Violaceae

Sweet violet Viola odorata, photographed by Kjetil Lenes.


Belongs within: Violineae.

The Violaceae are a family of flowering plants including the violets (Viola) and related species. Though Viola contains the majority of species and is herbaceous, species in other genera of Violaceae are shrubs.

See also: Taxon of this Week: not all violets are violet.

Characters (from Watson & Dallwitz): Herbs, or shrubs, or lianas, or rarely arborescent. The herbs with a basal aggregation of leaves, or with neither basal nor terminal aggregations of leaves. Self supporting, or climbing. Mesophytic, or helophytic. Leaves alternate (usually), or opposite; spiral; petiolate, or petiolate and subsessile, or subsessile; non-sheathing; not gland-dotted; simple; epulvinate. Lamina entire (usually), or dissected; when dissected, pinnatifid; pinnately veined, or palmately veined; cross-venulate. Leaves stipulate. Stipules free of one another. Leaves without a persistent basal meristem. Leaf anatomy: Mucilaginous epidermis often present. Stomata present; anisocytic, or paracytic. Adaxial hypodermis present, or absent. Lamina dorsiventral (usually), or centric. Stem anatomy: Nodes tri-lacunar. Primary vascular tissue in a cylinder, without separate bundles, or comprising a ring of bundles. Secondary thickening developing from a conventional cambial ring. Xylem with libriform fibres, or without libriform fibres; with vessels. Vessel end-walls scalariform, or simple, or scalariform and simple. Wood parenchyma sparse paratracheal (or absent).
Fertile flowers hermaphrodite. Plants hermaphrodite (sometimes cleistogamous). Pollination entomophilous. Flowers solitary (axillary), or aggregated in ‘inflorescences’; when solitary, axillary; when aggregated, in cymes, or in racemes, or in heads, or in panicles. Ultimate inflorescence unit cymose. Inflorescences usually racemes, panicles or heads. Flowers (bi-) bracteolate; fragrant, or odourless; somewhat irregular to very irregular (usually), or regular. The floral irregularity involving the perianth, or involving the perianth and involving the androecium. Flowers pentamerous; cyclic; tetracyclic. Free hypanthium absent. Perianth with distinct calyx and corolla; 10; 2 whorled; isomerous. Calyx 5; 1 whorled; polysepalous (usually, more or less), or gamosepalous (at the base). Calyx lobes markedly longer than the tube. Calyx unequal but not bilabiate, or regular; basally appendaged, or neither appendaged nor spurred; persistent (often); imbricate, or open in bud; with the median member posterior. Corolla 5; 1 whorled; polypetalous; imbricate (usually, with descending aestivation), or contorted; unequal but not bilabiate (usually), or regular; spurred (the enlarged anterior member, often), or not spurred. Petals clawed, or sessile. Androecium 5. Androecial members free of the perianth; free of one another, or coherent; often 1 adelphous (forming a cylinder round the ovary); 1 whorled. Androecium exclusively of fertile stamens. Stamens 5; isomerous with the perianth; oppositisepalous; alternating with the corolla members. Anthers cohering (often), or connivent, or separate from one another; adnate; introrse; tetrasporangiate; appendaged (the two anterior members often appendaged or spurred, the connective often prolonged), or unappendaged. Endothecium developing fibrous thickenings. Anther epidermis persistent. Microsporogenesis simultaneous. The initial microspore tetrads tetrahedral, or isobilateral, or decussate. Anther wall initially with more than one middle layer (2 to 4). Tapetum glandular. Pollen grains aperturate; 3(–5) aperturate; colporate. Gynoecium (2–)3(–5) carpelled. Carpels reduced in number relative to the perianth (usually), or isomerous with the perianth. The pistil 1 celled. Gynoecium syncarpous; eu-syncarpous; superior. Ovary unilocular; 1 locular. The ‘odd’ carpel anterior. Gynoecium stylate, or non-stylate (Melicytus). Styles 1 (of various forms). Stigmas 1, or 3–5 (Melicytus); truncate (or appendiculate); dry type; papillate; Group III type. Placentation parietal. Ovules in the single cavity 1–100 (to ‘many’); arillate; anatropous; bitegmic; crassinucellate. Outer integument contributing to the micropyle, or not contributing to the micropyle. Embryo-sac development Polygonum-type. Polar nuclei fusing only after one has been fertilized, or fusing simultaneously with the male gamete (?). Antipodal cells formed; 3; not proliferating; ephemeral (usually), or persistent (Hybanthus concolor). Synergids often hooked (but only rarely with filiform apparatus). Endosperm formation nuclear. Embryogeny asterad.
Fruit fleshy, or non-fleshy; dehiscent, or indehiscent; a capsule, or a berry, or a nut (rarely). Capsules loculicidal and valvular. Fruit when capsular, elastically dehiscent. Seeds endospermic. Endosperm oily. Seeds winged, or wingless. Cotyledons 2 (flat); flat. Embryo straight. Germination phanerocotylar.
Not cyanogenic. Alkaloids present, or absent. Iridoids not detected. Proanthocyanidins absent. Flavonols present; kaempferol, or kaempferol and quercetin. Ellagic acid absent (4 genera, 4 species). Saponins/sapogenins present, or absent. Aluminium accumulation demonstrated.

Violaceae
    |  i. s.: Melicytus MM04
    |           |--M. alpinus W91
    |           |--M. lanceolatus MM04
    |           |--M. macrophyllus An27
    |           |--M. micranthus An27
    |           `--M. ramiflorus BS01
    |         Anchietea salutaris PB03
    |         Fusispermum [Fusispermoideae] T00
    |--Rinorea DL07
    `--+--+--Leonia [Leonioideae] DL07
       |  |    `--L. glycycarpa WM09
       |  `--Hybanthus DL07
       |       |--H. debilissimus GK00
       |       `--H. floribundus GK00
       `--+--Hymenanthera DL07
          |    |--H. alpina WM09
          |    |--H. chathamica An27
          |    |--H. crassifolia CA27
          |    |--H. dentata Al27
          |    |    |--H. d. var. dentata Al27
          |    |    `--H. d. var. alpina Al27
          |    `--H. obovata CA27
          `--Viola [Violoideae] DL07
               |--V. arvensis PAE98
               |--V. betonicifolia KC83
               |--V. cucullata EBS98
               |--V. cunninghamii W91
               |--V. filicaulis W91
               |    |--V. f. var. filicaulis An27
               |    `--V. f. var. hydrocotyloides An27
               |--V. kitaibeliana D37
               |--V. kosaninii GR98
               |--V. lyallii An27
               |--V. maculata D03
               |--V. odorata C55
               |--V. pedata NC01
               |--V. tricolor PT01
               |--V. tridentata D03
               `--V. × wittrockiana MH98

Nomen nudum: Melicytus collina Colenso 1845 C45

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[Al27] Allan, H. H. 1927. The vegetation of Mount Peel, Canterbury, New Zealand. Part 2. – The grassland and other herbaceous communities. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 73-89.

