Pselaphitae

Centrophthalmus punctipennis, from here.


Belongs within: Staphylinidae.

The Pselaphitae are a large group of beetles that usually have eleven-segmented antennae and greatly developed maxillary palpi (Imms et al. 1977).

<==Pselaphitae
    |--Ctenistes [Ctenistini] NG05
    |    |--C. mitis Schaufuss 1882 NG05
    |    `--C. parviceps G89
    |--Odontalgus [Odontalgini] NG05
    |    `--O. vestitus Schaufuss 1886 NG05
    |--Sabarhytus Löbl 2000 [Arhytodini] NG05
    |    `--S. kinabalu Löbl 2000 NG05
    |--Pselaphus [Pselaphini] NG05
    |    |--P. biocellatus Reitter 1883 NG05
    |    |--P. calopygaeus Schaufuss 1887 NG05
    |    |--P. lativentris Reitter 1882 NG05
    |    |--P. parvipalpis Reitter 1882 [incl. P. bivestitus Schaufuss 1887] NG05
    |    |--P. sexstriatus Reitter 1883 NG05
    |    `--P. unipunctatus Reitter 1883 NG05
    |--Hybocephalini NG05
    |    |--Stipesa [incl. Filiger] NG05
    |    |--Pseudapharina prima (Reitter 1883) NG05
    |    |--Apharinodes NG05
    |    |    |--A. miranda Raffray 1895 NG05
    |    |    `--A. squamosa Raffray 1890 NG05
    |    |--Apharina NG05
    |    |    |--A. borneensis Raffray 1896 NG05
    |    |    `--A. fuscipennis Reitter 1883 NG05
    |    `--Hybocephalodes NG05
    |         |--H. dentiventris Reitter 1883 NG05
    |         |--H. informis Reitter 1883 NG05
    |         `--H. telangensis Reitter 1883 NG05
    |--Tmesiphorini NG05
    |    |--Ctenotillus NG05
    |    |--Raphitreus dentimanus Raffray 1890 NG05
    |    |--Chandleriella Hlavac 2000 NG05
    |    |    `--*C. termitophila (Bryant 1915) [=Lasinus termitophilus] NG05
    |    |--Tmesiphorus NG05
    |    |    |--T. armatus Raffray 1882 NG05
    |    |    |--T. clavatus Raffray 1895 NG05
    |    |    `--T. matangensis Bryant 1915 NG05
    |    |--Dacnotillus NG05
    |    |    |--D. pilosus Raffray 1895 NG05
    |    |    |--D. transversus Raffray 1895 NG05
    |    |    `--D. tuberculatus Raffray 1895 NG05
    |    |--Ancystrocerus NG05
    |    |    |--A. longicornis Raffray 1895 NG05
    |    |    |--A. pallidus Raffray 1895 NG05
    |    |    |--A. punctatus Raffray 1895 NG05
    |    |    `--A. rugicollis Raffray 1895 NG05
    |    `--Pseudophanias Raffray 1890 NG05
    |         |--*P. malaianus Raffray 1890 NG05
    |         |--P. cribricollis Raffary 1895 NG05
    |         |--P. heterocerus Raffray 1895 NG05
    |         |--P. pilosus Raffray 1895 NG05
    |         |--P. puberulus Raffray 1904 NG05
    |         `--P. punctatus Raffray 1904 NG05
    `--Tyrini NG05
         |--Centrophthalmina NG05
         |    |--Enantius NG05
         |    |    |--E. fortis Raffray 1895 NG05
         |    |    |--E. rostratus Reitter 1883 NG05
         |    |    `--E. singapuriensis Raffray 1895 NG05
         |    `--Centrophthalmus NG05
         |         |--C. bispina Reitter 1883 NG05
         |         |--C. divisus Reitter 1883 NG05
         |         `--C. punctipennis NG05
         |              |--C. p. punctipennis NG05
         |              `--C. p. punctatissimus Schaufuss 1882 NG05
         `--Tyrina NG05
              |--Labomimus heterocerus (Raffray 1882) [=Pselaphodes heterocerus; incl. P. antennatus Bryant 1915] NG05
              |--Paralasinus NG05
              |--Taiwanophodes Hlavác 2002 NG05
              |--Nomuraius Hlavác 2002 NG05
              |--Linan Hlavác 2002 NG05
              |--Indophodes Hlavác 2002 NG05
              |--Tyrodes clavatus Raffray 1895 NG05
              |--Ryxabis anthicoides Westwood 1870 NG05
              |--Tyrus NG05
              |    |--T. corticalis (Raffray 1890) NG05
              |    `--T. myrmecophilus Bryant 1915 NG05
              `--Pselaphodes NG05
                   |--P. clavatus Raffray 1895 NG05
                   |--P. foveolatus Raffray 1892 NG05
                   `--P. villosulus Westwood 1870 NG05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso «Esploratore» dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880. – IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 5-72.

Imms, A. D., O. W. Richards & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology. Springer.

[NG05] Nomura, S., & I. Abd Ghani. 2005. Faunistic notes on the pselaphine species of the supertribes Goniaceritae, Pselaphitae and Clavigeritae from Malaysia and Singapore (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Pselaphinae). Serangga 10 (1-2): 1-36.

Natypleurina

Specimen of Natypleurus, from here.


Belongs within: Goniaceritae.

The Natypleurina are a group of pselaphine beetles found in Asia and Australia. They are distinguished by the possession of short maxillary palpi with a symmetrical or subconical fourth segment, and elytra lacking subhumeral foveae (Arai & Nomura 2007).

<==Natypleurina [Tanypleurini]
    |--Morana NG05
    |--Nipponobythus NG05
    |--Takaorites NG05
    |--Nedarassus punctatus Raffray 1895 NG05
    |--Natypleurus Newton & Thayer 1992 NG05
    |    |--*N. malaianus (Raffray 1890) NG05
    |    `--N. gibbicollis (Raffray 1895) NG05
    `--Bythinophanax NG05
         |--B. bicornis Reitter 1883 NG05
         |--B. exilis Reitter 1883 NG05
         `--B. latebrosus Reitter 1883 NG05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Arai, S., & S. Nomura. 2007. A new genus, Tenguobythus, and five new species of the Iniocyphine subtribe Natypleurina from Japan (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae). Entomological Science 10 (4): 407-419.


[NG05] Nomura, S., & I. Abd Ghani. 2005. Faunistic notes on the pselaphine species of the supertribes Goniaceritae, Pselaphitae and Clavigeritae from Malaysia and Singapore (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Pselaphinae). Serangga 10 (1-2): 1-36.

Leiodidae

The beaver parasite Platypsyllus castor, photographed by Lech Borowiec.


Belongs within: Polyphaga.

The Leiodidae are mostly scavenging or fungivorous beetles, often found in decaying organic matter. A number of species of leiodid are known from caves.

Characters (from Lawrence & Britton 1991): Moderately small beetles with more or less spiny legs and usually simple tarsi, abdomen usually entirely concealed by elytra. Antennae eleven-segmented, usually with five-segmented antennal club, second segment of club (antennal segment 8) smaller than either first or third, club sometimes very weak with antennal segment 8 only slightly reduced, or very strong with 8 greatly reduced or absent, unique internal sensory vesicles usually opening on distal surfaces of segments 7, 9 and 10. Larvae active, campodeiform, urogomphi almost always articulated at base; mandibular mola and two apical maxillary lobes (galea and lacinia) present.

<==Leiodidae
    |  i. s.: Paracatops brunneipes E02
    |         Scotocryptus GE05
    |         Catopidius GE05
    |         Silphopsyllus desmanae GE05, A71
    |         Neopelatops AY04
    |         Anisotoma N88
    |--Platypsyllus [Acheiroptera, Platypsyllidae, Platypsyllinae] GE05
    |    `--P. castor GE05
    `--Leptodirini [Cholevinae] PN02
         |--Antroherpon dombrowskii Apfelbeck 1907 PN02
         |--Haplotropidius taxi Müller 1903 PN02
         |--Spelaetes grabowskii Apfelbeck 1907 PN02
         `--Radziella Casale & Jalžić 1988 PN02
              `--*R. styx Casale & Jalžić 1988 PN02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[AY04] Austin, A. D., D. K. Yeates, G. Cassis, M. J. Fletcher, J. La Salle, J. F. Lawrence, P. B. McQuillan, L. A. Mound, D. J. Bickel, P. J. Gullan, D. F. Hales & G. S. Taylor. 2004. Insects 'Down Under' - diversity, endemism and evolution of the Australian insect fauna: examples from select orders. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 216-234.

