Skeletal restoration of the Palaeocene Escavadodon zygus, from Rose & Lucas (2000).

Belongs within: Asioryctitheria.
Contains: Afrotheria, Xenarthra, Lipotyphla, Chiroptera, Cetferungulata, Glires, Euarchonta.

The Placentalia is the crown clade of placental mammals, distinguished from other living mammals by the live birth of offspring after their extended development in the mother, nourished by a well-developed placenta. Many recent studies have supported the recognition of four major clades (Afrotheria, Xenarthra, Laurasiatheria and Euarchontaglires) within placentals, but the relationships of these clades remain contentious. Also uncertain is the placement of a number of fossil groups such as the Palaeanodonta, Palaeogene insectivores that have been suggested to be related to either the Xenarthra (anteaters, sloths and armadillos) or the Pholidota (pangolins).

Synapomorphies (from Wible et al. 2007): Penultimate upper premolar parastylar lobe absent or small; ultimate lower premolar anterolingual cingulid absent; M2 postcingulum present, extending to labial margin; condyloid crest absent; inferior petrosal sinus endocranial.

Placentalia (see below for synonymy)
    |--Afrotheria GP11
    `--+--+--Xenarthra GP11
       |  `--Palaeanodonta BAA04
       |       |  i. s.: Palaeanodon Matthew 1918 BAA04
       |       |           `--P. ignavus Matthew 1918 BAA04
       |       |         Eurotamandua Storch 1981 BAA04
       |       |           `--E. joresi DC01
       |       |         Tubulodon [incl. Alocodontulum, Pentapassalus] RL00
       |       |         Propalaeanodon RL00
       |       |--Auroratherium [Epoicotheriidae] RL00
       |       |    `--A. sinense RL00
       |       |--Metacheiromys Wortman 1903 [Metacheiromyidae] BAA04
       |       |    |--M. dasypus RL00
       |       |    `--M. marshi RL00
       |       `--Escavadodontidae RL00
       |            |--Amelotabes RL00
       |            `--Escavadodon Rose & Lucas 2000 RL00
       |                 `--*E. zygus Rose & Lucas 2000 RL00
       `--+--Laurasiatheria GP11
          |    |--Lipotyphla WR07
          |    `--+--Chiroptera ANG03
          |       `--Cetferungulata WR07
          `--Euarchontaglires WR07
               |--+--Sinomylus AM05
               |  `--Glires GP11
               `--Euarchonta GP11

Placentalia incertae sedis:
  Ernanodon antelios DC01
  Paracosoryx wilsoni MHL03
  Plioceros dehlini MHL03
  Colodon occidentalis MHL03
  Tingamarra Godthelp, Archer et al. 1992 LA02
    `--*T. porterorum Godthelp, Archer et al. 1992 LA02
  Kharmerungulatum Prasad, Verma et al. 2007 PV07
    `--*K. vanvaleni Prasad, Verma et al. 2007 PV07
  Scalopoides Wilson 1960 P04
  Parapodemus Scaub 1938 P04
  Germanomys Heller 1936 P04
  Blackia Mein 1970 P04
  Sulimskia Reumer 1984 P04
  Stachomys Kowalski 1960 P04
  Smithozapus Sulimski 1962 P04
  Pliopetes Kretzoi 1959 P04
  Kowalskia Fahlbusch 1969 P04
  Prospalax Méhely 1908 P04
  Paenelimnoecus Baudelot 1972 P04
  Alloblarinella Storch 1995 P04
  Orientalomys De Bruijn & Van der Meulen 1975 P04
  Archaeodesmana Topachevskij & Pashkov 1983 P04
  Blancomys Van de Weerd, Adrover et al. 1977 P04
  Stephanomys Schaub 1938 P04
  Castyllomys Michaux 1969 P04
  Occitanomys Michaux 1969 P04
  Pseudomeriones Schaub 1934 P04
  Spermophilinus De Bruijn & Mein 1968 P04
    `--S. bredai M-SK04
  Keramidomys Hartenberger 1966 P04
  Tylodon Gervais 1848 V66

Placentalia [Afroinsectiphilia, Altungulata, Anagalida, Archonta, Boreoeutheria, Bruta, Cheiroptères, Dilambdodonta, Edentata, Educabilia, Eparctocyona, Epitheria, Gyrencephala, Menotyphla, Pantomesaxonia, Pedimanes, Unguiculata, Ungulata, Ungulatomorpha, Volitantia, Zalambdodonta]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AM05] Asher, R. J., J. Meng, J. R. Wible, M. C. McKenna, G. W. Rougier, D. Dashzeveg & M. J. Novacek. 2005. Stem Lagomorpha and the antiquity of Glires. Science 307: 1091-1094.

[ANG03] Asher, R. J., M. J. Novacek & J. H. Geisler. 2003. Relationships of endemic African mammals and their fossil relatives based on morphological and molecular evidence. Journal of Mammalian Evolution 10 (1-2): 131-194.

[BAA04] Bergqvist, L. P., E. A. L. Abrantes & L. dos S. Avilla. 2004. The Xenarthra (Mammalia) of São José de Itaboraí Basin (upper Paleocene, Itaboraian), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Geodiversitas 26 (2): 323-337.

[DC01] Delsuc, F., F. M. Catzeflis, M. J. Stanhope & E. J. P. Douzery. 2001. The evolution of armadillos, anteaters and sloths depicted by nuclear and mitochondrial phylogenies: Implications for the status of the enigmatic fossil Eurotamandua. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences 268: 1605-1615.

[GP11] Goswami, A., G. V. R. Prasad, P. Upchurch, D. M. Boyer, E. R. Seiffert, O. Verma, E. Gheerbrant & J. J. Flynn. 2011. A radiation of arboreal basal eutherian mammals beginning in the Late Cretaceous of India. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (39): 16333-16338.

[LA02] Long, J., M. Archer, T. Flannery & S. Hand. 2002. Prehistoric Mammals of Australia and New Guinea: One Hundred Million Years of Evolution. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[MHL03] Meng, J., Y. Hu & C. Li. 2003. The osteology of Rhombomylus (Mammalia, Glires): Implications for phylogeny and evolution of Glires. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 275: 1-247.

[M-SK04] Moyà-Solà, S., M. Köhler, D. M. Alba, I. Casanovas-Vilar & J. Galindo. 2004. Pierolapithecus catalaunicus, a new Middle Miocene great ape from Spain. Science 306: 1339-1344.

[P04] Popov, V. V. 2004. Pliocene small mammals (Mammalia, Lipotyphla, Chiroptera, Lagomorpha, Rodentia) from Muselievo (north Bulgaria). Geodiversitas 26 (3): 403-491.

[PV07] Prasad, G. V. R., O. Verma, A. Sahni, V. Parmar & A. Khosla. 2007. A Cretaceous hoofed mammal from India. Science 318: 937.

[RL00] Rose, K. D., & S. G. Lucas. 2000. An early Paleocene palaeanodont (Mammalia, ?Pholidota) from New Mexico, and the origin of Palaeanodonta. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20 (1): 139-156.

[V66] Van Valen, L. 1966. Deltatheridia, a new order of mammals. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 132 (1): 1-126.

[WR07] Wible, J. R., G. W. Rougier, M. J. Novacek & R. J. Asher. 2007. Cretaceous eutherians and Laurasian origin for placental mammals near the K/T boundary. Nature 447: 1003-1006.

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