[An27] Andersen, J. C. 1927. Popular names of New Zealand plants. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 905-977.

[BS01] Bannister, P., & G. L. Strong. 2001. The distribution and population structure of the temperate mistletoe Ileostylus micranthus in the Northern Cemetery, Dunedin, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 39: 225-233.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CA27] Cockayne, L., & H. H. Allan. 1927. Notes on New Zealand floristic botany, including descriptions of new species, &c. (No. 5). Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 48-72.

[C45] Colenso, W. 1845. Memoranda of an excursion, made in the Northern Island of New Zealand, in the summer of 1841-2; intended as a contribution towards the natural productions of the New Zealand groupe: with particular reference to their botany (concluded). Tasmanian Journal of Natural Science 2: 241-308.

[DL07] Davis, C. C., M. Latvis, D. L. Nickrent, K. J. Wurdack & D. A. Baum. 2007. Floral gigantism in Rafflesiaceae. Science 315: 1812.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[EBS98] Elliott, K. J., L. R. Boring & W. T. Swank. 1998. Changes in vegetation structure and diversity after grass-to-forest succession in a southern Appalachian watershed. American Midland Naturalist 140: 219-232.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323-402.

[GR98] Greuter, W., & T. Raus (eds.) 1998. Med-Checklist Notulae, 17. Willdenowia 28: 163-174.

[KC83] Körner, C., & P. Cochrane. 1983. Influence of plant physiognomy on leaf temperature on clear midsummer days in the Snowy Mountains, south-eastern Australia. Acta Œcologica Œcologiae Plantae 4 (2): 117-124.

[MM04] Martin, N. A., & L. A. Mound. 2004. Host plants for some New Zealand thrips (Thysanoptera: Terebrantia). New Zealand Entomologist 27: 119-123.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180-190.

[NC01] Nekola, J. C., & B. F. Coles. 2001. Systematics and ecology of Gastrocopta (Gastrocopta) rogersensis (Gastropoda: Pupillidae), a new species of land snail from the Midwest of the United States of America. Nautilus 115 (3): 105-114.

[PAE98] Pakeman, R. J., J. P. Attwood & J. Engelen. 1998. Sources of plants colonizing experimentally disturbed patches in an acidic grassland, in eastern England. Journal of Ecology 86: 1032-1041.

[PT01] Pemberton, L. M. S., S.-L. Tsai, P. H. Lovell & P. J. Harris. 2001. Epidermal patterning in seedling roots of eudicotyledons. Annals of Botany 87: 649-654.

[PB03] Poinar, G. O., Jr., & A. E. Brown. 2003. A non-gilled hymenomycete in Cretaceous amber. Mycological Research 107 (6): 763-768.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: Dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441-647.

[WM09] Wang, H., M. J. Moore, P. S. Soltis, C. D. Bell, S. F. Brockington, R. Alexandre, C. C. Davis, M. Latvis, S. R. Manchester & D. E. Soltis. 2009. Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (10): 3853-3858.

[W91] Williams, P. A. 1991. Subalpine and alpine vegetation of granite ranges in western Nelson, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 29: 317-330.

Crassulaceae

Stonecrop Sedum reflexum, from here.


Belongs within: Saxifragales.
Contains: Rhodiola.

The Crassulaceae is a family of succulent plants found nearly worldwide, but most diverse in north-temperate regions and South Africa. In members of the genus Crassula, the leaves typically bear numerous hydathodes (water-exuding pores); in other genera, forming the subfamily Sempervivoideae, the leaves have only a single apical or subapical hydathode (Thiede & Eggli 2007).

Characters (from Thiede & Eggli 2007): Perennial or rarely annual or hapaxanthic herbs to (sub)shrubs, rarely aquatics, treelike, epiphytic or scandent, with more or less succulent leaves, sometimes with succulent stems, rhizomes, underground caudices or succulent roots; indumentum of uni- or multicellular, often glandular hairs, or plants glabrous. Leaves (sub)sessile or rarely petiolate, usually alternate and spiral, or opposite-decussate or rarely whorled, frequently aggregated into rosettes, simple, rarely compound, usually entire or crenate to lobed, rarely dissected, estipulate. Inflorescences usually terminal, bracteate, usually many-flowered, basically thyrsoids, also pleio-, di- or monochasia (cincinni) or rarely true panicles, racemes or spikes. Flowers hermaphrodite, rarely unisexual, actinomorphic or very rarely zygomorphic, usually proterandrous, (3-)5(-32)merous; sepals free or connate at base, sometimes distinctly unequal in size; petals free or connate to a short to long corolla tube; stamens as many as or usually twice as many as petals; filaments free or more or less connate with a tubular corolla; anthers basifixed in basal pit, tetrasporangiate, bilocular at anthesis, dehiscence latrorse or slightly introrse by longitudinal slits; ovary usually more or less superior to semi-inferior; carpels as many as petals, usually free or almost so, sessile or sometimes stipitate, tapering gradually to abruptly into short to long, erect to divergent stylodia, basally with a small to conspicuous dorsal nectary scale; stigma small, (sub)apical, often poorly differentiated; ovules usually many, rarely few to one, anatropous, crassi- or tenuinucellate, bitegmic, on parietal to marginal placentae. Fruits usually follicles, usually more or less completely dehiscent along the ventral suture, rarely few-seeded, indehiscent and nutlike; seeds smallish, usually 0.5-1 mm long, elongate-fusiform, longitudinally ridged (costate) or papillate (uni- or rarely multipapillate), rarely (nearly) smooth, usually brownish; embryo small, straight; endosperm cellular, scanty.

