Field of Science

Cnidaria

Giant tube anemone Cerianthus filiformis, photographed by Pashkov Dmitry.


Belongs within: Animalia.
Contains: Myxozoa, Medusozoa, Rugosa, Tabulata, Hexacorallia, Zoanthidea, Antipatharia, Octocorallia.

The Cnidaria are an aquatic, mostly marine, group of invertebrates including corals, jellyfish and related taxa. The cnidarian body form is ancestrally radial with a single gut opening surrounded by tentacles; the individual zooid may be sessile (a polyp) or free-living (a medusa). Cnidarians are also characterised by the presence of stinging cells called nematocysts or cnidoblasts. Both these features may be modified to some degree in derived subgroups.

The cnidarian class Anthozoa has the zooid as a usually sessile polyp that develops directly from a planula (a flattened, bilateral larva). Anthozoan polyps may be solitary or colonial.

<==Cnidaria
    |--Thaumaptilon walcotti SCM06, CM98
    |--Hydroconus [Hydroconozoa] EL11
    `--+--+--Myxozoa J-GP07
       |  `--Medusozoa J-GP07
       `--Anthozoa [Ceriantipatharia, Zoantharia] J-GP07
            |  i. s.: Striatopora EB01
            |           |--S. flexuosa EB01
            |           `--S. linneana Y92
            |         Palaeocyclus EB01
            |         Flosmaris mutsuensis C-SC03
            |         Haliplanella lucia C-SC03
            |         Epiactis japonica C-SC03
            |         Neoclisiophyllum qaidamense CSZ03
            |         Cravenia CSZ03
            |         Rylstonia oulongbulukensis CSZ03
            |         Palaeosmilia planum CSZ03
            |         Dibuniphyllum CSZ03
            |           |--D. bipartitum CSZ03
            |           `--D. vaughani CSZ03
            |         Kueichouphyllum CSZ03
            |           |--K. keishihkuanense ZP86
            |           `--K. sinense CSZ03
            |         Hexaphyllia qinghaiensis CSZ03
            |         Lonsdaleia stelcki CSZ03
            |         Ekvasophyllum heijianshanensis CSZ03
            |         Cystocyathoclisia sinensis CSZ03
            |         Siphonophyllia oppressa CSZ03
            |         Enygmophyllum CSZ03
            |         Kakwiphyllum qinghaiensis CSZ03
            |         Tabulogyra HS02
            |         Calamoseris HS02
            |         Calamophylliopsis HS02
            |         Felixigyra HS02
            |         Eunicella stricta R79
            |         Embolophyllum aequiseptatum TC71
            |         Tipheophyllum bartrumi [=Eridophyllum bartrumi] F71
            |         Nebulipora ovulum Eichwald 1854 (n. d.) PP05
            |         Mackenzia costalis CM98
            |         Spongophyllum Edwards & Haime 1851 E13
            |           |--S. bipartitum (Etheridge 1889) E13, F71 [=Lonsdaleia (Spongophyllum) bipartita F71]
            |           |--S. enorme Etheridge 1913 E13 [=Crinophyllum enorme F71, Yassia enormis F71]
            |           |--S. giganteum Etheridge 1899 E13, F71 [=Australophyllum giganteum F71]
            |           |--S. halysitoides Etheridge 1918 F71
            |           `--S. kunthi Schlüter 1881 E13
            |         Cystophrentis kolahoensis ZP86
            |         Keyserlingophyllum keyserlingophylloides ZP86
            |         Kueichowpora suni ZP86
            |         Pseudouralinia tamgpakouensis ZP86
            |         Arachnolasma ZP86
            |           |--A. simplex ZP86
            |           `--A. sinense ZP86
            |         Aulina ZP86
            |           |--A. carinata ZP86
            |           `--A. puerilis ZP86
            |         Yuanophyllum kansuense ZP86
            |         Waagenophyllum DX84
            |           |--W. indicum DX84
            |           |    |--W. i. indicum DX84
            |           |    `--W. i. zhesiense Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |           |--W. stereoseptatum DX84
            |           |--W. virgalense DX84
            |           |    |--W. v. virgalense DX84
            |           |    `--W. v. mongoliense DX84
            |           `--W. wumengense Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |         Mandulapora permica Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |         Zhesipora Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 2001
            |           `--*Z. permica Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |         Carinoverbeekiella DX84
            |           |--C. madreporitea Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |           |--C. minor Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |           |--C. platiformis Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |           `--C. sinensis Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |         Pseudowaagenophyllum DX84
            |           |--P. elegantulum Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |           `--P. vesiculosum Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |         Damuqiphyllum DX84
            |           |--D. rotiforme Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |           `--D. wumengense Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |         Protomichelinia mandulaensis Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |         Pseudofavosites finitimus DX84
