Field of Science

Gelechioidea

Marsh dowd Blastobasis rebeli, photographed by Bob Foreman.


Belongs within: Ditrysia.
Contains: Ethmiinae, Agapalsini, Borkhausenia, Gymnobathra.

The Gelechioidea is a hyperdiverse group of moths, generally characterised by the presence of a densely scaled proboscis. Approximately 16,500 species are known within the clade, with a correspondingly high diversity of lifestyles, with larvae being phytophagous, detritivorous or even parasitic (Grimaldi & Engel 2005).

See also: The butterflies get all the glory (Taxon of the Week: Gelechioidea).

Characters (from Nielsen & Common 1991): Ocelli present or absent; chaetosemata absent; scape often with pecten; proboscis with dense, imbricated scales towards base, rarely reduced; maxillary palps small, mostly 4-segmented, folded over base of proboscis, rarely reduced; labial palps usually recurved, apical segment often exceeding vertex, usually tapering, acute; epiphysis usually present; spurs 0-2-4; fore wing with M rarely present in discal cell, chorda vestigial or absent, retinaculum in female often subcubital; hind wing with venation sometimes reduced, CuA rarely with basal pecten of hairs, CuP often absent, female frenulum usually with three bristles; S2 of tineid type; abdomen often with prominent dorsal spines. Larva with 3 L setae on prothorax, crochets in a circle, penellipse, or rarely in two transverse rows, abdominal setae L1 and L2 approximated; concealed feeders, case-bearing, tunnelling in stems or fruits, gall-forming, leaf-ming, joining foliage, or feeding beneath silken shelter. Pupa usually with labial palps and fore femora concealed, without dorsal abdominal spines, usually segments 5-7 movable in male, 5-6 in female; usually in larval shelter, not protruded from shelter or cocoon at ecdysis.