<==Crassulaceae
    |--Crassula BC98 [Crassuloideae T00]
    |    |  i. s.: C. aurusbergensis CV06
    |    |         C. ausensis CV06
    |    |           |--C. a. ssp. ausensis CV06
    |    |           |--C. a. ssp. giessii CV06
    |    |           `--C. a. ssp. titanopsis CV06
    |    |         C. colorata OS04
    |    |         C. decumbens OS04
    |    |         C. elegans CV06
    |    |           |--C. e. ssp. elegans CV06
    |    |           `--C. e. ssp. namibensis CV06
    |    |         C. exserta OS04
    |    |         C. falcata JB99
    |    |         C. luederitzii CV06
    |    |         C. lycopodioides BT72
    |    |         C. natans GK00
    |    |         C. numaisensis CV06
    |    |         C. paludosa D03
    |    |         C. pedicellosa GK00
    |    |         C. peduncularis GK00
    |    `--C. sect. Glomeratae BC98
    |         |--C. basaltica BC98
    |         |--C. campestris (Ecklon & Zeyh.) Endlicher in Walpers 1843 (see below for synonymy) BC98
    |         `--C. tillaea BC98
    `--Sempervivoideae [Cotyledonoideae, Echeverieae, Sedoideae] T00
         |--Sempervivum KC83
         |    |--S. montanum KC83
         |    `--S. tectorum C55b
         |--Kalanchoe K03 [Kalanchoeae T00]
         |    |--K. blossfeldiana MH98
         |    |--K. pinnata K03
         |    `--K. spathulata LK14
         `--Sedum T00
              |--S. album Linnaeus 1753 PL04
              |--S. altissimum C74
              |--S. anglicum G60b
              |--S. caespitosum (Cavanilles) de Candolle 1828 PL04
              |--S. cepaea [incl. S. galioides, S. spathulatum] C55a
              |--S. dasyphyllum C55b
              |--S. gagei O88
              |--S. henrici-robertii O88
              |--S. holei O88
              |--S. litoreum PT98
              |--S. magae O88
              |--S. oreades O88
              |--S. perpusillum O88
              |--S. przewalskii O88
              |--S. pulchellum D51
              |--S. reflexum C55b
              |--S. repens C55a
              |--S. roborowskii O88
              |--S. sexangulare M08
              |--S. trullipetalum O88
              `--S. tuberiferum GR98

Crassulaceae incertae sedis:
  Rhodiola O88
  Rosularia O88
    |--R. marnieri O88
    `--R. semiensis B06
  Aeonium arboreum Y98
  Umbilicus PL04
    |--U. horizontalis PT98
    `--U. rupestris (Salisbury) Dandy 1948 PL04
  Andromischus schuldtianus CV06
    |--A. s. ssp. schuldtianus CV06
    |--A. s. ssp. brandbergensis CV06
    `--A. s. ssp. juttae CV06
  Tylecodon CV06
    |--T. aridimontanus CV06
    `--T. aurusbergensis CV06
  Bryophyllum H06
    |--B. daigremontianum K10
    `--B. delagoense H06
  Tillaea Linnaeus 1753 A61
    |--T. acutifolia Kirk 1899 A61
    |--T. debilis Col. ex Hook. f. 1852 A61
    |--T. helmsii Kirk 1899 [=Crassula helmsii (Kirk) Berger 1930] A61
    |--T. kirkii Allan 1961 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |--T. moschata (Forst. f.) DC. 1828 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |--T. multicaulis Petrie 1887 A61
    |--T. purpurata Hook. f. 1847 [=Crassula purpurata (Hook. f.) Domin 1925] A61
    |--T. pusilla Kirk 1899 [incl. T. pusilla var. brevia Kirk 1899] A61
    |--T. recurva Hooker 1856 [=Crassula recurva (Hooker) Ostenf. 1918 non Brown 1890] A61
    |--T. sieberiana Schult. 1827 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |--T. sinclairii Hook. f. 1864 (see below for synonymy) A61
    `--T. vaillantii C55b

Crassula campestris (Ecklon & Zeyh.) Endlicher in Walpers 1843 [=Tetraphyle campestre Ecklon & Zeyh. 1837; incl. C. pentandra ssp. catalaunica Vigo & Terradas 1969] BC98

Tillaea kirkii Allan 1961 [=T. diffusa Kirk 1892 non Willd. ex Steud. 1841, Crassula diffusa (Kirk) Ckn. 1909 non Sol. ex Ait. 1789] A61

Tillaea moschata (Forst. f.) DC. 1828 [=Crassula moschata Forst. f. 1789, Bulliarda moschata Urv. 1826] A61

Tillaea sieberiana Schult. 1827 [=Crassula sieberiana (Schult.) Druce 1917; incl. T. muscosa Forst. f. 1786 non Linnaeus 1753, T. verticillaris DC. 1828] A61

Tillaea sinclairii Hook. f. 1864 [incl. T. novae-zelandiae Petrie 1893, T. novae-zelandiae var. obtusa Kirk 1899, T. sinclairii var. obtusa (Kirk) Cheeseman 1906] A61

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BT72] Baker, E. W., & D. M. Tuttle. 1972. New species and further notes on the Tetranychoidea mostly from the southwestern United States (Acarina: Tetranychidae and Tenuipalpidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 116: 1–37.

[BC98] Brullo, S., G. Campo, C. Marcenò, S. Romano & G. Siracusa. 1998. Crassula campestris (Eckl. & Zeyh.) Endl. (Crassulaceae), a new record for the Italian flora. Willdenowia 28: 53–58.

[B06] Burgoyne, P. M. 2006. Review: Plants of the Simen. A flora of the Simen Mountains and surroundings, northern Ethiopia. Bothalia 36 (2): 253.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C74] Coineau, Y. 1974. Éléments pour une monographie morphologique, écologique et biologique des Caeculidae (Acariens). Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, nouvelle série, Série A, Zoologie 81: 1–299, 224 pls.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[D51] Dobzhansky, T. 1951. Genetics and the Origin of Species 3rd ed. Columbia University Press: New York.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[G60] Gillham, M. E. 1960. Vegetation of Little Brother Island, Cook Strait, in relation to spray-bearing winds, soil salinity, and pH. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 405–424.

[GR98] Greuter, W., & T. Raus (eds.) 1998. Med-Checklist Notulae, 17. Willdenowia 28: 163–174.

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201–222.

[JB99] Johansson, J., R. Berg, A. Pifferi, S. Svenberg & L. O. Bjorn. 1999. Time-resolved studies of light propagation in Crassula and Phaseolus leaves. Photochemistry and Photobiology 69: 242–247.

[K10] Keighery, G. 2010. The naturalised vascular plants of the Pilbara region, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 78 (1): 299–311.

[KC83] Körner, C., & P. Cochrane. 1983. Influence of plant physiognomy on leaf temperature on clear midsummer days in the Snowy Mountains, south-eastern Australia. Acta Œcologica Œcologiae Plantae 4 (2): 117–124.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81–98.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[M08] Marstaller, R. 2008. Moosgesellschaften am Südrand des Kyffhäusergebirges bei Bad Frankenhausen (Kyffhäuserkreis). 130. Beitrag zur Moosvegetation Thüringens. Mauritiana 20 (2): 289–348.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180–190.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19–28.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95–116.

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209–223.

Thiede, J., & U. Eggli. 2007. Crassulaceae. In: Kubitzki, K. (ed.) The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants vol. 9. Flowering Plants: Eudicots: Berberidopsidales, Buxales, Crossosomatales, Fabales p.p., Geraniales, Gunnerales, Myrtales p.p., Proteales, Saxifragales, Vitales, Zygophyllales, Clusiaceae Alliance, Passifloraceae Alliance, Dilleniaceae, Huaceae, Picramniaceae, Sabiaceae pp. 83-118. Springer.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[Y98] Yannitsaros, A. 1998. Additions to the flora of Kithira (Greece) I. Willdenowia 28: 77–94.

