946 SHZ05
    `--+--Lindmania SHZ05
       `--+--Hechtia SHZ05
          |    |--H. carlsoniae Burt-Utley & Utley 1988 SHZ05
          |    |--H. montana DS04
          |    `--H. texensis DS04
          |--+--+--Navia SHZ05
          |  |  |--Brewcaria SHZ05
          |  |  |--Cottendorfia SHZ05
          |  |  `--‘Brocchinia’ serrata SHZ05
          |  `--+--+--Pitcairnia SHZ05
          |     |  |    |--P. elizabethae J87
          |     |  |    |--P. feliciana (Chevalier) Harms & Milbraed 1938 SHZ05
          |     |  |    `--P. punicea Scheidweiler 1842 SHZ05
          |     |  `--Fosterella SHZ05
          |     |       |--+--F. albicans (Grisebach) Smith 1960 SHZ05
          |     |       |  `--F. penduliflora (Wright) Smith 1960 SHZ05
          |     |       `--+--F. caulescens Rauh 1979 SHZ05
          |     |          `--F. floridensis Ibisch, Vazquez & Gross 1999 SHZ05
          |     `--+--Bromelioideae SHZ05
          |        `--Puya SHZ05
          |             |  i. s.: P. berteroniana DS04
          |             |         P. boliviensis SHZ05
          |             |         P. chilensis SHZ05
          |             |         P. dyckioides DS04
          |             |--P. densiflora Harms 1929 SHZ05
          |             `--+--P. alpestris (Poeppig) Gay 1952 SHZ05
          |                `--P. laxa Smith 1958 SHZ05
          `--Tillandsioideae SHZ05
               |--+--Glomeropitcairnia erectiflora Mez 1905 SHZ05
               |  `--Catopsis SHZ05
               |       |--C. floribunda Smith 1937 SHZ05
               |       |--C. montana DS04
               |       |--C. nitida J87
               |       `--C. nutans (Swartz) Grisebach 1887 SHZ05
               `--+--+--Werauhia ringens (Grisebachh) Grant 1995 SHZ05
                  |  `--Vriesea SHZ05
                  |       |--V. botafogensis L03
                  |       |--V. incurva J87
                  |       |--V. macrostachya J87
                  |       |--V. procera MO02
                  |       |--V. saundersii L03
                  |       |--V. sintenisii J87
                  |       `--V. splendens (Brongniart) Lemaire 1850-1851 SHZ05
                  `--+--Guzmania SHZ05
                     |    |--G. ekmanii J87
                     |    |--G. lingulata J87
                     |    |--G. monostachia (Linnaeus) Rusby ex Mez 1896 SHZ05
                     |    `--G. wittmackii (André) André ex Mez 1896 SHZ05
                     `--Tillandsia SHZ05
                          |--T. caput-medusae MH98
                          |--T. caribaea J87
                          |--T. compacta J87
                          |--T. compressa MM96
                          |--T. elizabethae DS04
                          |--T. fasciculata Swartz 1788 SHZ05
                          |    |--T. f. var. fasciculata J87
                          |    `--T. f. var. laxispica J87
                          |--T. fendleri J87
                          |--T. geminiflora MH98
                          |--T. hotteana J87
                          |--T. ionantha MH98
                          |--T. jenmanii J87
                          |--T. lescaillei J87
                          |--T. multicaulis Steudel 1841 SHZ05
                          |--T. selleana J87
                          `--T. usneoides DS04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467-510.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[L03] Leme, E. M. C. 2003. Nominal extinction and the taxonomist’s responsibility: The example of Bromeliaceae in Brazil. Taxon 52: 299-302.

[MO02] Machado, G., & P. S. Oliveira. 2002. Maternal care in the Neotropical harvestman Bourguyia albiornata (Arachnida: Opiliones): oviposition site selection and egg protection. Behaviour 139: 1509-1524.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180-190.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1-487.

[SHZ05] Schulte, K., R. Horres & G. Zizka. 2005. Molecular phylogeny of Bromelioideae and its implications on biogeography and the evolution of CAM in the family (Poales, Bromeliaceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (1): 113-125.

Scirpeae

Bulrush Scirpus lacustris, from here.


Belongs within: Cyperaceae.
Contains: Scirpus section Isolepis.

The Scirpeae is a tribe of sedges in which all flowers are hermaphroditic, and the glumes are spirally arranged and all floriferous except the lowest (Healy & Edgar 1980). Members of the tribe are found in wetland habitats, some in standing water.