[E02] Emberson, R. M. 2002. The beetle (Coleoptera) fauna of the Chatham Islands: Additions and corrections. New Zealand Entomologist 25: 69-77.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

Lawrence, J. F., & E. B. Britton. 1991. Coleoptera. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: a textbook for students and research workers, vol. 2, pp. 543-683. Melbourne University Press.

[N88] Noonan, G. R. 1988. Biogeography of North American and Mexican insects, and a critique of vicariance biogeography. Systematic Zoology 37 (4): 366-384.

[PN02] Poggi, R., G. Nonveiller, A. Colla, D. Pavićević & T. Rađa. 2001-2002. Thaumastocephalini, a new tribe of Pselaphinae for Thaumastocephalus folliculipalpus n. gen., n. sp., an interesting new troglobious species from central Dalmatia (Croatia) (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale “Giacomo Doria” 94: 1-20.

Stygothrombiidae

Specimen of Stygothrombium, from Biodiversity Institute of Ontario.


Belongs within: Hydrachnidia.

The Stygothrombiidae are a family of predatory mites found in interstitial aquatic habitats in the Northern Hemisphere. Larvae of stygothrombiids are parasites of Plecoptera (stoneflies) (Walter et al. 2009).

Characters (from Walter et al. 2009): Adult gnathosoma retractable into idiosoma, chelicerae with movable digit bladelike and curved; palpal femur and genu fused, tibia bearing one or more enlarged spinelike setae adjacent to tibial claw and tarsus bearing long terminal solenidion; prodorsal area with slender prodorsal plate bearing unpaired anteromedial seta (vi), one pair of bothridia (si) and two pairs of posterior setae (ve and se); eyes absent; cuticle smooth, bearing relatively sparse complement of short, simple setae and several pairs of modified stomatoid lyrifissures without setiferous papillae; genital field bearing three pairs of stalked acetabula, pregenital tubercle absent; legs each with postaxial stomatoid lyrifissures on femur, genu and tibia, tarsus bearing pectinate claws and simple empodium. Larva moderately heteromorphic; gnathosoma with genu bearing two setae and tibial claw four-pronged; prodorsal plate bearing unpaired anteromedial seta (vi), one pair trichobothria (si), two pairs posterior setae (ve and se); venter bearing stalked urstigmata and well-defined anus, lacking setiferous anal plate; coxal plates I-III bearing 2, 1 and 1 pairs of setae, respectively, plates I-II contiguous; legs each with postaxial lyrifissures present on femur, genu and tibia, genu with more than four setae, tarsi each with pectinate claws and simple empodium.

<==Stygothrombiidae [Stygothrombiinae]
    |--Charonothrombium Motas & Tanasachi 1946 S86
    |    `--C. racovitzai Motas & Tanasachi 1946 S86
    |--Hydrothrombium Robaux 1969 S86
    |    `--H. cooki Robaux 1969 S86
    |--Victathrombium Habeeb 1974 S86
    |    `--V. ivarum (Habeeb 1974) S86
    |--Cerberothrombium Viet 1934 S86
    |    |--C. armatum Viets 1934 S86
    |    |--C. bispinosum Schwoerbel 1962 S86
    |    |--C. caudatum Habeeb 1955 S86
    |    |--C. ida Habeeb 1973 S86
    |    |--C. paulhenrii Hebeeb 1979 S86
    |    |--C. stella Habeeb 1973 S86
    |    |--C. vermiforme (Sokolow 1944) [=Baikalacarus vermiforme] S86
    |    `--C. vikrami Habeeb 1979 S86
    `--Stygothrombium Viets 1932 S86
         |--S. angelieri André 1949 S86
         |    |--S. a. angelieri S86
         |    `--S. a. minor André 1949 S86
         |--S. chappuisi Walter 1947 S86
         |--S. gallicum André 1949 S86
         |    |--S. g. gallicum S86
         |    `--S. g. delphinensis André 1949 S86
         |--S. hercyniensis Viets 1955 S86
         |--S. japonicum Imamura 1956 S86
         `--S. karamani Viets 1932 S86

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[S86] Schwoerbel, J. 1986. Acari: Stygothrombiidae und Thrombidiidae. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 648-651. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology, 3rd ed., pp. 233-420. Texas Tech University Press.

Clavigeritae

Specimen of Colilodion wuesti, from here, photographed by Munetoshi Maruyama.


Belongs within: Staphylinidae.

The Clavigeritae are specialised beetles that are all associates of ants. They have antennae with one to six segments, and greatly reduced maxillary palpi. An extensive hollow at the base of the abdomen surrounded by tufts of golden-yellow setae secretes a substance attractive to the beetle's ant hosts (Imms et al. 1977).

<==Clavigeritae
    |--Tiracerini NG05
    |--Colilodion Besuchet 1991 [Colilodionini] NG05
    |    |--C. incredibilis Besuchet 1991 NG05
    |    |--C. inopinatus Besuchet 1991 NG05
    |    |--C. mirus Besuchet 1991 NG05
    |    `--C. wuesti Löbl 1994 NG05
    `--Clavigerini NG05
         |--Claviger Preyssler 1790 F27
         |--Mastiger brevicornis Raffray 1890 NG05
         |--Pseudacerus furcatus Raffray 1895 NG05
         |--Anaclasiger sinuaticollis Raffray 1890 NG05
         |--Cerylambus reticulatus (Raffray 1895) NG05
         |--Articerodes borneensis Bryant 1915 NG05
         `--Disarthricerus NG05
              |--D. integer Raffray 1895 NG05
              `--D. moultoni Bryant 1915 NG05

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488-533.

Imms, A. D., O. W. Richards & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology. Springer.

[NG05] Nomura, S., & I. Abd Ghani. 2005. Faunistic notes on the pselaphine species of the supertribes Goniaceritae, Pselaphitae and Clavigeritae from Malaysia and Singapore (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Pselaphinae). Serangga 10 (1-2): 1-36.

Eutheria

Speculative reconstruction of Cimolestes, copyright Steve White.


Belongs within: Boreosphenida.
Contains: Adapisoriculidae, Zhelestidae, Asioryctitheria, Procerberinae, Leptictida, Xenarthra, Afrotheria, Boreoeutheria.

Eutheria is the total group of placental mammals: that is, all mammals more closely related to placentals than any other taxa. Eutherians are first definitively known from the early Cretaceous; the late Jurassic Juramaia sinensis, originally described as a eutherian, may have been a stem therian (marsupials+placentals). Phylogenetic analysis suggests that all known fossil Mesozoic eutherians lie outside the placental crown group (Wible et al. 2007). Early eutherians include Acristatherium yanensis, described from a partial skull from the Early Cretaceous (Aptian) of China.