            |           |--P. f. finitimus DX84
            |           `--P. f. minor Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |         Lophocarinophyllum yakovlevi DX84
            |           |--L. y. yakovlevi DX84
            |           `--L. y. minuta DX84
            |         Michelinia DX84
            |           |--M. cylindrica Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |           `--M. porifera F71
            |         Tachylasma DX84
            |           |--T. concavetabulatum Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |           |--T. longiseptatum Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |           |--T. magnum DX84
            |           |    |--T. m. magnum DX84
            |           |    `--T. m. intercalare Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |           |--T. variable DX84
            |           `--T. zhesiense Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |         Gerthia crassoseptata Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |         Wentzelella damuqiensis Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |         Diphycarinophyllum baotegense Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |         Paracaninia tzuchiangensis DX84
            |         Pleophyllum DX84
            |           |--P. baytuganense DX84
            |           |--P. ephippiomorphum Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |           |--P. sinense Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |           `--P. zhesiense Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |         Amygdalophylloides asteroides Ding in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
            |         Acanthohalysites F71
            |           |--A. australis (Etheridge 1898) [=Halysites australis] F71
            |           |--A. gamboolicus (Etheridge 1904) [=Halysites gamboolicus] F71
            |           |--A. peristephesicus (Etheridge 1904) [=Halysites peristephesicus] F71
            |           `--A. pycnoblastoides (Etheridge 1904) [=Halysites pycnoblastoides] F71
            |         Acanthophyllum F71
            |           |  i. s.: A. mansfieldense (Dun 1898) [=Cyathophyllum mansfieldense] F71
            |           `--A. (Acanthophyllum) F71
            |                |--A. (A.) aequiseptatum Hill 1940 F71
            |                `--A. (A.) clermontense (Etheridge 1911) [=Cyathophyllum clermontensis] F71
            |         Mesophyllum cornubovis (Etheridge 1899) [=Actinocystis cornubovis] F71
            |         Amygdalophyllum F71
            |           |--A. etheridgei Dun & Benson 1920 F71
            |           `--A. inopinatum (Etheridge 1900) [=Koninckophyllum inopinatum] F71
            |         Aphrophyllum hallense Smith 1920 F71
            |         Arachnophyllum epistomoides Etheridge 1909 F71
            |         Araeopora australis Nicholson & Etheridge 1879 F71
            |         Aulophyllum davidis Etheridge 1891 F71
            |         Baeophyllum colligatum Hill 1940 F71
            |         Billingsaria banksi F71
            |         Campophyllum F71
            |           |--C. columnare Etheridge 1891 F71
            |           |--C. lindstromi F71
            |           `--C. recessum Hill 1940 F71
            |         Caninophyllum sumphuens (Etheridge 1891) [=Zaphrentis sumphuens] F71
            |         Cavanophyllum trochoides (Hill 1940) [=Mictophyllum trochoides] F71
            |         Cionodendron columen Benson & Smith 1923 F71
            |         Coccoseris speleana Hill 1957 F71
            |         Coenites pinaxoides Etheridge 1921 F71
            |         Favistella Hall 1847 [Thecidae] W77
            |           |--F. cerioides Hill 1941 F71
            |           |--F. neminghensis (Etheridge 1918) [=Columnaria neminghensis] F71
            |           `--F. stellata Hall 1847 [incl. Columnaria alveolata Edwards & Haime 1851] W77
            |         Columnaria pauciseptata Etheridge 1897 [=Columnopora (l. c.) pauciseptata] F71
            |         Gephuropora duni Etheridge 1920 [=Favosites (Columnopora) duni] F71
            |         Conocyathus cyclocostatus Tenison-Woods 1877 F71
            |         Conosmilia bicycla Tenison-Woods 1877 F71
            |         Xystriphyllum F71
            |           |--X. dunstani (Etheridge 1911) [=Cyathophyllum dunstani] F71
            |           |--X. giganteum H79
            |           `--X. mitchelli (Etheridge 1892) [=Cyathophyllum mitchelli] F71
            |         Trapezophyllum elegantulum (Dun 1898) [=Cyathophyllum elegantulum] F71
            |         Cystiphyllum australe [incl. C. (Microplasma) australasica] F71
            |         Desmidopora nicholsoni Etheridge 1902 F71
            |         Zeolasma gemmiforme (Etheridge 1902) [=Diphyphyllum gemmiforme, Disphyllum gemmiforme] F71
            |         Phacellophyllum porteri (Etheridge 1890) (see below for synonymy) F71
            |         Disphyllum F71
            |           |--D. praecox Hill 1940 F71