Saxifragales

American sweetgum Liquidambar styraciflua, from here.


Belongs within: Gunneridae.
Contains: Crassulaceae, Saxifragaceae.

The Saxifragales are a clade of flowering plants supported by molecular analyses. Members of the clade are morphologically very diverse, including both herbaceous taxa (e.g. Saxifragaceae, Crassulaceae) and the wind-pollinated hamamelid taxa (e.g. Hamamelidaceae, Altingiaceae).

<==Saxifragales
    |--Saxifragaceae WM09
    `--+--Cercidiphyllaceae WM09
       |    |--Cercidiphyllum japonicum WM09
       |    `--Trochodendroides arctica Z02
       `--Hamamelidineae [Hamamelidales] T00
            |--Hamamelidaceae WM09
            |    |  i. s.: Sycopsis YY22
            |    |         Distylium racemosum LO98
            |    |         Bucklandia YY22
            |    |         Sinowilsonia YY22
            |    |         Corylopsis spicata [incl. Rotlera japonica] LO98
            |    |--Disanthus [Disanthoideae] T00
            |    |--Hamamelis WM09 [Hamamelidoideae T00]
            |    |    |--H. japonica WM09
            |    |    |--H. vernalis D37
            |    |    `--H. virginiana D37
            |    `--Exbucklandioideae T00
            |         |--Exbucklandia populnea D07
            |         |--Mytilaria T00
            |         `--Rhodoleia [Rhodoleioideae] T00
            `--+--Microaltingia PI-BW04
               `--Altingiaceae [Altingioideae, Liquidambaroideae] WM09
                    |--Altingia PI-BW04
                    |--Semiliquidambar PI-BW04
                    |--Evacarpa polysperma PI-BW04
                    |--Steinhauera subglobosa Presl 1838 PI-BW04
                    |--Ambaroxylon PI-BW04
                    |--Liquidambaroxylon PI-BW04
                    `--Liquidambar [=L. sect. Liquidambar] PI-BW04
                         |  i. s.: L. pachyphyllum PI-BW04
                         |--+--L. (sect. Cathayambar) formosana PI-BW04 [incl. L. maximowiczii LO98]
                         |  `--+--L. acalycina PI-BW04
                         |     `--L. changii Pigg, Ickert-Bond & Wen 2004 PI-BW04
                         `--+--L. orientalis PI-BW04
                            `--+--*L. styraciflua Linnaeus 1753 PI-BW04, CD07
                               |    |--L. s. var. styraciflua PI-BW04
                               |    `--L. s. var. mexicana PI-BW04
                               `--L. macrocarpa PI-BW04

Saxifragales incertae sedis:
  Paeoniales T00
    |--Glaucidiaceae T00
    `--Paeonia [Paeoniaceae] T00
  Itea [Iteaceae] T00
  Pterostemon [Pterostemonaceae] T00
  Tetracarpaea [Tetracarpaeaceae] T00
  Crassulaceae T00
  Penthorum [Penthoraceae] T00
  Aphanopetalum [Aphanopetalaceae] T00
  Ribes [Grossulariaceae] T00
    |--R. aurem D37
    |--R. cucullatum D03
    |--R. glaciale O88
    |--R. glutinosum H59
    |--R. griffithii O88
    |--R. grossularia C55
    |--R. luridum O88
    |--R. magellanicum D03
    |--R. rubrum C55
    |--R. sanguineum D37
    `--R. uva-crispa C55

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1-E44.

[D07] Dash, S. S. 2007. Useful plants of Kabi Sacred Grove, Sikkim. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 79-88.

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[H59] Healy, A. J. 1959. Contributions to a knowledge of the adventive flora of New Zealand, no. 7. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 86 (1): 113-118.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263-276.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[PI-BW04] Pigg, K. B., S. M. Ickert-Bond & J. Wen. 2004. Anatomically preserved Liquidambar (Altingiaceae) from the middle Miocene of Yakima Canyon, Washington state, USA, and its biogeographic implications. American Journal of Botany 91 (3): 499-509.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: Dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441-647.

[WM09] Wang, H., M. J. Moore, P. S. Soltis, C. D. Bell, S. F. Brockington, R. Alexandre, C. C. Davis, M. Latvis, S. R. Manchester & D. E. Soltis. 2009. Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (10): 3853-3858.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Insect trace fossils. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 303-324. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

Saxifraga

Bog saxifrage Saxifraga hirculus, photographed by Rolf Stange.


Belongs within: Saxifragaceae.

Saxifraga, the saxifrages, is a large genus of herbaceous plants found mostly in northern temperate and arctic regions. In some species (such as members of section Micranthes), leaves grow as a basal rosette giving rise to a leafless flowering stem; in others, leaves are distributed along the flowering stem (Flora of China).

Characters (from Abrams 1944): Herbs, mostly perennial, with alternate, opposite or basal, entire, toothed or pinnatifid leaves and corymbosely paniculate or solitary perfect flowers. Hypanthium weakly to well developed, adnate to at least base of ovary. Sepals five. Petals five, perigynous. Stamens ten, inserted with petals; filaments subulate or broadened upwards and somewhat petaloid; anthers two-celled. Ovary almost superior to partly inferior, two-celled (at least at base), two-lobed at least at summit (three to five carpels in aberrant flowers); capsule-beaks short; stigmas truncate or capitate. Placentae axile. Capsule two-beaked, many-seeded, dehiscing along or between beaks. Seeds small, testa roughened or smooth.

Saxifraga
    |--S. sect. Ciliatae [incl. S. sect. Hirculus] WO88
    |    |--S. amabilis Ohba & Wakabayashi 1987 WO88
    |    |--S. aristulata WO88
    |    |--S. brachypoda WO88
    |    |    |--S. b. var. brachypoda WO88
    |    |    `--S. b. var. fimbriata WO88
    |    |--S. brunonis WO88
    |    |--S. chumbiensis WO88
    |    |--S. cordigera WO88
    |    |--S. diversifolia WO88
    |    |--S. engleriana WO88
    |    |--S. glabricaulis WO88
    |    |--S. harai Ohba & Wakabayashi 1987 WO88
    |    |--S. hirculus WO88
    |    |--S. hispidula WO88
    |    |--S. hookeri WO88
    |    |--S. jacquemontiana WO88
    |    |--S. lepida WO88
    |    |--S. lychnitis WO88
    |    |--S. mallae Ohba & Wakabayashi 1987 WO88
    |    |--S. microphylla WO88
    |    |--S. montanella WO88
    |    |--S. moorcroftiana WO88
    |    |--S. nakaoi WO88
    |    |--S. nigroglandulosa WO88
    |    |--S. palpebrata WO88
    |    |--S. parnassifolia WO88
    |    |--S. pilifera WO88
    |    |--S. saginoides WO88
    |    |--S. sikkimensis WO88
    |    |--S. sphaeradena WO88
    |    |    |--S. s. ssp. sphaeradena WO88
    |    |    `--S. s. ssp. dhwojii WO88
    |    `--S. strigosa WO88
    |--S. sect. Micranthes WO88
    |    |--S. gageana WO88
    |    `--S. pallida WO88
    `--S. sect. Porophyllum [incl. S. sect. Kabschia] WO88
         |--S. afghanica WO88
         |--S. andersonii WO88
         |--S. hypostoma WO88
         |--S. subsessiliflora WO88
         `--S. williamsii WO88