<==Eutheria [Bunotheria, Cimolesta, Cimolestidae, Leptictimorpha, Mesodonta, Tupaioidea]
    |  i. s.: Otlestes meiman AAE01
    |         Opisthotomus Cope 1875 C77
    |           |--O. astutus Cope 1875 C77
    |           `--O. flagrans Cope 1875 C77
    |--Acristatherium yanensis GP11
    `--+--Murtoilestes Averianov & Skutchas 2001 GP11, FN03
       |    `--M. abramovi WR07
       `--+--Montanalestes Cifelli 1999 WR07, FN03
          |    `--M. keebleri WR07
          `--+--Adapisoriculidae GP11
             `--+--Sheikhdzheilia rezvyii HUG17, WR07
                `--+--Zhelestidae HUG17
                   `--+--+--Eozhelestes mangit WR07
                      |  `--Paranyctoides HUG17
                      |       |--P. aralensis WR07
                      |       |--P. maleficus WR07
                      |       |--P. megakeros WR07
                      |       |--P. quadrans HUG17
                      |       `--P. sternbergi WR07
                      `--+--+--Batodon Marsh 1892 HUG17, V67
                         |  |    `--B. tenuis WR07
                         |  `--Maelestes Wible, Rougier et al. 2007 WR07
                         |       `--*M. gobiensis Wible, Rougier et al. 2007 WR07
                         |--Bobolestes zenge HUG17, WR07
                         |--Asioryctitheria HUG17
                         `--+--Cimolestes Marsh 1889 HUG17, FN03 [incl. Nyssodon Simpson 1927 V67]
                            |    |--*C. incisus Marsh 1889 V66
                            |    |--C. cerberoides Lillegraven 1969 FN03
                            |    |--C. cuspulus Gheerbrant 1992 GI06
                            |    |--C. lucasi D07
                            |    |--C. magnus Clemens & Russell 1965 FN03
                            |    |--C. propalaeoryctes WR07
                            |    |--*Nyssodon’ punctidens Simpson 1927 V66
                            |    `--C. stirtoni WR07
                            `--+--Eoryctes Thewissen & Gingerich 1989 HUG17, AM02
                               |    `--E. melanus WR07
                               |--Puercolestes Reynolds 1936 HUG17, V67
                               |    `--*P. simpsoni Reynolds 1936 V66 [=Cimolestes simpsoni WR07]
                               |--Betonnia tsosia HUG17
                               `--+--+--Chacopterygus minutus HUG17
                                  |  `--Procerberinae HUG17
                                  `--+--+--Purgatorius HUG17
                                     |  |    |--P. coracis OB13
                                     |  |    |--P. janisae WR07
                                     |  |    `--P. unio WR07
                                     |  `--+--Oxyprimus WR07
                                     |     |    |--O. erikseni WR07
                                     |     |    `--O. galadrielae Van Valen 1978 MC00
                                     |     `--Protungulatum Sloan & Van Valen 1965 HUG17, D07
                                     |          |--P. coombsi OB13
                                     |          |--P. donnae Sloan & Van Valen 1965 MC00
                                     |          |--P. gorgon WR07
                                     |          |--P. mckeeveri WR07
                                     |          `--P. sloani D07
                                     `--+--Leptictida HUG17
                                        `--+--Prodiacodon Matthew 1929 HUG17, SFY02 (see below for synonymy)
                                           |    |--*P. puercensis (Matthew 1918) V67
                                           |    |--P. concordiarcensis Simpson 1935 S35
                                           |    |--P. crustulum OB13
                                           |    `--P. tauricinerei HUG17
                                           `--Placentalia (see below for synonymy) WR07
                                                |  i. s.: Ernanodonta S03
                                                |           |--Ernanodon Ding 1987 [Ernanodontidae] S03
                                                |           |    `--*E. antelios Ding 1979 S03
                                                |           `--Asiabradypus Nessov 1987 S03
                                                |                `--A. incompositus Nesson 1987 S03
                                                |         Plioceros dehlini MHL03
                                                |         Colodon occidentalis MHL03
                                                |         Tingamarra Godthelp, Archer et al. 1992 LA02
                                                |           `--*T. porterorum Godthelp, Archer et al. 1992 LA02
                                                |         Kharmerungulatum Prasad, Verma et al. 2007 PV07
                                                |           `--*K. vanvaleni Prasad, Verma et al. 2007 PV07
                                                |         Parapodemus Scaub 1938 P04
                                                |         Germanomys Heller 1936 P04
                                                |         Blackia Mein 1970 P04
                                                |         Sulimskia Reumer 1984 P04
                                                |         Stachomys Kowalski 1960 P04
                                                |         Smithozapus Sulimski 1962 P04
                                                |         Pliopetes Kretzoi 1959 P04
                                                |         Kowalskia Fahlbusch 1969 P04
                                                |         Prospalax Méhely 1908 P04
                                                |         Paenelimnoecus Baudelot 1972 P04
                                                |         Alloblarinella Storch 1995 P04
                                                |         Orientalomys De Bruijn & Van der Meulen 1975 P04
                                                |         Archaeodesmana Topachevskij & Pashkov 1983 P04
                                                |         Blancomys Van de Weerd, Adrover et al. 1977 P04
                                                |         Stephanomys Schaub 1938 P04
                                                |         Castyllomys Michaux 1969 P04
                                                |         Occitanomys Michaux 1969 P04
                                                |         Pseudomeriones Schaub 1934 P04
                                                |         Spermophilinus De Bruijn & Mein 1968 P04
                                                |           `--S. bredai M-SK04
                                                |         Keramidomys Hartenberger 1966 P04
                                                |         Tylodon Gervais 1848 V66
                                                |--Atlantogenata HUG17
                                                |    |--Xenarthra HUG17
                                                |    `--Afrotheria HUG17
                                                `--Boreoeutheria HUG17

Placentalia [Altungulata, Anagalida, Bruta, Cheiroptères, Dilambdodonta, Edentata, Educabilia, Eparctocyona, Epitheria, Exafroplacentalia, Gyrencephala, Menotyphla, Pantomesaxonia, Pedimanes, Unguiculata, Ungulata, Ungulatomorpha, Volitantia]

Prodiacodon Matthew 1929 HUG17, SFY02 [incl. Palaeolestes Matthew 1918 (preoc.) V67]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AAE01] Archibald, J. D., A. O. Averianov & E. G. Ekdale. 2001. Late Cretaceous relatives of rabbits, rodents, and other extant eutherian mammals. Nature 414: 62–65.

[AM02] Asher, R. J., M. C. McKenna, R. J. Emry, A. R. Tabrum & D. G. Kron. 2002. Morphology and relationships of Apternodus and other extinct, zalambdodont, placental mammals. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 273: 1–117.

[C77] Cope, E. D. 1877. Report upon the extinct Vertebrata obtained in New Mexico by parties of the expedition of 1874. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (2): i–iv, 1–370.

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[FN03] Fox, R. C., & B. G. Naylor. 2003. A Late Cretaceous taeniodont (Eutheria, Mammalia) from Alberta, Canada. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie—Abhandlungen 229 (3): 393–420.

[GI06] Gheerbrant, E., M. Iarochene, M. Amaghzaz & B. Bouya. 2006. Early African hyaenodontid mammals and their bearing on the origin of the Creodonta. Geological Magazine 143 (4): 475–489.

[GP11] Goswami, A., G. V. R. Prasad, P. Upchurch, D. M. Boyer, E. R. Seiffert, O. Verma, E. Gheerbrant & J. J. Flynn. 2011. A radiation of arboreal basal eutherian mammals beginning in the Late Cretaceous of India. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (39): 16333–16338.

[HUG17] Halliday, T. J. D., P. Upchurch & A. Goswami. 2017. Resolving the relationships of Paleocene placental mammals. Biological Reviews 92 (1): 521–550.

[LA02] Long, J., M. Archer, T. Flannery & S. Hand. 2002. Prehistoric Mammals of Australia and New Guinea: One Hundred Million Years of Evolution. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

Luo, Z.-X., C.-X. Yuan, Q.-J. Meng & Q. Ji. 2011. A Jurassic eutherian mammal and divergence of marsupials and placentals. Nature 476: 442-445.

[MHL03] Meng, J., Y. Hu & C. Li. 2003. The osteology of Rhombomylus (Mammalia, Glires): implications for phylogeny and evolution of Glires. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 275: 1–247.

[M-SK04] Moyà-Solà, S., M. Köhler, D. M. Alba, I. Casanovas-Vilar & J. Galindo. 2004. Pierolapithecus catalaunicus, a new Middle Miocene great ape from Spain. Science 306: 1339–1344.

[MC00] Muizon, C. de, & R. L. Cifelli. 2000. The “condylarths” (archaic Ungulata, Mammalia) from the early Palaeocene of Tiupampa (Bolivia): Implications on the origin of the South American ungulates. Geodiversitas 22 (1): 47–150.

[OB13] O'Leary, M. A., J. I. Bloch, J. J. Flynn, T. J. Gaudin, A. Giallombardo, N. P. Giannini, S. L. Goldberg, B. P. Kraatz, Z.-X. Luo, J. Meng, X. Ni, M. J. Novacek, F. A. Perini, Z. S. Randall, G. W. Rougier, E. J. Sargis, M. T. Silcox, N. B. Simmons, M. Spaulding, P. M. Velazco, M. Weksler, J. R. Wible & A. L. Cirranello. 2013. The placental mammal ancestor and the post-K-Pg radiation of placentals. Science 339: 662–667.

[P04] Popov, V. V. 2004. Pliocene small mammals (Mammalia, Lipotyphla, Chiroptera, Lagomorpha, Rodentia) from Muselievo (north Bulgaria). Geodiversitas 26 (3): 403–491.

[PV07] Prasad, G. V. R., O. Verma, A. Sahni, V. Parmar & A. Khosla. 2007. A Cretaceous hoofed mammal from India. Science 318: 937.