Scirpeae
    |--Desmoschoenus spiralis HE80, MC03
    |--Fimbristylis Vahl 1806 HE80, MWN03
    |    |  i. s.: F. aggregata Fischer 1931 AD05
    |    |         F. dichotoma KYK07
    |    |         F. hispidula C55b
    |    |         F. paupercula AD05
    |    |         F. quinquangularis PP07
    |    |         F. rigidula KYK07
    |    |         F. tomentosa VB02
    |    |         F. tristachya KYK07
    |    |--F. sect. Cymosae MWN03
    |    |    |--F. cymosa MWN03
    |    |    |--F. dura MWN03
    |    |    `--F. sericea MWN03
    |    |--F. sect. Fuscae MWN03
    |    |    |--F. disticha MWN03
    |    |    |--F. eragrostis MWN03
    |    |    `--F. intonsa MWN03
    |    `--F. sect. Trichelostylis MWN03
    |         |--F. complanata MWN03
    |         |--F. thomsonii MWN03
    |         `--F. woodrowii MWN03
    |--Eleocharis HE80
    |    |--E. acicularis BB01
    |    |--E. acuta C27
    |    |    |--E. a. var. acuta C27
    |    |    `--E. a. var. tenuis Carse 1927 C27
    |    |--E. acutangula VB02
    |    |--E. atropurpurea C55b
    |    |    |--E. a. var. atropurpurea C55b
    |    |    `--E. a. var. minor C55b
    |    |--E. capitata C55b
    |    |--E. cunninghamii A27
    |    |--E. dulcis BB01
    |    |--E. equisetina K72
    |    |--E. flaccida J87
    |    |--E. geniculata PP07
    |    |--E. palustris C55a
    |    |--E. rostellata Torr. 1843 BF89
    |    `--E. sphacelata GK00
    `--Scirpus HE80
         |  i. s.: S. americanus HE80
         |         S. articulatus BB01
         |         S. australiensis HE80
         |         S. cartilagineus [=Isolepis cartilaginea] HE80
         |         S. filiformis A27
         |         S. frondosus A27
         |         S. lenticularis C27
         |         S. maritimus A27
         |         S. microcarpus BB03
         |         S. riparius D03
         |         S. robustus A27
         |--S. sect. Scirpus HE80
         |    |--S. caldwellii Cook 1947 HE80
         |    |--S. fluviatilis (Torrey) Gray 1848 HE80
         |    |--S. georgianus Harper 1900 HE80
         |    |--S. medianus Cook 1947 HE80
         |    `--S. polystachyus von Mueller 1855 HE80
         |--S. sect. Eleogiton HE80
         |    |--S. crassiusculus (Hooker) Bentham 1878 HE80
         |    `--S. fluitans Linnaeus 1753 HE80 [=Isolepis fluitans C27]
         |         |--S. f. var. fluitans C27
         |         `--S. f. var. productus C27
         |--S. (sect. Holoschoenus) nodosus Rottboel 1773 HE80 [=Isolepis nodosa SM06]
         |--S. sect. Isolepis HE80
         `--S. sect. Schoenoplectus HE80
              |--S. lacustris Linnaeus 1753 HE80 [=Schoenoplectus lacustris L06]
              |--S. pungens Vahl 1806 HE80
              |--‘Schoenoplectus’ roylei PP07
              |--‘Schoenoplectus’ supinus PP07
              |    |--S. s. ssp. supinus PP07
              |    `--S. s. ssp. lateriflorus PP07
              `--‘Schoenoplectus’ validus SM06

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A27] Andersen, J. C. 1927. Popular names of New Zealand plants. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 905-977.

[AD05] Arisdason, W. & P. Daniel. 2005. Fimbristylis aggregata C.E.C. Fisch. (Cyperaceae), rediscovered from the Anamalais, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47 (1-4): 163-166.

[BB01] Bauer, R., D. Begerow, A. Nagler & F. Oberwinkler. 2001. The Georgefischeriales: A phylogenetic hypothesis. Mycological Research 105 (4): 416-424.

[BB03] Bauer, R., D. Begerow, F. Oberwinkler & L. Marvanová. 2003. Classicula: The teleomorph of Naiadella fluitans. Mycologia 95 (4): 756-764.

[BF89] Burnham, B. H. & P. E. Fell. 1989. Distribution of Melampus bidentatus (Say) and Succinea wilsoni (Lea) within a tidal marsh in eastern Connecticut. Nautilus 103 (3): 109-112.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C27] Carse, H. 1927. Botanical notes, with descriptions of new species. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 89-93.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323-402.