Saxifraga incertae sedis:
  S. adscendens C55b
  S. affinis C55b
  S. aizoon C55a
  S. ajugaefolia C55a
  S. alboffiana D03
  S. alpigena O88
  S. asarifolia O88
  S. bicuspidata D03
  S. bryoides C55a
  S. bulbifera H91
  S. caesia PS98
  S. caveana O88
  S. cernua C55b
  S. consanguinea O88
  S. contraria O88
  S. controversa C55a
  S. cordillerarum D03
    |--S. c. var. cordillerarum D03
    `--S. c. var. magellanica D03
  S. corymbosa H09
  S. cotyledon C55b
  S. elegans C55b
  S. elliptica O88
  S. eschscholtzia YY22
  S. excellens O88
  S. georgei O88
  S. geum C55b
  S. granulata M-JT30
  S. granulifera O88
  S. hemisphaerica O88
  S. hirculoides O88
  S. hirsuta C55b
  S. hirta C55b
  S. humilis O88
  S. kingiana O88
  S. kumaunensis O88
  S. lamninamensis O88
  S. latiflora O88
  S. llonakhensis O88
  S. lowndesii O88
  S. macrostigma YY22
  S. melanocentra O88
  S. mertensiana Bong. 1832 CD07
  S. mira O88
  S. montana O88
    |--S. m. f. montana O88
    `--S. m. f. rubra O88
  S. mucronulata O88
    |--S. m. ssp. mucronulata O88
    `--S. m. ssp. sikkimensis O88
  S. mutata H09
    |--S. m. ssp. mutata H09
    `--S. m. ssp. demissa H09
  S. namdoensis O88
  S. nanella O88
  S. neopropagulifera O88
  S. nutans O88
  S. oppositifolia YY22
  S. parva O88
  S. perpusilla O88
  S. pseudo-pallida O88
  S. pulvinaria O88
  S. punctulata O88
  S. rhodopetala O88
  S. rolwalingensis O88
  S. rosacea M-JT30
  S. sibirica O88
  S. staintonii O88
  S. stella-aurea O88
    |--S. s. var. stella-aurea O88
    `--S. s. var. polyadena O88
  S. stellaris YY22
  S. stenophylla O88
    |--S. s. ssp. stenophylla O88
    `--S. s. ssp. hoffmeisteri O88
  S. stolitzkae O88
  S. tangutica O88
  S. tentaculata O88
  S. umbrosa C55b
  S. zimmermannii O88

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Abrams, L. 1944. Illustrated Flora of the Pacific States vol. 2. Stanford University Press.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1-E44.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8—Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[H09] Heltmann, H. 2009. Der Königstein (Piatra Craiului), die Perle der Burzenländer Gebirge. Mauritiana 20 (3): 515-527.

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255-260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[M-JT30] Marsden-Jones, E. M., & W. B. Turrill. 1930. Hybridization in certain genera of the British flora. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London 141: 36.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[PS98] Prosser, F., & S. Scortegagna. 1998. Primula recubariensis, a new species of Primula sect. Auricula Duby endemic to the SE Prealps, Italy. Willdenowia 28: 27-46.

[WO88] Wakabayashi, M., & H. Ohba. 1988. Cytotaxonomic study of the Himalayan Saxifraga. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 71-90.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

Ologamasidae

Male ologamasid, from here.


Belongs within: Parasitiformes.

The Ologamasidae are a family of predatory mites found worldwide, though most diverse in the Southern Hemisphere.

Characters (from Luxton 1986): Dorsum of adult with holonotal shield or two separate shields; peritrematal shield usually fused with exopodal IV shield, often also with ventro-anal shield.

<==Ologamasidae [Ologamasinae]
    |--Gamasiphoides L01
    |--Evanssellus L01
    |--Parasitiphis L86
    |--Litogamasus L86
    |--Hydrogamasus L86
    |--Rhodacaroides Willmann 1959 L86
    |    `--R. aegyptiacus Willmann 1959 L86
    |--Geogamasus Lee 1970 L86
    |    `--G. fibularis Karg 1976 L86
    |--Hydrogamasellus Hirschmann 1966 L86
    |    |--H. antennatus Karg 1976 L86
    |    `--H. racovitzai (Trouessart 1903) (see below for synonymy) L86
    `--Periseius Womersley 1961 L86
         |--P. brasiliensis Hirschmann 1966 L86
         |--P. nobskae (Haq 1965) [=Psammonsella nobskae] L86
         `--P. schusteri Hirschmann 1966 L86

Hydrogamasellus racovitzai (Trouessart 1903) [=Gamasus racovitzai, Cyrtolaelaps (Gamasellus) racovitza; incl. Zercon tuberculatus Tragardh 1907] L86

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[L01] Lindquist, E. E. 2001. Poising for a new century: Diversification in acarology. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 17-34. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[L86] Luxton, M. 1986. Acari: Rhodacaridae Ologamasinae. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 635-637. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

Stellaria

Chickweed Stellaria media, photographed by Carl Farmer.


Belongs within: Caryophyllaceae.

Stellaria, the chickweeds, is a cosmopolitan genus of small herbaceous plants, some species of which have spread worldwide in pasture. Species boundaries within the genus are complicated by high morphological diversity of some species.

See also: Stars in the pasture.

Characters (from Abrams 1944): Low, often diffusely branching annuals or perennials with cymose, white flowers. Sepals usually five. Petals of the same number as sepals or rarely none, two-cleft or parted. Stamens ten or less, hypogynous. Ovary one-celled, many-ovuled. Styles three, rarely four or five, usually opposite sepals. Capsule globose to oblong, dehiscent by twice as many valves as styles. Seeds smooth or roughened.

<==Stellaria
    |--S. alsine PAE98
    |--S. antillana J87
    |--S. congestiflora O88
    |--S. cupaniana PT98
    |--S. cuspidata D03
    |--S. decipiens A27
    |    |--S. d. var. decipiens A27
    |    `--S. d. var. angustata A27
    |--S. decumbens O88
    |    |--S. d. var. decumbens O88
    |    |--S. d. var. polyantha O88
    |    `--S. d. var. pulvinata O88
    |--S. gracilenta A27
    |--S. graminea W01
    |--S. media (Linnaeus) Vill. 1788 CD07
    |--S. parviflora A27
    |--S. patens O88
    |--S. roughii A27
    |--S. subumbellata O88
    `--S. uliginosa O88

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Abrams, L. 1944. Illustrated Flora of the Pacific States vol. 2. Stanford University Press.