[SFY02] Scott, C. S., R. C. Fox & G. P. Youzwyshyn. 2002. New earliest Tiffanian (late Paleocene) mammals from Cochrane 2, southwestern Alberta, Canada. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 47: 691–704.

[S35] Simpson, G. G. 1935. New Paleocene mammals from the Fort Union of Montana. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 83 (2981): 221–244.

[S03] Storch, G. 2003. Fossil Old World “edentates” (Mammalia). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83: 51–60.

[V66] Van Valen, L. 1966. Deltatheridia, a new order of mammals. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 132 (1): 1–126.

[V67] Van Valen, L. 1967. New Paleocene insectivores and insectivore classification. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 135 (5): 217–284.

[WR07] Wible, J. R., G. W. Rougier, M. J. Novacek & R. J. Asher. 2007. Cretaceous eutherians and Laurasian origin for placental mammals near the K/T boundary. Nature 447: 1003–1006

Glires

Fossil of the Upper Oligocene Palaeolagus, from here.


Belongs within: Placentalia.
Contains: Rodentia, Lagomorpha.

Glires is the mammalian clade that unites the Rodentia (rodents) with the Lagomorpha (rabbits, hares and pikas). Members of the clade are mostly smaller herbivorous mammals, and possess enlarged incisors. These incisors are open-rooted and ever-growing.

Synapomorphies (from Meng et al. 2003): Incisor enamel restricted primarily to labial surface; first upper and lower incisors absent; second deciduous lower incisor ever-growing and extended beneath m3 and beyond; second lower incisor replacement absent; second deciduous upper incisor large and extending into maxilla; second upper incisor replacement absent; incisors transversely compressed with rounded anterior surface; upper canine absent; first upper and lower premolars absent; second lower premolar absent; second upper premolar conical; third upper premolar oval in crown view and multicuspate; no centrocrista on upper molars; lower molar paraconid absent; lower diastema significant; horizontal ramus of mandible deep and short with symphysis tapered anteriorly; angular process of mandible expanded; mandibular condyle anteroposteriorly oriented; infraorbital canal short; nasolacrimal foramen between lacrimal and maxilla; nasolacrimal duct lateral to posterior part of incisor; premaxilla on rostrum substantial but tapering anteriorly; posterior edge of anterior zygomatic root aligning with M2 or M1; orbits shifted anteriorly; postglenoid process absent; glenoid fossa anterodorsal.

<==Glires [Mixodontia]
    |--Simplicidentata [Rodentiaformes, Rodentiamorpha] AM05
    |    |--Marfilomys MHL03
    |    |--Rodentia MHL03
    |    `--Alagomyidae MHL03
    |         |--Alagomys MHL03
    |         `--Tribosphenomys MHL03
    |              |--T. minutus WR03
    |              `--T. secundus WR03
    `--Duplicidentata [Lagomorphamorpha, Mimotonida, Mimotonidae] AM05
         |  i. s.: Anatolmylus MHL03
         |         Mytonolagus B74
         |--+--Gomphos elkema AM05
         |  `--+--Mimolagus rodens Bohlin 1951 AM05, MHL03
         |     |--Mimotona wana AM05, WR07
         |     `--+--Desmatolagus AM05
         |        `--Neolagomorpha A99
         |             |--Lagomorpha AM05
         |             `--Palaeolagus Leidy 1856 AM05, A99 [Palaeolagida, Palaeolaginae]
         |                  `--P. haydeni MHL03
         `--Eurymylidae MHL03
              |  i. s.: Zagmys [Zagmyinae] MHL03
              |         Nikolomylus MHL03
              |         Aktashmys MHL03
              |         Khaychina [Khaychininae] MHL03
              |         Hypsimylus [Hypsimylinae] MHL03
              |--Heomys AM05
              `--Eurymylinae MHL03
                   |  i. s.: Asiaparamys MHL03
                   |         Kazygurtia MHL03
                   |         Eomylus MHL03
                   |         Amar MHL03
                   |         Decipomys MHL03
                   |--Eurymylus Matthew & Granger 1925 AM05, MHL03 [incl. Baenomys Matthew & Granger 1925 MHL03]
                   |    `--*E. laticeps Matthew & Granger 1925 [incl. *Baenomys ambiguus Matthew & Granger 1925] MHL03
                   `--Rhombomylidae MHL03
                        |--Matutinia nitidulus [=Rhombomylus nitidulus] MHL03
                        `--Rhombomylus Zhai 1978 AM05, MHL03
                             `--*R. turpanensis Zhai 1978 [incl. R. laianensis Zhai et al. 1976] MHL03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AM05] Asher, R. J., J. Meng, J. R. Wible, M. C. McKenna, G. W. Rougier, D. Dashzeveg & M. J. Novacek. 2005. Stem Lagomorpha and the antiquity of Glires. Science 307: 1091-1094.

[A99] Averianov, A. O. 1999. Phylogeny and classification of Leporidae (Mammalia, Lagomorpha). Vestnik Zoologii 33 (1-2): 41-48.

[B74] Bugge, J. 1974. The cephalic arterial system in insectivores, primates, rodents and lagomorphs, with special reference to the systematic classification. Acta Anatomica 87 (Suppl 62): 1-160.

[MHL03] Meng, J., Y. Hu & C. Li. 2003. The osteology of Rhombomylus (Mammalia, Glires): Implications for phylogeny and evolution of Glires. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 275: 1-247.

[WR07] Wible, J. R., G. W. Rougier, M. J. Novacek & R. J. Asher. 2007. Cretaceous eutherians and Laurasian origin for placental mammals near the K/T boundary. Nature 447: 1003-1006.

Lemuridae

Ring-tailed lemur Lemur catta, photographed by Nigel Dennis.


Belongs within: Lemuriformes.

The Lemuridae contains the typical lemurs, mostly arboreal forms with the most terrestrial being the ring-tailed lemur Lemur catta. Lemurids have a dental formula of i2/2 c1/1 p3/3 m3/3, with the lower canines and incisors forming a forward-projecting comb. The forelimbs are approximately 67-70% the length of the hindlimbs (Pollock et al. 1984).

REFERENCES

Pollock, J. I., A. F. Richard & R. D. Martin. 1984. Lemurs. In All the World’s Animals: Primates (D. Macdonald, ed.) pp. 24-35. Torstar Books: New York.

Caviidae

Brazilian guinea pig Cavia aperea, photographed by David Blank.


Belongs within: Caviomorpha.

The Caviidae include the cavies (Caviinae) and the maras or Patagonian hares (Dolichotis). The best known species is the guinea pig Cavia porcellus, originally domesticated for food in South America but widely kept around the world as a pet.

Characters (from Nowak 1999): Head and body length 200-750 mm, tail vestigial. Dental formula i1/1 c0/0 p1/1 m3/3; incisors short; tooth rows tending to converge anteriorly; cheek teeth rootless with simple pattern of two prisms having sharp folds and angular projections. Four digits on fore foot, three on hind foot.

Caviidae
    |  i. s.: Microcavia GA90
    |           |--M. australis IT07
    |           |--M. niata GA90
    |           `--M. shiptoni IT07
    |         Kerodon rupestris IT07
    |--Dolichotis [Dolichotinae] B74
    |    |--D. patagona B74
    |    `--D. salinicola IT07
    `--Caviinae B74
         |--Galea B74
         |    |--G. flavidens IT07
         |    |--G. musteloides B74
         |    `--G. spixii IT07
         `--Cavia K92
              |--C. aperea GA90
              |--C. cobaya D37
              |--C. fulgida IT07
              |--C. magna IT07
              |--C. porcellus (Linnaeus 1758) K92
              `--C. tschudii IT07

Inorganic: Cavia porcellus minilorientalis Okamura 1987 O87

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B74] Bugge, J. 1974. The cephalic arterial system in insectivores, primates, rodents and lagomorphs, with special reference to the systematic classification. Acta Anatomica 87 (Suppl 62): 1-160.

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[GA90] Glanz, W. E., & S. Anderson. 1990. Notes on Bolivian mammals. 7. A new species of Abrocoma (Rodentia) and relationships of the Abrocomidae. American Museum Novitates 2991: 1-32.

[IT07] Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman & J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PLoS One 2 (3): e296.

[K92] Klompen, J. S. H. 1992. Phylogenetic relationships in the mite family Sarcoptidae (Acari: Astigmata). Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 180: i-vi, 1-154.

Nowak, R. M. 1999. Walker's Mammals of the World. JHU Press.