[HE80] Healy, A. J., & E. Edgar. 1980. Flora of New Zealand vol. III. Adventive cyperaceous, petalous and spathaceous monocotyledons. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[K72] Key, K. H. L. 1972. A revision of the Psednurini (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae). Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series 14: 1-72.

[KYK07] Khan, M. R., P. S. Yadava & A. Kikim. 2007. Additions to the flora of Manipur. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 215-218.

[L06] Lewin, I. 2006. The gastropod communities in the lowland rivers of agricultural areas – their biodiversity and bioindicative value in the Ciechanowska Upland, central Poland. Malacologia 49 (1): 7-23.

[MWN03] Menapace, F. J., D. E. Wujek & B. H. M. Nijalingappa. 2003. Achene micromorphology of some Indian Cyperaceae. V. Achene micromorphology as a possible systematic aid to the taxonomic recognition of Fimbristylis sections. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1-4): 21-28.

[MC03] Mostert, L., P. W. Crous, J. Z. Groenewald, W. Gams & R. C. Summerbell. 2003. Togninia (Calosphaeriales) is confirmed as teleomorph of Phaeoacremonium by means of morphology, sexual compatibility and DNA phylogeny. Mycologia 95 (4): 646-659.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P. & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 15-78.

[SM06] Semeniuk, C. A., L. A. Milne, P. Ladd & V. Semeniuk. 2006. Pollen in the surface sediments of wetlands in the Becher Point area, southwestern Australia: a baseline for use in interpreting Holocene sequences. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (1): 27-43.

[VB02] Vijay, S. K., & T. N. Bhardwaja. 2002. Vegetation and phenodynamics of wetlands of central Rajasthan. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 573-581.

Uncinia

Hook-sedge Uncinia uncinata, from here.


Belongs within: Cyperaceae.

Uncinia is a genus of sedges found in Australasia and South America, known as hook-sedges or hookgrasses due to their beaked fruits that can hook onto passing animals. They are often found at higher altitudes.

Characters (from Goetghebeur 1998): Tufted, rhizomatous, or rarely stoloniferous perennials. Culms scapose, rarely noded. Leaves ligulate. Inflorescence a bisexual spike with in the lower part female spikelets, and apically male flowers forming an apical male spikelet. Primary bracts mostly small and glumelike, or a few lower bracts more or less leaflike, deciduous or persistent. Male spikelet with few to many densely spirally arranged glumes, each subtending a male flower with two to three stamens with broad or narrow filaments. Female spikelets one-flowered, rachilla elongated, with a terminal recurved hook, formed by a thick, more or less coriaceous glume, prophyll utriculiform, subtending the female flower. Female flower without bristles, with a trifid style, style base not distinct, often more or less thickened and persistent, ovary seated on a small disc with three basal knobs, opposite the ribs. Achenes oblong to ovate, (rounded) trigonous, beaked, surface smooth.

Uncinia
    |--U. astonii W91
    |--U. caespitosa A27
    |--U. compacta W27
    |--U. divaricata W91
    |--U. drucei W91
    |--U. erinacea D03
    |--U. filiformis W91
    |--U. hamata J87
    |--U. involuta W91
    |--U. kingii D03
    |--U. leptostachya A27
    |--U. longifructus W91
    |--U. nervosa W91
    |--U. pedicellata A27
    |--U. phleoides D03
    |--U. rigida A27
    |--U. riparia A27
    |--U. rubra A27
    `--U. uncinata A27

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A27] Andersen, J. C. 1927. Popular names of New Zealand plants. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 905-977.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

Goetghebeur, P. 1998. In: Kubitzki, K. (ed.) The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants vol. 4. Flowering Plants. Monocotyledons. Alismatanae and Commelinanae (except Gramineae) pp. 141-189. Springer.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[W27] Wall, A. 1927. Some problems of distribution of indigenuous plants in New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 94-105.

[W91] Williams, P. A. 1991. Subalpine and alpine vegetation of granite ranges in western Nelson, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 29: 317-330.

Bromus

Smooth brome Bromus racemosus, photographed by Rasbak.


Belongs within: Pooideae.

Bromus, the bromes or cheatgrasses, is a genus of grasses found primarily in the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere.