            |           `--D. robustum (Etheridge 1899) [=Diphyphyllum robustum] F71
            |         Amplexus arundinaceus [=Zaphrentis (Plerophyllum) arundinaceus] F71
            |         Australophyllum cyathophylloides (Etheridge 1911) [=Spongophyllum cyathophylloides] F71
            |         Eddastraea grandis (Dun 1918) [=Phillipsastraea grandis] F71
            |         Endophyllum schluteri Etheridge 1898 F71
            |         Sanidophyllum colligatum (Etheridge 1920) [=Endophyllum schluteri var. colligatum] F71
            |         Falsicatenipora chillagoensis (Etheridge 1904) [=Halysites chillagoensis] F71
            |         Thamnopora F71
            |           |--T. marmionensis (Etheridge 1914) [=Favosites marmionensis] F71
            |           |--T. pulchra Y92
            |           `--T. wilkinsoni (Etheridge 1891) [=Trachypora wilkinsoni] F71
            |         Fossopora wellingtonensis Etheridge 1903 F71
            |         Lyrielasma F71
            |           |--L. aggregatum (Hill 1940) [=Grypophyllum aggregatum] F71
            |           `--L. subcaespitosum [=Cyathophyllum subcaespitosum] F71
            |         Halysites F71
            |           |--H. cratus Etheridge 1904 F71
            |           |--H. lithostrotonoides Etheridge 1904 F71
            |           `--H. sussmilchi Etheridge 1904 F71
            |         Schedohalysites orthopteroides (Etheridge 1904) [=Halysites orthopteroides] F71
            |         Heliolites F71
            |           |--H. daintreei (see below for synonymy) F71
            |           `--H. porosus F71
            |         Plasmopora F71
            |           |--P. gippslandica [incl. Heliolites regularis Dun 1927] F71
            |           `--P. heliolitoides (see below for synonymy) F71
            |         Hercophyllum shearsbyi F71
            |         Phaulactis shearsbyi [=Cyathophyllum shearsbyi, Hercophyllum shearsbyi] F71
            |         Litophyllum konincki [=Amplexopora konincki] F71
            |         Microplasma F71
            |           |--M. parallelum Etheridge 1899 F71
            |           `--M. trupanonoides (Etheridge 1920) [=Syringopora (Microplasma) trupanonoides] F71
            |         Mictocystis endophylloides Etheridge 1908 F71
            |         Sterictophyllum creswelli [=Cyathophyllum creswelli, Mictophyllum creswelli] F71
            |         Mycophyllum F71
            |           |--M. crateroides (Etheridge 1894) [=Mucophyllum crateroides] F71
            |           `--M. liliiforme (Etheridge 1907) [=Tryplasma liliiformis] F71
            |         Nyctopora stevensi F71
            |         Phillipsastraea F71
            |           |--P. currani Etheridge 1892 F71
            |           `--P. hennahi H79
            |         Zenophila walli (Etheridge 1892) [=Phillipsastraea walli] F71
            |         Propora conferta [incl. Plasmopora shearsbyi Dun 1927] F71
            |         Plasmoporella convexotabulata F71
            |         Pseudamplexus princeps (Etheridge 1907) [=Tryplasma princeps] F71
            |         Pycnostylus F71
            |           |--P. congregationis (Etheridge 1907) [=Tryplasma congregationis] F71
            |           `--P. dendroides (Etheridge 1907) [=Tryplasma dendroides] F71
            |         Rhizophyllum F71
            |           |--R. enorme Etheridge 1903 F71
            |           |--R. interpunctatum [incl. R. australe] F71
            |           |--R. robustum Shearsby 1906 F71
            |           `--R. yassense Shearsby 1905 F71
            |         Sanidophyllum davidis Etheridge 1899 F71
            |         Smilotrochus vacuus Tenison-Woods 1877 F71
            |         Symplectophyllum mutatum F71
            |         Thamnophyllum curtum Hill 1941 F71
            |         Tryplasma F71
            |           |--T. columnare Etheridge 1907 [=T. columnaris] F71
            |           |--T. delicatulum Etheridge 1907 [=T. delicatula] F71
            |           |--T. derrengullense Etheridge 1907 [=T. derrengullensis] F71
            |           |--T. lonsdalei Etheridge 1890 (see below for synonymy) F71
            |           |--T. vermiformis Etheridge 1907 F71
            |           `--T. wellingtonensis Etheridge 1895 F71
            |         Vepresiphyllum falciforme Etheridge 1920 F71
            |         Microcyclus multiradiatus N79
            |         Radiastraea N79
            |           |--R. tapetiformis N79
            |           |--R. trochomisca N79
            |           `--R. verrilli N79
            |         Taimyrophyllum N79
            |           |--T. stirps N79
            |           `--T. triadorum N79
            |         Heterocorallia G02
            |         Rugosa G02
            |         Tabulata G02
            |         Xianguangia EL11
            |         Aguayoina Bermúdez 1938 LT64
            |           `--*A. asterostomata Bermúdez 1938 LT64
            |--Arrowipora EL11
            `--+--Hexacorallia G02
               |--Zoanthidea G02
               |--Antipatharia G02
               |--Octocorallia CS-P86
               `--Cerianthus BH88 [Ceriantharia G02]
                    `--C. filiformis BH88