[A27] Andersen, J. C. 1927. Popular names of New Zealand plants. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 905-977.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1-E44.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[PAE98] Pakeman, R. J., J. P. Attwood & J. Engelen. 1998. Sources of plants colonizing experimentally disturbed patches in an acidic grassland, in eastern England. Journal of Ecology 86: 1032-1041.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: Flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95-116.

[W01] Wohltmann, A. 2001. Closely related species of Parasitengonae (Acari: Prostigmata) inhabiting the same areas: Features facilitating coexistence. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 121-135. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

Caryophyllaceae

Fourleaf manyseed Polycarpon tetraphyllum, copyright Forest & Kim Starr.


Belongs within: Caryophyllales.
Contains: Arenaria, Cerastium, Silene, Stellaria, Colobanthus, Dianthus, Minuartia.

The Caryophyllaceae are a cosmopolitan family of herbaceous plants, most diverse in temperate regions. Familiar representatives include Dianthus (pinks), Stellaria (chickweeds) and Gypsophila (baby's breath). Some species have become widespread as pasture weeds. In members of the subfamily Illecebroideae, stipules are present on the leaves; other subfamilies lack stipules. The Caryophylloideae have flowers with sepals more or less fused at the base, whereas Minuartoideae and Illecebroideae have free sepals.

Characters (from Allan 1961): Annual to perennial herbs; leaves usually simple, entire, opposite, often connate, or with scarious stipules. Flowers in simple to compound cymes, or solitary; usually perfect, hypogynous or perigynous; sepals 4-5, free or joined below; petals as many as sepals, often small or absent, free, often bifid or emarginate; stamens up to 10, anthers dehiscing longitudinally; ovary one-celled, at least in upper part, ovules 1 to many on basal or free-central placenta, embryo usually curved; fruit usually a dry capsule opening by teeth or valves.

REFERENCES

<==Caryophyllaceae [Caryophyllineae]
    |--Caryophylleae [Caryophylloideae] M99
    |    |--Caryophyllus aromaticus C55b
    |    `--Dianthus M99
    |--Minuartioideae [Alsinoideae] T00
    |    |--Minuartia KB96
    |    `--Alsine C55b
    |         |--A. biflora [=Stellaria biflora] C55b
    |         |--A. media C55b
    |         `--A. stricta [=Spergula stricta; incl. Arenaria uliginosa] C55b
    `--Paronychieae C74 [Illecebroideae T00, Paronychioideae]
         |--Paronychia argentea C74
         `--Polycarpon C74
              |--P. alsinaefolium C55b
              |--P. peploides C74
              |--P. prostratum P03
              `--P. tetraphyllum (Linnaeus) Linnaeus 1759 PL04

Caryophyllaceae incertae sedis:
  Geocarpon T00
  Dicheranthus YY22
  Melandrium YY22
    |--M. album GM96
    `--M. magellanicum D03
  Thylacospermum caespitosum O88
  Arenaria PL04
  Cerastium PL04
  Drymaria D07
    |--D. cordata O88
    `--D. villosa D07
  Gypsophila O88
    |--G. cerastioides O88
    `--G. petraea H09
  Lepyrodiclis holosteoides O88
  Silene KB96
  Stellaria D07
  Moenchia mantica Y98
  Herniaria PT98
    |--H. alpina C55a
    `--H. hirsuta PT98
  Petrorhagia PL04
    |--P. armerioides (Seringe) Ball & Heywood 1964 PL04
    |--P. prolifera GK00
    `--P. velutina GK00
  Sagina PT98
    |--S. apetala PT98
    |--S. erecta C55b
    |--S. maritima PT98
    | --S. procumbens PAE98
    `--S. truncata Colenso 1895 A61
  Spergularia Presl & Presl 1819 A61
    |--S. bocconei PT98
    |--S. marginata (DC.) Kittel 1844 (see below for synonymy) A61
    `--S. rupicola G60
  Bolanthus graecus (von Schreber) Barkoudah 1962 PL04
  Scleranthus Linnaeus 1753 A61
    |--S. biflorus (Forster & Forster) Hook. f. 1852 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |--S. brockiei Williamson 1956 A61
    |--S. perennis KB96
    |    |--S. p. ssp. perennis KB96
    |    `--S. p. ssp. dichotomus KB96
    |--S. singuliflorus [=Mniarum singuliflorum Muell. 1855; incl. S. mniaroides Muell. 1855] A61
    `--S. uniflorus Williamson 1956 [=S. biflorus var. uniflorus Ckn. ex Simpson & Thomson 1941 (n. n.)] A61
  Viscaria alpina KB96
  Spergula VB02
    |--S. arvensis C55b
    |--S. fallax VB02
    `--S. saginoides [incl. Sagina decumbens] C55a
  Corrigiola litoralis GK00
  Colobanthus A61
  Schiedea verticillata O94
  Agrostemma JK80
    |--A. aestivalis BO08
    |--A. flammea BO08
    `--A. githago JK80
  Polycarpaea LK14
    |--P. corymbosa LK14
    |--P. holtzei LK14
    |--P. incana LK14
    |--P. involucrata LK14
    |--P. longiflora LK14
    |--P. multicaulis LK14
    `--P. violacea LK14
  Lychnis P93
    |--L. alpina C55b
    |--L. flos-cuculi BN99
    `--L. githago C55b

Scleranthus biflorus (Forster & Forster) Hook. f. 1852 [=Mniarum biflorum Forster & Forster 1776; incl. Ditoca muscosa Banks & Sol. ex Gaertn. 1791] A61

Spergularia marginata (DC.) Kittel 1844 [=Arenaria marginata DC. 1805; incl. S. rubra var. marina Hook. f. 1864, S. media Presl 1826 non Arenaria media Linnaeus 1762, Arenara media Hook. f. 1852, S. media var. salina Kirk 1899] A61

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BO08] Bönsel, D., I. Ottich, A. Malten & G. Zizka. 2008. An updated list of the vascular plants of Frankfurt am Main (Pteridophyta & Spermatophyta). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (1): 111–121.

[BN99] Bungener, P., S. Nussbaum, A. Grub & J. Fuhrer. 1999. Growth response of grassland species to ozone in relation to soil moisture condition and plant strategy. New Phytologist 142: 283–293.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C74] Coineau, Y. 1974. Éléments pour une monographie morphologique, écologique et biologique des Caeculidae (Acariens). Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, nouvelle série, Série A, Zoologie 81: 1–299, 24 pls.