Characters (from Liu, Zhu & Ammann): Annuals or perennials. Culms erect, tufted or with rhizomes. Leaf sheaths closed; leaf blades linear, usually flat; ligules membranous. Panicles spreading or contracted, branches scabrid or pubescent, elongated or arched. Spikelets large, with 3 to many florets, upper florets often sterile; rachilla disarticulating above glumes and between florets, scabrid or shortly hairy; glumes unequal or subequal, shorter than spikelet, lanceolate or nearly ovate, (1–)5–7-veined, apex acute or long acuminate or aristiform; floret callus glabrous or both sides thinly hairy; lemmas rounded on back or compressed to keel, 5–9(–11)-veined, herbaceous or nearly leathery, margins often membranous, apex entire or 2-toothed; awn terminal or arising from lemma between teeth slightly under apex, rarely awnless or 3-awned; palea narrow, usually shorter than lemma, keels ciliate or scabrid. Lodicules 2. Stamens 3. Ovary apex with appendage; styles 2, arising from lower front of appendage. Caryopsis oblong, apex hairy, adaxial surface sulcate. Chromosomes large, x = 7, 2n = 14, 28, 42, 56, 70.

<==Bromus [Bromeae]
    |--B. sect. Aphaneroneuron S98
    |    `--B. racemosus S98
    |--B. sect. Neobromus (Shear) Hitchcock 1935 S98
    |    `--B. (sect. *N.) trinii S98
    |--B. (sect. Sapheneuron) lanceolatus Roth 1797 [incl. B. macrostachys] S98
    `--B. sect. Triniusia (Steudel) Nevski 1934 [=Triniusa Steudel 1854] S98
         |--B. (sect. *T.) danthoniae von Trinius in Meyer 1831 (see below for synonymy) S98
         |    |--B. d. ssp. danthoniae S98
         |    |--B. d. ssp. pseudodanthoniae (Dobrov) Scholz 1998 (see below for synonymy) S98
         |    `--B. d. ssp. rogersii Hubbard ex Scholz 1998 S98
         `--B. turcomanicus Scholz 1998 S98

Bromus incertae sedis:
  B. albowianus D03
  B. alopecuros PT98
    |--B. a. ssp. alopecuros PT98
    `--B. a. ssp. caroli-henrici PT98
  B. arenarius G04
  B. arvensis S03
  B. carinatus H59
  B. catharticus D03
  B. diandrus OS04
  B. erectus BN98
  B. fasciculatus PT98
  B. grandis O88
  B. gussonii H59
  B. inermis GPWG01
  B. intermedius PT98
  B. japonicus KM08
  B. lanatus R96
  B. madritensis Linnaeus 1755 PL04
  B. mollis [incl. B. hordaceus] G98
  B. oxyodon S98
  B. pectinatus S98
  B. ramosus S03
  B. rigidus G98
  B. rubens OS04
  B. scoparius S98
  B. squarrosus Linnaeus 1753 PL04
  B. sterilis PT98
  B. tectorum GPWG01
  B. unioloides MH98
  B. willdenowii LNB03

Nomen invalidum: Bromus danthoniae var. uniaristatus Melderis 1960 S98

Bromus (sect. *Triniusia) danthoniae von Trinius in Meyer 1831 [=B. lanceolatus var. danthoniae (von Trinius) Dinsm. 1933, B. macrostachys ssp. danthoniae (von Trinius) Asch. & Graebner 1901, Triniusia danthoniae (von Trinius) Steudel 1854; incl. B. danthoniae var. lanuginosus Roshev. 1926] S98

Bromus danthoniae ssp. pseudodanthoniae (Dobrov) Scholz 1998 [=B. pseudodanthoniae Dobrov 1925; incl. B. danthoniae var. submuticus Mouterde 1966, B. macrostachys var. triaristatus Hackel 1879] S98

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BN99] Bungener, P., S. Nussbaum, A. Grub & J. Fuhrer. 1999. Growth response of grassland species to ozone in relation to soil moisture condition and plant strategy. New Phytologist 142: 283-293.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35-47.

[G88] Grubb, P. J. 1988. The uncoupling of disturbance and recruitment, two kinds of seed bank, and persistence of plant populations at the regional and local scales. Annales Zoologici Fennici 25: 23-26.

[H59] Healy, A. J. 1959. Contributions to a knowledge of the adventive flora of New Zealand, no. 7. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 86 (1): 113-118.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11-19.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180-190.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19-28.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: Flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95-116.

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209-223.

[R96] Righi, G. 1996. Colombian earthworms. Studies on Tropical Andean Ecosystems 4: 485-607.

[S98] Scholz, H. 1998. Notes on Bromus danthoniae and relatives (Gramineae). Willdenowia 28: 143-150.

[S03] Singh, J. N. 2003. Grasses and their hydro-edaphic characteristics in the grassland habitat of Nilgiris Biosphere Reserve, Tamil Nadu. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1-4): 143-164.

Hordeum

Barley Hordeum vulgare, from here.


Belongs within: Pooideae.