<==Gelechioidea
    |--Metachandidae DS73
    |--Anomologidae DS73
    |--Pterolonchidae DS73
    |--Physoptilidae DS73
    |--Strepsimanidae DS73
    |--Agonoxena B88 [Agonoxenidae DS73]
    |    `--A. argaula B88
    |--Lecithoceridae ZS10
    |    |--Lecithocera micromela M83
    |    `--Crocanthes ZS10
    |         |--C. perigrapta P27c
    |         `--C. sidonia ZS10
    |--Cosmopterigidae GE05
    |    |--Pyroderces deliciosella M27, P27c
    |    |--Cosmopteryx mimetis P27c
    |    |--Glaphyristis marmarea P27c
    |    |--Trachydora droserodes P27c
    |    |--Euclemensia GE05
    |    |--Hyposmocoma O94
    |    |--Macrobathra diplochrysa ZS10, P27c
    |    |--Morphotica mirifica ZS10
    |    `--Thectophila Meyrick 1927 M27
    |         `--*T. acmotypa Meyrick 1927 M27
    |--Blastobasis F05 [Blastobasidae DS73]
    |    |--B. bassii Karsholt & Sinev 2004 F05
    |    |--B. laurisilvae Karsholt & Sinev 2004 F05
    |    |--B. luteella Karsholt & Sinev 2004 F05
    |    |--B. rebeli Karsholt & sinev 2004 F05
    |    |--B. serradaguae Karsholt & Sinev 2004 F05
    |    |--B. splendens Karsholt & Sinev 2004 F05
    |    |--B. subdivisus Karsholt & Sinev 2004 F05
    |    |--B. virgatella Karsholt & Sinev 2004 F05
    |    |--B. walsinghami Karsholt & Sinev 2004 F05
    |    |--B. wolffi Karsholt & Sinev 2004 F05
    |    `--B. wollastoni Karsholt & Sinev 2004 F05
    |--Elachistidae GE05
    |    |  i. s.: Cosmiotes archaeonoma M83
    |    |         Elachista P27c
    |    |           |--E. archaeonoma P27c
    |    |           |--E. exaula P27c
    |    |           |--E. ombrodoca P27c
    |    |           `--E. thallophora P27c
    |    |--Ethmiinae K07
    |    `--Stenomatinae [Stenomatidae] E03
    |         |--Agriophara Rosenstock 1885 E03
    |         |    `--*A. cinerosa E03
    |         `--Eriogenes Meyrick 1925 E03
    |              |--*E. mesogypsa Meyrick 1925 E03
    |              |--E. cossoides (Butler 1882) [=Phanaca cossoides; incl. E. meyricki Duckworth 1973] E03
    |              `--E. nielseni Edwards 2003 E03
    |--Coleophoridae GE05
    |    |  i. s.: Coleophora F05
    |    |           |--C. frischella B88
    |    |           |--C. laricella F62
    |    |           `--C. lusitanica Baldizzone & Corley 2004 F05
    |    |         Batrachedra [Batrachedridae] P27c
    |    |           |--B. agaura P27c
    |    |           `--B. psithyra L27
    |    |         Multicoloria YS10
    |    |           |--M. eucoleos YS10
    |    |           `--M. singreni YS10
    |    |--Agapalsini F05
    |    `--Systrophoecini F05
    |         |--Systrophoeca Falkovitsh 1972 F05
    |         |--Orghidania F05
    |         `--Suireia F05
    |--Xyloryctidae DS73
    |    |--Xylorycta melaleuca P27c
    |    |--Lichenaula lichenea P27c
    |    |--Telecrates laetiorella P27c
    |    |--Odites pudica P27c
    |    |--Procometes hylonoma P27c
    |    |--Agriophora confertella P27c
    |    |--Chalarotona intatescens P27c
    |    |--Scieropepla reversella P27c
    |    |--Eschatura lemurias P27c
    |    |--Uzucha humeralis P27c
    |    |--Catoryctis eugramma P27c
    |    |--Maroga unipunctana P27c
    |    |--Neodrepta luteotactella P27c
    |    `--Cryptophaga P27c
    |         |--C. nubila P27c
    |         `--C. rubescens P27c
    |--Gelechiidae GE05
    |    |--Apatetris melanombra P27c
    |    |--Aristotelia furtiva P27c
    |    |--Anacampsis simplicella P27c
    |    |--Macrenches clerica P27c
    |    |--Stegasta variana P27c
    |    |--Anaptilora eremias P27c
    |    |--Protolechia micropa P27c
    |    |--Cymatomorpha euplecta P27c
    |    |--Dichomeris capnitis P27c
    |    |--Thiotricha tetraphala P27c
    |    |--Gelechia monophragma P27c
    |    |--Arega GE05
    |    |--Ardozyga stratifera ZS10
    |    |--Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders 1843) NS84, GT12
    |    |--Pexicopia malvella YS10
    |    |--Tachyptilia disquei YS10
    |    |--Plodia C90
    |    |--Chaliniastis astrapaea ZS10
    |    |--Hypatima spathota ZS10
    |    |--Phthorimaea P27a
    |    |    |--P. operculella B88
    |    |    |--P. quieta Philpott 1927 P27a
    |    |    `--P. thyraula P27a
    |    `--Bryotropha F05
    |         |--B. heckfordi Karsholt & Rutten 2005 F05
    |         |--B. sutteri Karsholt & Rutten 2005 F05
    |         `--B. wolschrijni Karsholt & Rutten 2005 F05
    `--Oecophoridae [Depressariidae] GE05
         |--Tingena DGH93
         |--Borkhausenia P27a
         |--Petalanthes M27
         |--Gymnobathra P27b
         |--Eulechria baryptera P27c
         |--Nymphostola galactina P27c
         |--Ochlogenes advectella P27c
         |--Machaeritis aegrella P27c
         |--Oxythecta acceptella P27c
         |--Coeranica isabella P27c
         |--Pleurota psammoxantha P27c
         |--Saropla philocala P27c
         |--Protomacha chalcaspis P27c
         |--Chezala conjunctella P27c
         |--Lophopepla igniferella P27c
         |--Zonopetala clerota P27c
         |--Callithauma pyrites P27c
         |--Eupselia satrapella P27c
         |--Eutorna pabulicola P27c
         |--Thudaca obliquella P27c
         |--Endorsis lactella P27c
         |--Schiffermuelleria orthopanes P27c
         |--Leptocroca meselectra P27c
         |--Euchersadaula lathriopa P27c
         |--Euthictis chloratma P27c
         |--Thamnosara sublitella P27c
         |--Telanepsia AY04
         |--Agonopterix alstromeriana P04
         |--Thyrocopa O94
         |--Opisina arnosella [incl. Nephantis serinopa] YS10
         |--Pseudaegeria ZS10
         |--Hoplomorpha abalienella ZS10
         |--Euchaetis ZS10
         |--Habroscopa iriodes ZS10
         |--Corocosma Meyrick 1927 M27
         |    `--*C. memorabilis Meyrick 1927 M27
         |--Piloprepes ZS10
         |    |--P. antidoxa ZS10
         |    `--P. lophoptera P27c
         |--Wingia ZS10
         |    |--W. aurata ZS10
         |    `--W. lambertella P27c
         |--Hierodoris H04
         |    |--H. atychioides H04
         |    `--H. frigida P27c
         |--Proteodes M27
         |    |--P. carnifex P27c
         |    `--P. melagrapha Meyrick 1927 M27
         |--Lathicrossa M27
         |    |--L. leucocentra P27c
         |    `--L. prophetica Meyrick 1927 M27
         |--Machimia P27c
         |    |--M. carnea P27c
         |    `--M. zatrephes P27c
         |--Philobota P27c
         |    |--P. disjunctella P27c
         |    `--P. xiphostola P27c
         |--Cryptolechia P27c
         |    |--C. liochroa P27c
         |    `--C. radiosella P27c
         |--Barea P27c
         |    |--B. ambigua L27
         |    |--B. confusella L27
         |    `--B. leucocephala P27c
         |--Coesyra P27c
         |    |--C. apora P27c
         |    |--C. dichroella P27c
         |    `--C. paulinella P27c
         |--Atomotricha P27c
         |    |--A. chloronota P27c
         |    |--A. exsomnis P27c
         |    `--A. ommatias L27
         |--Depressaria GE05
         |    |--D. daucella H91
         |    |--D. depressella H91
         |    `--D. pastinacella Retzius 1783 P04
         |--Trachypepla M27
         |    |--T. anastrella L27
         |    |--T. aspidephora L27
         |    |--T. conspicuella L27
         |    |--T. contritella P27c
         |    |--T. euryleucota T27
         |    |--T. indolescens Meyrick 1927 M27
         |    `--T. photinella M27
         `--Izatha P27c
              |--I. attactella L27
              |--I. convulsella L27
              |--I. epiphanes P27c
              |--I. mira L27
              |--I. peroneanella L27
              |--I. picarella L27
              `--I. planetella L27

