Helicarionidae

Cuvier's semi-slug Helicarion cuvieri, from Abbey Throssell & Mark Wapstra.


Belongs within: Stylommatophora.

The Helicarionidae are a family of herbivorous snails found on Southern Hemisphere landmasses, mostly in rainforests.

Characters (from Stanisic et al. 2010): Shells small to large, up to 30 mm in diameter, either well developed and helicoid, or ear-shaped or reduced to simple plate of few whorls (in semi-slugs); helicoid shells discoidal and trochoidal to globose; whorls rounded, shouldered, angulate or keeled, sutures barely to moderately impressed; apertural lip usually simple and unreflected; sculpture usually spiral grooves or threads that may be simple incised striae or notched along their length; often pronounced differences in sculpture intensity and form between protoconch and teleoconch. Periostracum well-developed; shall may be barely calcified in semi-slugs. Umbilicus vary narrow or non-existent. Aperture lunate or elliptical, or very wide. Snails with pronounced caudal gland and associated caudal horn at tip of tail. Foot tripartite, with distinct fringe-like border; two well-developed shell lappets usually present that may fully cover shell when extended; semi-slugs also with two mantle lobes partially covering shell, mantle lobes divided at pneumostome. Mucus usually thick and often strongly coloured. Foot long and thin when extended.

<==Helicarionidae [Helixarionidae]
    |  i. s.: Thularion Stanisic 1993 S95
    |         Maladena suturalis (Odhner 1917) S95
    |         Eungarion Stanisic 1993 S95
    |           `--E. mcdonaldi Stanisic 1993 S95
    |         Fastosarion Iredale 1933 [incl. Vercularion Iredale 1933] S95
    |           |--*F. superba (Cox 1871) [=Vitrina superba, Helicarion (Fastosarion) superba] S95
    |           |--F. aquila SC07
    |           |--F. aquavitae Scott 1995 S95
    |           `--F. helenkingae Scott 1995 S95
    |         Wilhelminaia mathildae Preston 1913 KKW12
    |--Durgellinae [Durgellidae] BR05
    |    |--Girasia Gray 1855 [Girasii, Girasiidae, Girasiinae, Girasiini] BR05
    |    `--Durgellini [Durgelli] BR05
    |         |--Durgella Blanford 1863 BR05
    |         |--Satiella Godwin-Austen 1908 [Satiellini] BR05
    |         |--Sitala Adams 1865 [Sitalidae, Sitalinae] BR05
    |         |    `--S. wilcoxi (Cox 1865) S95
    |         `--Sophina Benson 1859 [Sophininae, Sophinini] BR05
    |              |--S. calias (Benson 1859) [=Helix calias] TC89
    |              `--S. forabilis TC89
    `--Helicarioninae BR05
         |--Pseudotrochatella Nevill 1881 [Pseudotrochatellinae] BR05
         |--Erepta Albers 1850 [Ereptinae] BR05
         |--Xesta Albers 1850 [Xestidae, Xestinae] BR05
         |--Epiglypta Pilsbry 1893 [Epiglyptidae] BR05
         |--Gudeoconcha Iredale 1944 [Gudeoconchidae] BR05
         |--Westracystis Iredale 1939 S88
         |    |--W. fredaslini Solem 1982 S88
         |    `--W. lissus (Smith 1894) (see below for synonymy) KKW12
         |--Sesara Albers 1860 [Sesarinae] BR05
         |    |--S. capessens [=Nanina (Sesara) capessens, Helix capessens] TC89
         |    |--S. falcata (Blanford 1870) [=Helix falcatus, Nanina (Sesara) falcata] TC89
         |    `--S. pylaica [=Nanina (Sesara) pylaica] TC89
         |--Nitor Gude 1911 [Nitoridae] BR05
         |    |--N. graftonensis SC07
         |    |--N. medioximus SC07
         |    |--N. pudibunda SC07
         |    `--N. subrugata SC07
         `--Helicarion Férussac 1821 S95 [=Helixarion (l. c.) BR05; Helicarionini]
              |  i. s.: H. magnificum TC89
              |         H. shillongensis TC89
              |--*H. (Helicarion) cuvieri S95
              `--H. (Austenia) TC89
                   |--H. (A.) butleri (see below for synonymy) TC89
                   |--H. (A.) feae Tapparone Canefri 1889 TC89
                   |--H. (A.) peguensis Theobald 1864 [=Vitrina peguensis, Girasia peguensis] TC89
                   `--H. (A.) resplendens Nevill 1877 TC89

Helicarion (Austenia) butleri [=Girasia butleri, incl. Austenia gigas Godwin Austen 1880, H. gigas var. minor Godwin Austen 1875] TC89

Westracystis lissus (Smith 1894) [=Lamprocystis lissa, Microcystis lissa; incl. Westracystis tentus Iredale 1939] KKW12

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BR05] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, J. Frýda, B. Hausdorf, W. Ponder, Á. Valdés & A. Warén. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1-2): 1-397.

[KKW12] Köhler, F., V. Kessner & C. Whisson. 2012. New records of non-marine, non-camaenid gastropods (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from islands off the Kimberley coast, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (1): 21-39.

[S95] Scott, B. 1995. Redescription of Fastosarion superba (Cox, 1871), with descriptions of two new species of Fastosarion from northern Queensland (Pulmonata: Helicarionidae). Molluscan Research 16: 69-80.

[S88] Solem, A. 1988. Non-camaenid land snails of the Kimberley and Northern Territory, Australia. I. Systematics, affinities and ranges. Invertebrate Taxonomy 4: 455-604.

[SC07] Stanisic, J., R. A. D. Cameron, B. M. Pokryszko & J. C. Nekola. 2007. Forest snail faunas from S. E. Queensland and N. E. New South Wales (Australia): patterns of local and regional richness and differentiation. Malacologia 49 (2): 445-462.

Stanisic, J., M. Shea, D. Potter & O. Griffiths. 2010. Australian Land Snails vol. 1. A field guide to eastern Australian species. Bioculture Press: Mauritius.

[TC89] Tapparone Canefri, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XVIII. – Molluschi terrestri e d'acqua dolce. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 295-359.

1 comment:

  1. Thank you so much for that wonderful description. it helped a lot o my thesis

    ReplyDelete

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