[O87] Okamura, C. 1987. New facts: Homo and all Vertebrata were born simultaneously in the former Paleozoic in Japan. Original Report of the Okamura Fossil Laboratory 15: 347-573.

Spalacinae

Middle East blind mole rat Spalax ehrenbergi, photographed by Bassem18.


Belongs within: Myomorpha.

The Spalacinae are the blind mole rats, burrowing rodents found in the Mediterranean region. Blind mole rats have small eyes that are covered with skin, and use their robust incisors rather than their feet for digging and their head, with the nose protected by a broad horny pad, for shifting soil (Vaughan et al. 2011).

<==Spalacinae [Spalacidae]
    |--Pliospalax Kormos 1932 P04
    |    |--P. compositidontus P04
    |    |--P. macoveii (Simionescu 1930) [incl. Spalax sotirisi De Bruijn, Dawson & Mein 1970] P04
    |    |--P. odessanus (Topacevsky 1969) P04
    |    `--P. tourkobounensis De Bruijn & Van der Meulen 1975 P04
    `--Spalax B74
         |--S. arenarius IT07
         |--S. ehrenbergi PS06
         |--S. giganteus IT07
         |--S. graecus IT07
         |--S. leucodon B74
         |--S. microphthalmus IT07
         |    |--S. m. microphthalmus BP87
         |    `--S. m. arenarius BP87
         |--S. typhlus T66
         `--S. zemni IT07

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B74] Bugge, J. 1974. The cephalic arterial system in insectivores, primates, rodents and lagomorphs, with special reference to the systematic classification. Acta Anatomica 87 (Suppl 62): 1-160.

[BP87] Burton, J. A., & B. Pearson. 1987. Collins Guide to the Rare Mammals of the World. Collins: London.

[IT07] Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman & J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PLoS One 2 (3): e296.

[PS06] Petersen, S. D., & D. T. Stewart. 2006. Phylogeography and conservation genetics of southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) from Nova Scotia. Journal of Mammalogy 87 (1): 153-160.

[P04] Popov, V. V. 2004. Pliocene small mammals (Mammalia, Lipotyphla, Chiroptera, Lagomorpha, Rodentia) from Muselievo (north Bulgaria). Geodiversitas 26 (3): 403-491.

[T66] Tristram, H. B. 1866. Report on the mammals of Palestine. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 84-93.

Vaughan, T. A., J. M. Ryan & N. J. Czaplewski. 2011. Mammalogy. Jones and Bartlett Learning.

Muridae

Chestnut African climbing mouse Dendromus mystacalis, photographed by B. Stanley.


Belongs within: Myomorpha.
Contains: Oxymycterus, Phyllotis, Oecomys, Rhipidomys, Aethomys, Niviventer, Notomys, Grammomys, Maxomys, Acomys, Alticola, Lemniscomys, Pseudomys, Mus, Praomys, Apodemus, Rattus, Melomys.

The Muridae include the typical Old World rats and mice. Murids ancestrally have non-hypsodont teeth with well-distinct cusps. The largest subgroup, the Murinae, have three files of cusps in the upper teeth, while the African Dendromus usually has only a single internal supplementary cusp in the upper teeth (Lavocat 1978). Species of Dendromus, the African climbing mice, have semi-prehensile tails that they use to steady themselves when climbing into low vegetation. The subfamilies Hydromyinae and Pseudomyinae have been recognised for assemblages of rats and mice from the Australo-Papuan region, but are included by some authors in the Murinae. The water rats Hydromys are large amphibious rodents that feed on aquatic invertebrates and small vertebrates. The Hydromyinae also includes the carnivorous Philippine shrew-rats Chrotomys, Celaenomys and Rhynchomys (Musser 1982).

<==Muridae
    |--Pseudomyinae L73
    |    |--Pseudomys LA02
    |    `--Conilurus L73
    |         |--C. albipes FS01
    |         `--C. penicillatus IT07
    |--Dendromus [Dendromuridae, Dendromurinae] L78
    |    |--D. antiquus L78
    |    |--D. insignis IT07
    |    |--D. kahuziensis IT07
    |    |--D. kivu IT07
    |    |--D. lovati IT07
    |    |--D. melanotis IT07
    |    |--D. mesomelas L78
    |    |--D. messorius IT07
    |    |--D. mystacalis IT07
    |    |--D. nyikae IT07
    |    |--D. oreas IT07
    |    `--D. vernayi IT07
    |--Hydromyinae M82
    |    |--Celaenomys silaceus M82
    |    |--Parahydromys asper L73
    |    |--Crossomys monktoni L73
    |    |--Neohydromys fuscus L73
    |    |--Mayermys ellermani L73
    |    |--Rhynchomys M82
    |    |    |--R. isarogensis M82
    |    |    `--R. soricoides M82
    |    |--Paraleptomys L73
    |    |    |--P. rufilatus IT07
    |    |    `--P. wilhelmina IT07
    |    |--Pseudohydromys L73
    |    |    |--P. murinus IT07
    |    |    `--P. occidentalis IT07
    |    |--Chrotomys M82
    |    |    |--C. gonzalesi IT07
    |    |    |--C. mindorensis IT07
    |    |    `--C. whiteheadi M82
    |    |--Leptomys L73
    |    |    |--L. elegans IT07
    |    |    |--L. ernstmayri IT07
    |    |    `--L. signatus IT07
    |    `--Hydromys M82
    |         |--H. chrysogaster IT07
    |         |--H. grootensis Troughton 1935 R64
    |         |--H. habbema IT07
    |         |--H. hussoni IT07
    |         |--H. lawnensis Troughton 1935 R64
    |         |--H. moae Troughton 1935 R64
    |         |--H. neobritannicus IT07
    |         `--H. shawmayeri IT07
    `--Murinae L07
         |--Progonomys cathalai L78
         |--Mus CV02
         |--Praomys L78
         |--Apodemus B74
         |--Rattus B74
         |--Anisomys imitator L73
         |--Xenuromys barbatus L73, IT07
         |--Melomys L73
         |--Micromys Dehne 1841 L07, P04
         |    `--M. minutus (Pallas 1771) KJ08
         |--Rhagamys Forsyth-Major 1905 AC98
         |    `--*R. orthodon (Hensel 1856) AC98
         |--Paraethomys Petter 1968 L78, P04
         |    |--P. anomalus L78
         |    `--P. miocaenicus L78
         |--Lorentzimys L73
         |    |--L. alticola L73
         |    `--L. nouhuysi IT07
         |--Macruromys L73
         |    |--M. elegans IT07
         |    `--M. major IT07
         |--Hyomys L73
         |    |--H. dammermani IT07
         |    `--H. goliath IT07
         |--Canariomys AC98
         |    |--C. bravoi Crusafont-Pairó & Petter 1964 AC98
         |    `--C. tamarani AC98
         |--Vandeleuria L07
         |    |--V. dumeticola L07
         |    |--V. nolthenii IT07
         |    `--V. olearacea L07
         |--Bandicota Gray 1873 B74, G91
         |    |--B. bengalensis (Gray & Harwicke 1833) K92
         |    |--B. indica (Bechstein 1800) [=Mus indicus, Nesokia indica] G91
         |    `--B. savilei IT07
         |--Crunomys Thomas 1898 M82
         |    |--*C. fallax Thomas 1898 M82
         |    |--C. celebensis Musser 1982 M82
         |    |--C. melanius Thomas 1907 M82
         |    `--C. rabori Musser 1982 M82
         |--Mallomys L73
         |    |--M. aroaensis IT07
         |    |--M. gunung IT07
         |    |--M. istapantap IT07
         |    `--M. rothschildi IT07
         |--Pogonomelomys L73
         |    |--P. bruijni IT07
         |    |--P. mayeri IT07
         |    |--P. ruemmleri L73
         |    `--P. sevia IT07
         |--Leggadina LA02
         |    |--L. forresti IT07
         |    |--L. hermannsburgensis R64
         |    |    |--L. h. hermannsburgensis R64
         |    |    `--L. h. brazenori Troughton 1937 R64
         |    `--L. lakedownensis IT07
         |--Vernaya Anthony 1941 [=Octopodomys Sody 1941] L07
         |    |--*V. fulva (Allen 1927) (see below for synonymy) L07
         |    |--V. giganta L07
         |    |--V. prefulva L07
         |    |--V. pristina L07
         |    `--V. wushanica L07
         |--Epimys R14
         |    |--E. norvegicus [incl. Mus decumanus] R14
         |    `--E. rattus [=Mus rattus] R14
         |         |--E. r. rattus R14
         |         |--E. r. alexandrinus R14
         |         `--‘Mus’ r. rufescens M89
         |--Zyzomys Thomas 1909 LA02
         |    |--*Z. argurus (Thomas 1889) LA02
         |    |--Z. maini IT07
         |    |--Z. palatilis IT07
         |    |--Z. pedunculatus IT07
         |    |--Z. rackhami Godthelp 1997 LA02
         |    `--Z. woodwardi IT07
         |--Pogonomys L73
         |    |--P. championi IT07
         |    |--P. loriae IT07
         |    |--P. macrourus IT07
         |    |--P. mollipilosus BP87
         |    `--P. sylvestris IT07
         |--Mastomys B74
         |    |--M. angolensis IT07
         |    |--M. coucha IT07
         |    |--M. erythroleucus GC05
         |    |--M. hildebrandtii IT07
         |    |--M. huberti GC05
         |    |--M. natalensis GC05
         |    |--M. pernanus IT07
         |    |--M. shortridgei IT07
         |    `--M. verheyeni IT07
         `--Uromys L73
              |--U. anak IT07
              |--U. boeadii AC98
              |--U. caudimaculatus IT07
              |--U. emmae AC98
              |--U. hadrourus IT07
              |--U. imperator FS01
              |--U. neobrittanicus IT07
              |--U. porculus FS01
              `--U. rex IT07