[D07] Dash, S. S. 2007. Useful plants of Kabi Sacred Grove, Sikkim. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1–4): 79–88.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[G60] Gillham, M. E. 1960. Vegetation of Little Brother Island, Cook Strait, in relation to spray-bearing winds, soil salinity, and pH. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 405–424.

[GM96] Griffiths, A. J. F., J. H. Miller, D. T. Suzuki, R. C. Lewontin & W. M. Gelbart. 1996. An Introduction to Genetic Analysis 6th ed. W. H. Freeman and Company: New York.

[H09] Heltmann, H. 2009. Der Königstein (Piatra Craiului), die Perle der Burzenländer Gebirge. Mauritiana 20 (3): 515–527.

[KB96] Konstantinou, M., & D. Babalonas. 1996. Metal uptake by Caryophyllaceae species from metalliferous soils in northern Greece. Plant Systematics and Evolution 203: 1–10.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[M99] Matthews, M. 1999. Heliothine Moths of Australia: A guide to bollworms and related noctuid groups. CSIRO Publishing.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[O94] Otte, D. 1994. The Crickets of Hawaii: origin, systematics and evolution. The Orthopterists' Society: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.

[PAE98] Pakeman, R. J., J. P. Attwood & J. Engelen. 1998. Sources of plants colonizing experimentally disturbed patches in an acidic grassland, in eastern England. Journal of Ecology 86: 1032–1041.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95–116.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1–4): 121–142.

[P93] Pittaway, A. R. 1993. The Hawkmoths of the Western Palaearctic. Harley Books: Colchester.

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209–223.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[VB02] Vijay, S. K., & T. N. Bhardwaja. 2002. Vegetation and phenodynamics of wetlands of central Rajasthan. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 573–581.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

[Y98] Yannitsaros, A. 1998. Additions to the flora of Kithira (Greece) I. Willdenowia 28: 77–94.

Ericaceae

Crowberry Empetrum nigrum, photographed by Ekaterina Smirnova.


Belongs within: Ericales.
Contains: Monotropoideae, Arbutoideae, Styphelioideae, Vaccinioideae, Ericeae, Phyllodoceae, Rhodoreae.

The Ericaceae is a cosmopolitan family of mostly cooler-climate plants (including tropical montane). Many species have small, needle-like leaves, referred to as 'ericoid'.

Characters (from Kron et al. 2002): Evergreen or deciduous shrubs, lianas, trees or herbs (these sometimes lacking chlorophyll), sometimes epiphytic. Leaves alternate, decussate, or whorled, sometimes distally clustered on shoots, entire to serrate, and often with margins strongly revolute and leaves needle-like; stipules absent; leaf epidermal cells lignified or not, hypodermal cells often present; stomata usually anomocytic or paracytic; vascular bundles frequently associated with fibre sheath; nodes usually unilacunar. Buds protected by two to numerous scales or naked. Indumentum a mixture of unicellular and multicellular hairs, or sometimes only unicellular-pubescent, the multicellular hairs extremely various, glandular or non-glandular, unbranched and short to elongate, variously branched, or peltate. Inflorescences terminal or axillary, usually indeterminate and often racemose, with variously developed bracts and usually a pair of bracteoles, these sometimes recaulescent, replacing calyx lobes; flowers pendulous to erectly held, articulated with pedicel or not. Flowers showy to inconspicuous, perfect to imperfect, usually tetra- or pentamerous, actinomorphic to zygomorphic. Sepals (1-)4-5(-9), usually connate, persistent or deciduous, occasionally colourful and fleshy; petals (3-)4-5(-9), usually connate and typically campanulate, cylindrical, or urceolate, occasionally rotate, deciduous or pesistent. Stamens (2-)5-10(-16), free from corolla or adnate, sometimes connate, included or exserted, filaments straight to variously curved, unicellular-pubescent or glabrous; anthers tetrasporangiate or bisporangiate, inverting (late, or more commonly early) in development, with two or four apparently terminal appendages (awns, spurs) or these sometimes on filaments, opening by pores or short to long slits, sometimes through narrowed tubules, endothecium usually absent. Pollen usually tricolpate to tricolporate, in tetrahedral tetrads, these sometimes reduced, or occasionally in monads, sometimes associated with viscin threads. Nectary present or absent. Ovary (2-)4-5(-14) carpellate, superior to inferior, with usually axile to intruded parietal placentations, rarely apical or basal; ovules one to many per carpel, anatropous to nearly campylotropous, unitegmic, tenuinucellate, embryo sac usually of Polygonum type; style short to long, hollow, sometimes expanded apically; stigma truncate to capitate or slightly to strongly lobed, sometimes cup-shaped, funnel-shaped, or flabellate to pinnatifid. Fruit loculicidal to septicidal capsules, berries, drupes (with one or several pits), or occasionally dry and indehiscent; seeds small, testa usually single layered, with cells isodiametric to strongly elongated, sometimes winged or tailed, sometimes mucilaginous on wetting; embryo fusiform or spatulate, white or less commonly green, with two cotyledons, to extremely reduced and undifferentiated; endosperm cellular, well developed, with haustoria at both ends; germination epigeal.

<==Ericaceae (see below for synonymy)
    |  i. s.: Sciadopityites G02
    |         Pernettyopsis megabracteata H03
    |         Oxycoccus palustris D03
    |--Enkianthus [Enkiantheae, Enkianthoideae] KJ02
    |    |--E. campanulatus KJ02
    |    |--E. deflexus SN88
    |    `--E. perulatus [incl. E. japonicus] LO98
    `--+--Monotropoideae KJ02
       `--+--Arbutoideae KJ02
          `--+--+--Harrimanella [Harrimanelloideae] KJ02
             |  |    `--H. hypnoides KJ02
             |  `--+--Styphelioideae KJ02
             |     `--Vaccinioideae KJ02
             `--+--Cassiope [Cassiopeae, Cassiopoideae] KJ02
                |    |--C. fastigiata O88
                |    |--C. mertensiana KJ02
                |    |--C. selaginoides O88
                |    `--C. tetragona KJ02
                `--Ericoideae [Ledeae, Ledoideae, Rhododendroideae, Rhodoroideae] KJ02
                     |  i. s.: Ledum palustre RKD02
                     |--Ericeae KJ02
                     |--Phyllodoceae KJ02
                     |--Rhodoreae KJ02
                     |--Bejarieae KJ02
                     |    |--Ledothamnus guyanensis KJ02
                     |    |--Bryanthus gmelini KJ02
                     |    `--Bejaria KJ02
                     |         |--B. racemosa KJ02
                     |         `--B. resinosa KJ02
                     `--Empetreae [Coremateae, Empetraceae, Empetroideae] KJ02
                          |--Corema conradi KJ02
                          |--Ceratiola ericoides KJ02
                          `--Empetrum KJ02
                               |--E. atropurpureum KJ02
                               |--E. hermaphroditum KJ02
                               |--E. nigrum KJ02
                               `--E. rubrum KJ02

Ericaceae [Andromedaceae, Arbutaceae, Arctostaphylaceae, Arctostaphyleae, Azaleaceae, Azaleoideae, Diplarchaceae, Ericineae, Hypopithydes, Hypopityaceae, Kalmiaceae, Kalmiae, Ledaceae, Menziesiaceae, Oxycoccaceae, Prionotaceae, Rhododendra, Rhododendraceae, Rhodoraceae, Salaxidaceae, Stypheliaceae, Vaccinia, Vacciniaceae]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[G02] Gomez, B. 2002. A new species of Mirovia (Coniferales, Miroviaceae) from the Lower Cretaceous of the Iberian Ranges (Spain). Cretaceous Research 23: 761-773.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: Vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311-449.