Hordeum, the barleygrasses, is a genus of temperate grasses of which H. vulgare is the commercially grown barley. Other species, however, may be regarded as weed species.

Characters (from Flora of China): Plants annual or perennial. Culms usually erect. Leaf sheath of cauline leaves split almost to base; ligule membranous or leathery-membranous; auricles present or absent; leaf blade usually flat. Spike dense, usually without a terminal spikelet; rachis short, brittle, rarely flexible. Spikelets usually 3 per node, in regular rows, with 1 (or 2) florets; lateral spikelets usually pedicellate, rarely sessile, often reduced and much smaller than central spikelet; central spikelet usually sessile, rarely pedicellate, perfect. Glumes narrow, subulate-setaceous, sometimes lanceolate dilated at base, inconspicuously 1–3-veined, not keeled. Lemma subrounded abaxially, leathery, rarely leathery-membranous, 5-veined, not keeled, awned or awnless. Palea almost equaling lemma, glabrous, scabrous, or ciliate along keels. Lodicules broadly lanceolate or lanceolate-ovate. Caryopsis usually adnate to lemma and palea, rarely free, oblong, concave furrowed on inner side, apex hairy. x = 7.

<==Hordeum
    |--H. brevisubulatum SS05
    |    |--H. b. var. brevisubulatum SS05
    |    `--H. b. ssp. nevskianum (Bowden) Tzvelev 1971 [=H. nevskianum Bowden 1965] SS05
    |--H. bulbosum PT98
    |--H. comosum D03
    |--H. distichum TG88
    |--H. geniculatum GK00
    |--H. glaucum HE80
    |--H. hexastichon C55
    |--H. jubatum C55
    |--H. leporinum R-CT01 [=H. murinum ssp. leporinum PT98]
    |--H. murinum GK00
    |--H. secalinum D03
    |    |--H. s. var. secalinum D03
    |    `--H. s. var. chilense D03
    |--H. spontaneum MH98
    |--H. vulgare GPWG01
    `--H. zeocriton C55

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323-402.

[GPWG01] Grass Phylogeny Working Group. 2001. Phylogeny and subfamilial classification of the grasses (Poaceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 88 (3): 373-457.

[HE80] Healy, A. J., & E. Edgar. 1980. Flora of New Zealand vol. III. Adventive cyperaceous, petalous and spathaceous monocotyledons. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180-190.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: Flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95-116.

[R-CT01] Ragusa-di Chiara, S., & H. Tsolakis. 2001. Phytoseiid faunas of natural and agricultural ecosystems in Sicily. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 522-529. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[SS05] Srivastava, S. K. & K. C. Sekar. 2005. Contribution to the flora of Himachal Pradesh from Pin Valley National Park. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47 (1-4): 159-162.

[TG88] Tepfer, D., A. Goldmann, N. Pamboukdjian, M. Maille, A. Lepingle, D. Chevalier, J. Dénarié & C. Rosenberg. 1988. A plasmid of Rhizobium meliloti 41 encodes catabolism of two compounds from root exudate of Calystegium sepium. Journal of Bacteriology 170 (3): 1153-1161.

Festuca

Blue fescue Festuca glauca, from here.


Belongs within: Pooideae.

Festuca, the fescues, is a genus of grasses found in temperate parts of the world. Many species are commercially significant as grazing or lawn grasses.

Characters (from Lu, Chen & Aiken): Perennials, tufted, shoots extra- or intra-vaginal. Leaf sheath margins usually free, rarely connate, sometimes with auricles; leaf blades folded to conduplicate and filiform, sometimes flat; ligule membranous. Inflorescence an open, contracted or spikelike panicle. Spikelets with 2 to several florets, uppermost floret usually reduced; rachilla usually scabrid, rarely smooth or pubescent; disarticulating above glumes and between florets; glumes usually unequal, herbaceous to scarious, rarely subleathery, lower glume often small, 1-veined, upper glume usually shorter than lowest lemma, 3(–5)-veined; lemmas usually similar in texture to glumes, often subleathery at least with age, usually more or less laterally compressed but not keeled, rounded on back at least toward base, usually 5-veined, veins sometimes prominent, apex acuminate, entire or notched, awned or awnless; palea subequal to lemma, keels scabrid, rarely smooth. Stamens 3. Ovary glabrous or hairy on top. Caryopsis oblong or linear, usually ventrally sulcate, usually free from lemma and palea, hilum long-linear. x = 7.