Muridae incertae sedis:
  Oxymycterus IT07
  Phyllotis IT07
  Holochilus K92
    |--H. brasiliensis (Desmarest 1819) K92
    |--H. chacarius IT07
    |--H. magnus IT07
    `--H. sciureus IT07
  Nectomys IT07
    |--N. palmipes IT07
    |--N. parvipes IT07
    |--N. rattus PCS05
    `--N. squamipes IT07
  Oecomys IT07
  Rhipidomys IT07
  Aethomys MCB06
  Eliurus K92
    |--E. ellermani AC98
    |--E. majori IT07
    |--E. minor IT07
    |--E. myoxinus K92
    |--E. penicillatus IT07
    |--E. petteri AC98
    |--E. tanala IT07
    `--E. webbi Milne-Edwards 1885 AC98, K92 [=E. myoxinus webbi K92]
  Calomys K92
    |--C. boliviae IT07
    |--C. callidus IT07
    |--C. callosus IT07
    |--C. hummelincki IT07
    |--C. laucha IT07
    |--C. lepidus IT07
    |--C. musculinus (Thomas 1913) K92
    |--C. sorellus IT07
    `--C. tener IT07
  Arvicanthus K92
    |--A. abyssinicus IT07
    |--A. blicki IT07
    |--A. nairobae IT07
    |--A. niloticus (Desmarest 1822) K92
    `--A. somalicus IT07
  Berylmys K92
    |--B. berdmorei IT07
    |--B. bowersi (Anderson 1879) K92
    |--B. mackenziei IT07
    `--B. manipulus IT07
  Bunomys K92
    |--B. andrewsi M82
    |--B. chrysocomus M82
    |--B. coelestis IT07
    |--B. fratorum IT07
    |--B. heinrichi IT07
    |--B. penitus (Miller & Hollister 1921) [=Rattus penitus] K92
    `--B. prolatus IT07
  Niviventer K92
  Pelomys Peters 1852 K92, P04
    |--P. campanae IT07
    |--P. fallax (Peters 1852) K92
    |--P. hopkinsi IT07
    |--P. isseli IT07
    |--P. minor IT07
    `--P. rex BP87
  Saidomys PS01
  Malacothrix L78
    |--M. makapani L78
    `--M. typica L78
  Mastacomys R64
    |--M. fuscus R64
    |    |--M. f. fuscus R64
    |    `--M. f. brazenori Ride 1956 R64
    `--M. wombeyensis Ride 1956 F71
  Mesembriomys R64
    |--M. gouldii IT07
    |--M. hirsutus R64
    |    |--M. h. hirsutus R64
    |    `--M. h. melvillensis Hayman 1936 R64
    `--M. macrurus IT07
  Notomys R64
  Podanomalus aistoni Brazenor 1934 R64
  Rhagapodemus Kretzoi 1959 P04
    |--R. ballesioi Mein & Michaux 1970 P04
    |--R. frequens Kretzoi 1950 P04
    |    |--R. f. frequens P04
    |    `--R. f. athensis De Bruijn & Van der Meulen 1975 P04
    |--R. hautimagnensis Mein & Michaux 1970 P04
    `--R. wandeweerdi De Bruijn & Van der Meulen 1975 P04
  Sylvaemus Ognev 1923 P04
    |--S. atavus Heller 1936 P04
    |--S. dominans (Kretzoi 1962) (see below for synonymy) P04
    |--S. flavicolis (Melchior 1834) P04
    `--S. sylvaticus (Linnaeus 1758) P04
  Tokudaia osimensis (Abe 1934) IT07, I92
    |--T. o. osimensis I92
    `--T. o. muenninki (Johnson 1946) I92
  Crateromys M82
    |--C. australis IT07
    |--C. heaneyi AC98
    |--C. paulus IT07
    `--C. schadenbergi M82
  Delanymys brooksi IT07
  Leporillus IT07
    |--L. apicalis B08
    `--L. conditor B08
         |--L. c. conditor BP87
         `--L. c. jonesi BP87
  Lamottemys okuensis IT07
  Melasmothrix naso Miller & Hollister 1921 M82
  Coccymys IT07
    |--C. albidens IT07
    `--C. ruemmleri IT07
  Sigmodontomys IT07
    |--S. alfari IT07
    `--S. aphrastus IT07
  Solomys IT07
    |--S. ponceleti IT07
    |--S. salamonis IT07
    |--S. salebrosus IT07
    |--S. sapientis IT07
    `--S. spriggsarum IT07
  Gymnuromys roberti IT07
  Millardia IT07
    |--M. gleadowi IT07
    |--M. kathleenae IT07
    |--M. kondana IT07
    `--M. meltada IT07
  Hybomys IT07
    |--H. basilii IT07
    |--H. eisentrauti IT07
    |--H. lunaris IT07
    |--H. planifrons IT07
    |--H. trivirgatus IT07
    `--H. univittatus IT07
  Stenomys IT07
    |--S. ceramicus IT07
    |--S. niobe IT07
    |--S. richardsoni IT07
    |--S. vandeuseni IT07
    `--S. verecundus IT07
  Grammomys IT07
  Chiropodomys IT07
    |--C. calamianensis IT07
    |--C. gliroides IT07
    |--C. karlkoopmani IT07
    |--C. major IT07
    |--C. muroides IT07
    `--C. pusillus IT07
  Leopoldamys IT07
    |--L. edwardsi IT07
    |--L. neilli IT07 [=Rattus neilli BP87]
    |--L. sabanus IT07
    `--L. siporanus IT07
  Scolomys IT07
    |--S. melanops IT07
    `--S. ucayalensis IT07
  Maxomys IT07
  Acomys IT07
  Sundamys IT07
    |--S. infraluteus IT07
    |--S. maxi IT07
    `--S. muelleri IT07
  Xeromys myoides IT07
  Nannospalax IT07
    |--N. ehrenbergi IT07
    |--N. leucodon IT07
    `--N. nehringi IT07
  Eropeplus canus IT07, M82
  Paruromys IT07
    |--P. dominator M82
    `--P. ursinus IT07
  Tryphomys adustus IT07
  Dinaromys bogdanovi IT07
  Haeromys IT07
    |--H. margarettae IT07
    |--H. minahassae IT07
    `--H. pusillus IT07
  Beamys IT07
    |--B. hindei IT07
    `--B. major IT07
  Rhagomys rufescens IT07
  Cremnomys IT07
    |--C. blanfordi IT07
    |--C. cutchicus IT07
    `--C. elvira IT07
  Archboldomys Musser 1982 M82
    `--*A. luzonensis Musser 1982 M82
  Taeromys IT07
    |--T. arcuatus IT07
    |--T. callitrichus M82
    |--T. celebensis M82
    |--T. hamatus M82
    |--T. punicans IT07
    `--T. taerae IT07
  Tarsomys IT07
    |--T. apoensis IT07
    `--T. echinatus IT07
  Volemys IT07
    |--V. clarkei IT07
    |--V. kikuchii IT07
    |--V. millicens IT07
    `--V. musseri IT07
  Margaretamys IT07
    |--M. beccarii IT07
    |--M. elegans M82
    `--M. parvus M82
  Tateomys M82
    |--T. macrocercus Musser 1982 M82
    `--T. rhinogradoides M82
  Thamnomys IT07
    |--T. kempi IT07
    `--T. venustus IT07
  Phaulomys IT07
    |--P. andersoni IT07
    `--P. smithii IT07
  Myospalax IT07
    |--M. aspalax IT07
    |--M. epsilanus IT07
    |--M. fontanierii IT07
    |--M. myospalax MN02
    |--M. psilurus IT07
    |--M. rothschildi IT07
    `--M. smithii IT07
  Stenocephalemys IT07
    |--S. albocaudata IT07
    `--S. griseicauda IT07
  Hylomyscus IT07
    |--H. aeta IT07
    |--H. alleni IT07
    |--H. baeri IT07
    |--H. carillus IT07
    |--H. denniae IT07
    |--H. parvus IT07
    `--H. stella IT07
  Brachyuromys IT07
    |--B. betsileoensis IT07
    `--B. ramirohitra IT07
  Mylomys dybowskii IT07
  Microdillus peeli IT07
  Myopus schisticolor IT07
  Komodomys rintjanus IT07
  Papagomys IT07
    |--P. armandvillei IT07
    `--P. theodorverhoeveni BP87
  Phloeomys M82
    |--P. cumingi M82
    |--P. elegans BP87
    `--P. pallidus IT07
  Saccostomus IT07
    |--S. campestris IT07
    `--S. mearnsi IT07
  Brachytarsomys IT07
    |--B. albicauda IT07
    `--B. villosa AC98
  Hapalomys IT07
    |--H. delacouri IT07
    `--H. longicaudatus IT07
  Dasymys IT07
    |--D. foxi IT07
    |--D. incomtus IT07
    |--D. montanus IT07
    |--D. nudipes IT07
    `--D. rufulus IT07
  Myomys IT07
    |--M. albipes IT07
    |--M. daltoni IT07
    |--M. derooi IT07
    |--M. fumatus IT07
    |--M. ruppi IT07