[KJ02] Kron, K. A., W. S. Judd, P. F. Stevens, D. M. Crayn, A. A. Anderberg, P. A. Gadek, C. J. Quinn & J. L. Luteyn. 2002. Phylogenetic classification of Ericaceae: Molecular and morphological evidence. Botanical Review 68: 335-423.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263-276.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[RKD02] Relys, V., S. Koponen & D. Dapkus. 2002. Annual differences and species turnover in peat bog spider communities. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 416-424.

[SN88] Suzuki, M., & S. Noshiro. 1988. Wood structure of Himalayan plants. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 341-379.

Asteridae

Kousa dogwood Cornus kousa, from here.


Belongs within: Gunneridae.
Contains: Ericales, Gentianidae.

The Asteridae is one of the major clades of flowering plants. Many members of the clade are sympetalous, with the petals fused to varying degrees from the base. The clade is mainly supported by molecular data, but possible synapomorphies include tenuinucellate and unitegmic ovules, sympetaly, and iridoid compounds (Cantino et al. 2007).

<==Asteridae [Hydrangeales, Sympetalae, Theanae]
    |  i. s.: Fouquieria [incl. Idria; Fouquieriaceae, Fouquieriales] T00
    |         Diapensia KJ02 [Diapensiaceae, Diapensiales T00]
    |           |--D. himalaica O88
    |           `--D. lapponica KJ02
    |         Montiniaceae T00
    |           |--Grevea T00
    |           |--Kaliphora T00
    |           `--Montinia T00
    |         Greyia [Greyiaceae] T00
    |         Francoa [Francoaceae] T00
    |--+--Ericales K01
    |  `--Gentianidae K01
    `--Cornales [Cornanae, Cornineae] BL04
         |  i. s.: Tylerianthus T00
         |         Curtisia [Curtisiaceae] T00
         |--+--Alangium [Alangiaceae] K01
         |  |    `--A. salvifolium SR07
         |  |         |--A. s. var. salvifolium SR07
         |  |         `--A. s. var. hexapetalum SR07
         |  `--Cornaceae K01
         |       |--Marlea [incl. Stylidium Loureiro 1790 (nom. rej.?) non Swartz 1805] BR65
         |       |    `--*Stylidium’ chinense (n. d.) BR65
         |       `--Cornus K01
         |            |--C. alternifolia ZB01
         |            |--C. controversa [incl. C. macrophylla] LO98
         |            |--C. florida ZB01
         |            |--C. kousa ZB01
         |            |--C. mas Linnaeus 1753 CD07
         |            |--C. nuttallii ZB01
         |            |--C. officinalis LO98
         |            `--C. sanguinea G98
         `--+--Nyssaceae T00
            |    |--Davidia [Davidioideae] T00
            |    |--Nyssoideae T00
            |    |    |--Camptotheca T00
            |    |    `--Nyssa K01
            |    `--Mastixioideae [Mastixiaceae] T00
            |         |--Diplopanax T00
            |         |--Mastixia T00
            |         |--Retinomastixia glandulosa JD05
            |         `--Eomastixia bilocularis JD05
            `--+--Loasaceae T00
               |    |--Gronovioideae T00
               |    |--Loasa D03 [Loasoideae T00]
               |    |    `--L. volubilis D03
               |    `--Mentzelioideae T00
               |         |--Eucnide K01
               |         `--Mentzelia T00
               `--Hydrangeaceae T00
                    |  i. s.: Dichroa febrifuga D07
                    |--Philadelphoideae T00
                    |    |--Philadelphus K01
                    |    `--Kirengeshoma T00
                    `--+--Fendlera K01
                       `--Hydrangea [Hydrangeoideae] K01
                            |--H. macrophylla MH98
                            |--H. paniculata T07
                            `--H. scandens D03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BL04] Barkman, T. J., S.-H. Lim, K. M. Salleh & J. Nais. 2004. Mitochondrial DNA sequences reveal the photosynthetic relatives of Rafflesia, the world’s largest flower. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 101 (3): 787-792.

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae-Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1-E44.

[D07] Dash, S. S. 2007. Useful plants of Kabi Sacred Grove, Sikkim. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 79-88.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[G98] Gruber, J. 1998. Beiträge zur Systematik der Gattung Dicranolasma (Arachnida: Opiliones, Dicranolasmatidae). I. Dicranolasma thracium Staręga und verwandte Formen aus Südosteuropa und Südwestasien. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museum in Wien. Serie B. Botanik und Zoologie 100: 489-537.

[JD05] Junge, F. W., M. Dolezych, H. Walther, T. Böttger, A. Kühl, L. Kunzmann, P. Morgenstern, T. Steinberg & R. Stange. 2005. Ein Fenster in Landschaft und Vegetation vor 37 Millionen Jahren: Lithologische, sedimentgeochemische und paläobotanische Befunde aus einem Paläoflusssystem des Weißelsterbeckens. Mauritiana 19 (2): 185-273.

[K01] Kårehed, J. 2001. Multiple origin of the tropical forest tree family Icacinaceae. American Journal of Botany 88 (12): 2259-2274.

[KJ02] Kron, K. A., W. S. Judd, P. F. Stevens, D. M. Crayn, A. A. Anderberg, P. A. Gadek, C. J. Quinn & J. L. Luteyn. 2002. Phylogenetic classification of Ericaceae: Molecular and morphological evidence. Botanical Review 68: 335-423.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263-276.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180-190.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[SR07] Sankar, R. V., K. Ravikumar, N. M. Ganesh Babu & D. K. Ved. 2007. Botany of Anapady MPCA, Palghat district, Kerala with special emphasis on species of conservation concern. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 165-172.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: Dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441-647.

[T07] Tsurusaki, N. 2007. The Chugoku Mountains – a hotspot of geographical differentiation of species. Taxa 22: 3-14.

[ZB01] Zhang, N., & M. Blackwell. 2001. Molecular phylogeny of dogwood anthracnose fungus (Discula destructiva) and the Diaporthales. Mycologia 93 (2): 355-365.