<==Festuca
    |--F. alpina PS98
    |--F. arizonia SF98
    |--F. arundinacea HE80
    |--F. callieri (Hack. ex St.-Yves) Markgr. 1933 PL04
    |--F. commersonii D03
    |--F. coxii A27
    |--F. duriuscula C55b
    |--F. elatior C55b
    |--F. gigantea SF98
    |--F. glauca SF98
    |--F. gracillana SB03
    |--F. idahoensis GPWG01
    |--F. leptopogon KYK07
    |--F. littoralis A27
    |--F. longifolia SF98
    |--F. multinodis A27
    |--F. novae-zealandiae [=F. ovina var. novae-zelandiae] A27
    |--F. obtusa SF98
    |--F. octiflora EBS98
    |--F. ovina SF98
    |--F. paradoxa SF98
    |--F. pilosa C55a
    |--F. polycolea O88
    |    |--F. p. var. polycolea O88
    |    `--F. p. var. brevis O88
    |--F. pratensis D37
    |--F. purpurascens D03
    |--F. rubra SF98
    |--F. undata O88
    |    |--F. u. var. undata O88
    |    `--F. u. var. aristata O88
    `--F. versuta SF98

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A27] Andersen, J. C. 1927. Popular names of New Zealand plants. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 905-977.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[EBS98] Elliott, K. J., L. R. Boring & W. T. Swank. 1998. Changes in vegetation structure and diversity after grass-to-forest succession in a southern Appalachian watershed. American Midland Naturalist 140: 219-232.

[GPWG01] Grass Phylogeny Working Group. 2001. Phylogeny and subfamilial classification of the grasses (Poaceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 88 (3): 373-457.

[HE80] Healy, A. J., & E. Edgar. 1980. Flora of New Zealand vol. III. Adventive cyperaceous, petalous and spathaceous monocotyledons. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[KYK07] Khan, M. R., P. S. Yadava & A. Kikim. 2007. Additions to the flora of Manipur. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 215-218.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209-223.

[PS98] Prosser, F., & S. Scortegagna. 1998. Primula recubariensis, a new species of Primula sect. Auricula Duby endemic to the SE Prealps, Italy. Willdenowia 28: 27-46.

[SF98] Saikkonen, K., S. H. Faeth, M. Helander & T. J. Sullivan. 1998. Fungal endophytes: a continuum of interactions with host plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 319-343.

[SB06] Sarno, R. J., M. S. Bank, H. S. Stern & W. L. Franklin. 2006. Effects of age, sex, season, and social dynamics on juvenile guanaco subordinate behavior. Journal of Mammalogy 87 (1): 41-47.

Pooideae

Brachypodium distachyon, photographed by Neil Harris.


Belongs within: Poaceae.
Contains: Festuca, Meliceae, Stipa, Poa, Avena, Agrostis, Bromus, Triticum, Hordeum.

The Pooideae is a clade of grasses characterised by the loss of stylar fusion (Grass Phylogeny Working Group 2001). Many pooids also possess multiple florets per spikelet and lack multicellular microhairs. Members of the clade include a number of significant grain species, such as wheat (Triticum), rye (Secale cereale), oats (Avena) and barley (Hordeum), and a number of major pasture grasses. In contrast, some species of Nassella (needle grasses) are regarded as weeds in pasture because of their low palatability for livestock.

Characters (from Grass Phylogeny Working Group 2001): Plants annual or perennial (rhizomatous, stoloniferous, or neither), herbaceous. Culms hollow (rarely solid). Leaves distichous; abaxial ligule absent; adaxial ligule scarious or membranous, the margin not or infrequently short ciliate fringed (rarely long ciliate); blades somewhat broad to usually narrow, rarely pseudopetiolate, venation parallel; sheaths sometimes auriculate. Inflorescences spicate, racemose, or paniculate, bracts outside of the spikelets absent or rarely present. Spikelets bisexual, infrequently unisexual or mixed, usually with two glumes (rarely without glumes or the first absent except on terminal spikelets), 1 to many female-fertile florets with apical or infrequently basal reductions, compressed laterally, infrequently not or dorsally compressed, disarticulating above the glumes (infrequently below the glumes or at the nodes of the inflorescence); lemma lacking uncinate macrohairs, if awned, the awn single; palea usually present and well developed, but variable and sometimes very reduced or absent; lodicules 2 (rarely 3, fused, or absent), usually lanceolate, broadly membranous apically (sometimes fleshy, truncate), often lobed, obscurely few-nerved, or infrequently more or less distinctly few-nerved, not or conspicuously ciliate on the margins; stamens usually 3 (infrequently 1 or 2); ovary glabrous or pubes- cent, rarely with an apical appendage or rostellum, haustorial synergids absent, styles usually 2, close, stigmas 2 (rarely 1 or 3). Caryopsis with the hilum linear and up to as long as the fruit, or subbasal and punctiform, linear, ellipsoidal, ovate, or circular and less than 1/3 the length of the fruit; endosperm hard or sometimes soft or liquid, with or without lipids, containing compound starch grains, or simple starch grains; embryo small, epiblast present (rarely absent), scutellar cleft absent (rarely present, but not deeply incised), mesocotyl internode absent (rarely short), embryonic leaf margins meeting (infrequently margins overlapping). Basic chromosome numbers: x = 7, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13. Foliar anatomy: Mesophyll nonradiate, adaxial palisade layer absent, fusoid cells absent, arm cells absent; Kranz anatomy absent; midrib simple; adaxial bulliform cells present. Foliar micromorphology: Stomata with parallel-sided subsidiary cells; bicellular microhairs absent (rarely present, where chloridoid or panicoid), unicellular microhairs absent (rarely present); papillae usually absent, when present rarely more than one per long cell. Photosynthetic pathway C3.