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AY04] Austin, A. D., D. K. Yeates, G. Cassis, M. J. Fletcher, J. La Salle, J. F. Lawrence, P. B. McQuillan, L. A. Mound, D. J. Bickel, P. J. Gullan, D. F. Hales & G. S. Taylor. 2004. Insects 'Down Under' - diversity, endemism and evolution of the Australian insect fauna: examples from select orders. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 216-234.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[C90] Crawford, C. S. 1990. Scorpiones, Solifugae, and associated desert taxa. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 421-475. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[DGH93] Daugherty, C. H., G. W. Gibbs & R. A. Hitchmough. 1993. Mega-island or micro-continent? New Zealand and its fauna. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 8 (12): 437-442.

[DS73] Dickens, M., & E. Storey. 1973. The World of Moths. Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc.: New York.

[E03] Edwards, E. D. 2003. A review of the genus Eriogenes Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae: Stenomatinae) in Australia. Invertebrate Systematics 17: 67-73.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261-282.

[F62] Flanders, S. E. 1962. Did the caterpillar exterminate the giant reptile? Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 1 (1): 85-88.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[GT12] Gunawardene, N. R. & C. K. Taylor. 2012. New records of Elasmus (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) species from Barrow Island, Western Australia. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 29: 21-35.

[H04] Harris, A. C. 2004. Range extensions of Ancistrocerus gazella (Hymenoptera: Eumenidae) and Myomantis caffra (Mantodea: Mantidae). Weta 27: 31-32.

[H91] Hokkanen, H. M. T. 1991. Trap cropping in pest management. Annual Review of Entomology 36: 119-138.

[K07] Kun, A. 2007. Studies on Palaearctic Ethmia Hübner, 1819 (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae). Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 99: 101-114.

[L27] Lindsay, S. 1927. A list of the Lepidoptera of Deans Bush, Riccarton, Canterbury. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 693-696.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: An annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1-98.

[M27] Meyrick, E. 1927. Descriptions of New Zealand Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 697-702.

[NS84] Naumann, I. D. & D. P. A. Sands. 1984. Two Australian Elasmus spp. (Hymenoptera: Elasmidae), parasitoids of Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae): their taxonomy and biology. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 23: 25-32.

Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia vol. 2, pp. 817-915. Melbourne University Press.

[O94] Otte, D. 1994. The Crickets of Hawaii: origin, systematics and evolution. The Orthopterists' Society: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.

[P04] Patrick, B. 2004. Parsnip moth established in New Zealand. Weta 27: 8-12.

[P27a] Philpott, A. 1927a. New Zealand Lepidoptera: Notes and descriptions. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 703-709.

[P27b] Philpott, A. 1927b. The genitalia of the genus Gymnobathra (Oecophoridae: Lepidoptera). Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 716-721.

[P27c] Philpott, A. 1927c. The maxillae in the Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 721-746.

[T27] Thomson, G. M. 1927. The pollination of New Zealand flowers by birds and insects. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 106-125.

[YS10] Yefremova, Z. A. & I. S. Strakhova. 2010. A review of the species of the genus Elasmus Westwood (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) from Russia and neighboring countries. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 89 (3): 634-661.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P. & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="http://www.fieldofscience.com/">FoS</a> = FoS