    |--M. verreauxii IT07
    `--M. yemeni IT07
  Microhydromys IT07
    |--M. musseri IT07
    `--M. richardsoni IT07
  Chionomys IT07
    |--C. gud IT07
    |--C. nivalis IT07
    `--C. roberti IT07
  Juscelinomys N10
    |--J. candango Moojen 1965 N10
    `--J. talpinus IT07
  Phaenomys ferrugineus IT07
  Cansumys canus IT07
  Tscherskia triton IT07
  Rhombomys opimus IT07
  Alticola IT07
  Lophuromys IT07
    |--L. cinereus IT07
    |--L. flavopunctatus IT07
    |--L. luteogaster IT07
    |--L. medicaudatus IT07
    |--L. melanonyx IT07
    |--L. nudicaudus IT07
    |--L. rahmi IT07
    |--L. sikapusi IT07
    `--L. woosnami IT07
  Malacomys N10
    |--M. cansdalei IT07
    |--M. edwardsi IT07
    |--M. longipes IT07
    |--M. lukolelae IT07
    `--M. verschureni IT07
  Lasiopodomys IT07
    |--L. brandtii IT07
    |--L. fuscus IT07
    `--L. mandarinus IT07
  Eolagurus IT07
    |--E. luteus IT07
    `--E. przewalskii IT07
  Blanfordimys IT07
    |--B. afghanus IT07
    `--B. bucharicus IT07
  Brachiones przewalskii IT07
  Sekeetamys calurus IT07
  Proedromys bedfordi IT07
  Parotomys IT07
    |--P. brantsii IT07
    `--P. littledalei IT07
  Prometheomys schaposchnikovi Satunin 1901 IT07, P04
  Desmodillus auricularis IT07
  Desmodilliscus braueri IT07
  Deomys ferrugineus IT07
  Allocricetulus IT07
    |--A. curtatus IT07
    `--A. eversmanni IT07
  Scapteromyini N10
    |--Scapteromys tumidus IT07
    |--Kunsia N10
    |    |--K. fronto IT07
    |    `--K. tomentosus IT07
    `--Bibimys N10
         |--B. chacoensis IT07
         |--B. labiosus (Winge 1887) [=Scapteromys labiosus] N10
         `--B. torresi IT07
  Nesoryzomys IT07
    |--N. darwini PYM75
    |--N. fernandinae IT07
    |--N. indefessus PYM75
    `--N. swarthi IT07
  Psammomys IT07
    |--P. myosurus T66
    |--P. obesus IT07
    |--P. tamaricinus T66
    `--P. vexillaris IT07
  Echiothrix leucura M82
  Nesokia Gray 1842 IT07, G91
    |--*N. indica (Gray & Hardwicke 1830) (see below for synonymy) G91
    `--N. bunnii IT07
  Pithecheir IT07
    |--P. melanurus IT07
    `--P. parvus IT07
  Apomys M82
    |--A. abrae IT07
    |--A. datae M82
    |--A. gracilirostris AC98
    |--A. hylocoetes IT07
    |--A. insignis M82
    |--A. littoralis IT07
    |--A. microdon M82
    |--A. musculus M82
    `--A. sacobianus IT07
  Neacomys IT07
    |--N. guianae IT07
    |--N. pictus IT07
    |--N. spinosus IT07
    `--N. tenuipes IT07
  Hyperacrius IT07
    |--H. fertilis IT07
    `--H. wynnei IT07
  Uranomys ruddi IT07
  Dephomys IT07
    |--D. defua IT07
    `--D. eburnea IT07
  Chroeomys IT07
    |--C. andinus IT07
    `--C. jelskii IT07
  Abditomys latidens IT07
  Limnomys sibuanus IT07
  Thallomys IT07
    |--T. loringi IT07
    |--T. nigricauda IT07
    |--T. paedulcus IT07
    `--T. shortridgei IT07
  Taterillus IT07
    |--T. arenarius IT07
    |--T. congicus IT07
    |--T. emini IT07
    |--T. gracilis GC05
    |--T. harringtoni IT07
    |--T. lacustris IT07
    |--T. petteri IT07
    `--T. pygargus IT07
  Aepeomys IT07
    |--A. fuscatus IT07
    `--A. lugens IT07
  Chiruromys IT07
    |--C. forbesi IT07
    |--C. lamia IT07
    `--C. vates IT07
  Gerbillurus IT07
    |--G. paeba IT07
    |--G. setzeri IT07
    |--G. tytonis IT07
    `--G. vallinus IT07
  Batomys M82
    |--B. dentatus M82
    |--B. granti IT07
    `--B. salomonseni IT07
  Bullimus M82
    |--B. bagobus M82
    |--B. barkeri M82
    |--B. luzonicus M82
    `--B. rabori M82
  Oenomys IT07
    |--O. hypoxanthus IT07
    `--O. ornatus IT07
  Delomys IT07
    |--D. dorsalis IT07
    `--D. sublineatus IT07
  Diplothrix legatus (Thomas 1906) IT07, I92
  Muriculus imberbis IT07
  Palawanomys furvus IT07
  Lemniscomys IT07
  Phodopus IT07
    |--P. campbelli MN02
    |--P. roborovskii MN02
    `--P. sungorus MN02
  Graomys IT07
    |--G. domorum IT07
    |--G. edithae IT07
    `--G. griseoflavus IT07
  Auliscomys IT07
    |--A. boliviensis IT07
    |--A. micropus IT07
    |--A. pictus IT07
    `--A. sublimis IT07
  Lenomys meyeri IT07
  Zelotomys IT07
    |--Z. hildegardeae IT07
    `--Z. woosnami IT07
  Euneomys IT07
    |--E. chinchilloides IT07
    |--E. fossor IT07
    |--E. mordax IT07
    `--E. petersoni IT07
  Pseudoryzomys simplex (Winge 1887) IT07, N10 [=Hesperomys simplex N10; incl. Oryzomys wavrini N10]
  Melanomys IT07
    |--M. caliginosus IT07
    |--M. robustulus IT07
    `--M. zunigae IT07
  Arborimus IT07
    |--A. albipes IT07 [=Phenacomys albipes BP87]
    |--A. longicaudus IT07 [incl. A. silvicola J68]
    `--A. pomo Johnson & George 1991 N10
  Eligmodontia IT07
    |--E. moreni IT07
    |--E. morgani IT07
    |--E. puerulus IT07
    `--E. typus IT07
  Chelemys IT07
    |--C. macronyx IT07
    `--C. megalonyx IT07
  Microryzomys IT07
    |--M. altissimus IT07
    `--M. minutus IT07
  Thalpomys IT07
    |--T. cerradensis IT07
    `--T. lasiotis IT07
  Wilfredomys IT07
    |--W. oenax IT07
    `--W. pictipes IT07
  Zygodontomys IT07
    |--Z. brevicauda IT07
    `--Z. brunneus IT07
  Blarinomys breviceps IT07
  Lenoxus apicalis IT07
  Podoxymys roraimae IT07
  Anonymomys mindorensis IT07
  Bolomys IT07
    |--B. amoenus IT07
    |--B. lactens IT07
    |--B. lasiurus IT07
    |--B. obscurus IT07
    |--B. punctulatus IT07
    `--B. temchuki IT07
  Andinomys edax IT07
  Chilomys instans IT07
  Chinchillula sahamae IT07
  Galenomys garleppi IT07 [=Phyllotis garleppi BP87]
  Geoxus valdivianus IT07
  Irenomys tarsalis IT07
  Neotomys ebriosus IT07
  Notiomys edwardsii IT07
  Punomys lemminus IT07
  Reithrodon auritus IT07
  Wiedomys pyrrhorhinos IT07
  Diomys crumpi IT07
  Kadarsanomys sodyi IT07 [=Lenothrix canus sodyi BP87]
  Srilankamys ohiensis IT07
  Chiromyscus chiropus IT07
  Colomys goslingi IT07
  Dacnomys millardi IT07
  Desmomys harringtoni IT07
  Golunda ellioti IT07
  Hadromys humei IT07
  Heimyscus fumosus IT07
  Lenothrix canus IT07 [=Rattus canus BP87]
  Rhabdomys pumilio IT07
  Stochomys longicaudatus IT07
  Leimacomys buettneri IT07
  Ammodillus imbellis IT07
  Dendroprionomys rousseloti IT07
  Megadendromus nikolausi IT07
  Prionomys batesi IT07
  Carpomys M82
    |--C. melanurus M82
    `--C. phaeurus IT07
  Nilopegamys plumbeus N10
  Amphinectomys savamis Malygin et al. 1994 N10
  Pearsonomys annectans Patterson 1992 N10
  Microakodontomys transitorius Hershkovitz 1993 N10
  Paulamys Musser et al. 1986 N10
    `--P. naso (Musser 1981) [=Floresomys naso] N10
  Lundomys molitor (Winge 1887) [=Hesperomys molitor; incl. Holochilus magnus] N10
  Ellobius IT07
    |--E. alaicus IT07
    |--E. fuscocapillus IT07
    |--E. lutescens IT07
    |--E. talpinus IT07
    `--E. tancrei IT07