<==Pooideae (see below for synonymy)
    |--Brachyelytrum [Brachyelytreae] GPWG01
    |    `--B. erectum GPWG01
    `--+--+--Nardus [Nardeae] GPWG01
       |  |    `--N. stricta GPWG01
       |  `--Lygeum [Lygeeae] GPWG01
       |       `--L. spartum GPWG01
       `--+--Meliceae GPWG01
          `--+--+--+--Anisopogon avenaceus GPWG01
             |  |  `--Phaenosperma [Phaenospermatideae] GPWG01
             |  |       `--P. globosum GPWG01
             |  `--+--Ampelodesmos [Ampelodesmeae] GPWG01
             |     |    `--A. mauritanica GPWG01
             |     `--+--+--Stipa GPWG01
             |        |  `--Nassella GPWG01
             |        |       |--N. leucotricha GPWG01
             |        |       |--N. trichotoma HE80
             |        |       `--N. viridula GPWG01
             |        `--+--Piptatherum GPWG01
             |           |    |--P. coerulescens (Desfontaines) Beauvois 1812 PL04
             |           |    |--P. miliaceum GPWG01
             |           |    `--P. songaricum GPWG01
             |           `--Oryzopsis GPWG01
             |                |--O. hymenoides CL86
             |                |--O. lateralis O88
             |                |--O. miliacea AGF98
             |                |--O. munroi O88
             |                `--O. racemosa [=Piptatherum racemosum] GPWG01
             `--+--Diarrhena [Diarrheneae] GPWG01
                |    |--D. americana GPWG01
                |    `--D. obovata GPWG01
                `--+--+--Trachynia Link 1827 GR98
                   |  |    `--T. platystachya (Balansa) Scholz in Greuter & Raus 1998 (see below for synonymy) GR98
                   |  `--Brachypodium [Brachypodieae] GPWG01
                   |       |--B. distachyon (Linnaeus) Beauvois 1812 GPWG01, PL04 [=Trachynia distachya GR98]
                   |       |--B. mexicanum GPWG01
                   |       |--B. pinnatum (Linnaeus) Beauvois 1812 PL04
                   |       |--B. ramosum C74
                   |       |--B. retusum PT98
                   |       `--B. sylvaticum S03
                   `--+--Poeae GPWG01
                      |    |--Poa GPWG01
                      |    |--Avena GPWG01
                      |    `--Agrostis GPWG01
                      `--+--Bromus GPWG01
                         `--Triticeae A05
                              |--Triticum GPWG01
                              |--Hordeum A05
                              `--Australopyrum A05

Pooideae incertae sedis:
  Festuca GPWG01
  Lamarckia aurea GPWG01, K10
  Echinaria capitata GPWG01, Y98
  Cynosurus echinatus Linnaeus 1753 GPWG01, PL04
  Anthoxanthum GPWG01
    |--A. horsfieldii H03
    `--A. odoratum S03
  Phalaris GPWG01
    |--P. aquatica IHC01
    |--P. arundinacea GPWG01
    |--P. canariensis C55
    |--P. coerulescens KS98
    |--P. minor AGF98
    |--P. paradoxa MM09
    `--P. tuberosa H74
  Secale cereale GPWG01, E-SM02
  Sesleria GPWG01
    |--S. coerulea R91
    |--S. rigida H09
    `--S. sphaerocephala PS98
  Ammochloa GPWG01
  Lolium GPWG01
    |--L. multiflorum LNB03
    |--L. perenne LNB03
    L. rigidum OS04
    L. temulentum C55
  Rostraria GPWG01
    |--R. cristata PT98
    |--R. pumila AGF98
    `--R. salzmannii GR98
         |--R. s. ssp. salzmannii [=Koeleria pubescens var. salzmanni] GR98
         `--R. s. ssp. maroccana (Domin) Scholz in Greuter & Raus 1998 (see below for synonymy) GR98
  Brylkinia [Brylkinieae] GPWG01