*Nesokia indica (Gray & Hardwicke 1830) [=Arvicola indica non Mus indicus Bechstein 1800 (not preoc. if in dif. gen), N. hardwickei (Gray 1837)] G91

Sylvaemus dominans (Kretzoi 1962) [=Apodemus dominans; incl. A. occitanus Pasquier 1974, Sylvaemus occitanus] P04

*Vernaya fulva (Allen 1927) [=Chiropodomys fulvus, *Octopodomys fulvus; incl. Vernaya foramena Wang, Hu & Chen 1980] L07

*Type species of generic name indicated

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[B08] Baynes, A. 2008. The original non-volant land mammal fauna of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 25-31.

[B74] Bugge, J. 1974. The cephalic arterial system in insectivores, primates, rodents and lagomorphs, with special reference to the systematic classification. Acta Anatomica 87 (Suppl 62): 1-160.

[BP87] Burton, J. A., & B. Pearson. 1987. Collins Guide to the Rare Mammals of the World. Collins: London.

[CV02] Cucchi, T., J.-D. Vigne, J.-C. Auffray, P. Croft & E. Peltenburg. 2002. Introduction involontaire de la souris domestique (Mus musculus domesticus) à Chypre dès le Néolithique précéramique ancien (fin IXe et VIIIe millénaires av. J.-C.) Comptes Rendus Palevol 1: 235-241.

[FS01] Flannery, T. & P. Schouten. 2001. A Gap in Nature: Discovering the World’s Extinct Animals. Text Publishing: Melbourne.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1-167.

[GC05] Granjon, L., J.-F. Cosson, E. Quesseveur & B. Sicard. 2005. Population dynamics of the multimammate rat Mastomys huberti in an annually flooded agricultural region of central Mali. Journal of Mammalogy 86 (5): 997-1008.

[G91] Groves, C. P. 1991. A Theory of Human and Primate Evolution, revised ed. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[IT07] Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman & J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PloS One 2 (3): e296.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[J68] Johnson, M. L. 1968. Application of blood protein electrophoretic studies to problems in mammalian taxonomy. Systematic Zoology 17 (1): 23-30.

[K92] Klompen, J. S. H. 1992. Phylogenetic relationships in the mite family Sarcoptidae (Acari: Astigmata). Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 180: i-vi, 1-154.

[KJ08] Krämer, M. & M. Jentzsch. 2008. Kleinsäuger-Vorkommen aus dem Raum Zeitz—eine vergleichende Studie. Mauritiana 20 (2): 411-427.

[L78] Lavocat, L. 1978. Rodentia and Lagomorpha. In Evolution of African Mammals (V. J. Maglio & H. B. S. Cooke, eds) pp. 69-89. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[L73] Lidicker, W. Z., Jr. 1973. A phenetic analysis of some New Guinea rodents. Systematic Zoology 22 (1): 36-45.

[LA02] Long, J., M. Archer, T. Flannery & S. Hand. 2002. Prehistoric Mammals of Australia and New Guinea: One Hundred Million Years of Evolution. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[L07] Lunde, D. P. 2007. Vernaya fulva. Mammalian Species 806: 1-3.

[M89] Modigliani, E. 1889. Appunti intorno ai mammiferi dell’isola Nias. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 238-245.

[MN02] Moshkin, M. P., E. A. Novikov, I. E. Kolosova, A. V. Surov, A. Y. Telitsina & O. A. Osipova. 2002. Adrenocortical and bioenergetic responses to cold in five species of murine rodent. Journal of Mammalogy 83 (2): 458-466.

[M82] Musser, G. G. 1982. Results of the Archbold Expeditions. No. 110. Crunomys and the small-bodied shrew rats native to the Philippine Islands and Sulawesi (Celebes). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 174 (1): 1-95.

[MCB06] Muteka, S. P., C. T. Chimimba & N. C. Bennett. 2006. Reproductive seasonality in Aethomys namaquensis (Rodentia: Muridae) from southern Africa. Journal of Mammalogy 87 (1): 67-74.

[N10] Naish, D. 2010. Tetrapod Zoology: Book One. CFZ Press: Bideford (UK).

[PYM75] Patton, J. L., S. Y. Yang & P. Myers. 1975. Genetic and morphologic divergence among introduced rat populations (Rattus rattus) of the Galápagos Archipelago, Ecuador. Systematic Zoology 24 (3): 296-310.

[PCS05] Percequillo, A. R., A. P. Carmignotto & M. J. de J. Silva. 2005. A new species of Neusticomys (Ichthyomyini, Sigmodontinae) from central Brazilian Amazonia. Journal of Mammalogy 86 (5): 873-880.

[PS01] Pickford, M., & B. Senut. 2001. The geological and faunal context of Late Miocene hominid remains from Lukeino, Kenya. Comptes Rendus de L’Academie des Sciences—Series IIA—Earth and Planetary Sciences 332: 145-152.

[P04] Popov, V. V. 2004. Pliocene small mammals (Mammalia, Lipotyphla, Chiroptera, Lagomorpha, Rodentia) from Muselievo (north Bulgaria). Geodiversitas 26 (3): 403-491.

[R14] Revilliod, P. 1914. Les mammifères de la Nouvell-Calédonie et des îles Loyalty. In Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1, Heft IV (F. Sarasin & J. Roux, eds) pp. 341-365, pl. 10. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[R64] Ride, W. D. L. 1964. A list of mammals described from Australia between the years 1933 and 1963 (comprising newly proposed names and additions to the Australian faunal list). Australian Mammal Society Bulletin 7 (Suppl.): 1-15.

[T66] Tristram, H. B. 1866. Report on the mammals of Palestine. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 84-93.