Pooideae [Agrostidoideae, Anthoxanthoideae, Avenoideae, Cynosuroideae, Echinarioideae, Festucoideae, Glycerioideae, Hordeoideae, Phalaroideae, Secaloideae]

Rostraria salzmannii ssp. maroccana (Domin) Scholz in Greuter & Raus 1998 [=Koeleria salzmannii var. maroccana Domin 1907, K. pubescens var. maroccana] GR98

Trachynia platystachya (Balansa) Scholz in Greuter & Raus 1998 [=Brachypodium distachyon var. platystachyon Balansa ex Cosson in Cosson & Durieu 1855, B. distachyon subvar. platystachyon (Balansa) St.-Yves 1934] GR98

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A05] Aagesen, L. 2005. Direct optimization, affine gap costs, and node stability. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36: 641–653.

[AGF98] Abd El-Ghani, M. M., & A. G. Fahmy. 1998. Composition of and changes in the spontaneous flora of Feiran Oasis, S Sinai, Egypt, in the last 60 years. Willdenowia 28: 123–134.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C74] Coineau, Y. 1974. Éléments pour une monographie morphologique, écologique et biologique des Caeculidae (Acariens). Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, nouvelle série, Série A, Zoologie 81: 1–299, 24 pls.

[CL86] Collins, E. I., & R. W. Lichvar. 1986. Vegetation inventory of current and historic black-footed ferret habitat in Wyoming. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs 8: 85–93.

[E-SM02] Ellneskog-Staam, P., & A. Merker. 2002. Screening for resistance to powdery mildew and brown rust in wheat-Leymus racemosus and wheat-Thinopyrum junceiforme alloploids. Acta Agricultura Scandinavica Section B—Soil and Plant Science 52: 158–161.

[GPWG01] Grass Phylogeny Working Group. 2001. Phylogeny and subfamilial classification of the grasses (Poaceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 88 (3): 373–457.

[GR98] Greuter, W., & T. Raus (eds.) 1998. Med-Checklist Notulae, 17. Willdenowia 28: 163–174.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[HE80] Healy, A. J., & E. Edgar. 1980. Flora of New Zealand vol. 3. Adventive cyperaceous, petalous and spathaceous monocotyledons. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[H74] Helson, G. A. H. 1974. Insect Pests: Identification, life history, and control of pests of farms, horticulture, gardens, and public health. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[H09] Heltmann, H. 2009. Der Königstein (Piatra Craiului), die Perle der Burzenländer Gebirge. Mauritiana 20 (3): 515–527.

[IHC01] Ireson, J. E., R. J. Holloway & W. S. Chatterton. 2001. An overview of investigations into the use of predatory mites to control the lucerne flea, Sminthurus viridis (L.) (Collembola: Sminthuridae), in Tasmanian pastures. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 444–452. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[K10] Keighery, G. 2010. The naturalised vascular plants of the Pilbara region, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 78 (1): 299–311.

[KS98] Klein, J., A. Sato, S. Nagl & C. O'hUigín. 1998. Molecular trans-species polymorphism. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 1–21.

[LNB03] Ledeganck, P., I. Nijs & L. Beyens. 2003. Plant functional group diversity promotes soil protist diversity. Protist 154 (2): 239–249.

[MM09] Mound, L. A., & M. Masumoto. 2009. Australian Thripinae of the Anaphothrips genus-group (Thysanoptera), with three new genera and thirty-three new species. Zootaxa 2042: 1–76.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19–28.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95–116.

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209–223.

[PS98] Prosser, F., & S. Scortegagna. 1998. Primula recubariensis, a new species of Primula sect. Auricula Duby endemic to the SE Prealps, Italy. Willdenowia 28: 27–46.

[R91] Reutimann, P. 1991. Alpine oribatid species and plant decomposition: feeding and faeces production. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 417–422. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[S03] Singh, J. N. 2003. Grasses and their hydro-edaphic characteristics in the grassland habitat of Nilgiris Biosphere Reserve, Tamil Nadu. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1–4): 143–164.

[Y98] Yannitsaros, A. 1998. Additions to the flora of Kithira (Greece) I. Willdenowia 28: 77–94.