Cnidaria incertae sedis:
  Anemonia sulcata C-SC03
  Psammocoryne M62
  Bellonella rigida GR98
  ‘Cymodocea’ Lamouroux 1816 non Rafinesque 1814 BR05
  Stylina Lamarck 1816 BR05
  Tiaropsis diademata B26
  Toxorchis kellneri B26
  Laodicea cruciata B26
  Rhopalonema B26
    |--R. funerarium B26
    `--R. velatum B26
  Liriope B26
    |--L. scutigera B26
    `--L. tetraphylla B26
  Aglaura hemistoma B26
  Erythropodium caribaeorum R96
  ‘Ptolemaia’ McCutcheon & Wilson 1961 non Osborn 1908 V66
  Heliopora coerulea (Pallas 1766) M09
  Tubipora musica Linnaeus 1758 M09
  Branchiocerianthus imperator T95
  Tirasiana Bekker 1977 G79
    |--*T. concentralis Bekker 1977 G79
    |--T. cocardia EL11
    |--T. coniformis EL11
    `--T. disciformis EL11
  Protolyella S89
  Cyclomedusa Sprigg 1947 (see below for synonymy) G79
    |--*C. davidi Sprigg 1947 G79
    |--‘Madigania’ annulata EL11
    |--C. delicata EL11
    |--C. gigantea G79
    |--‘Tateana’ inflata EL11
    |--C. minima EL11
    |--C. plana G79
    |--C. radiata EL11
    `--‘Spriggia’ wadei EL11
  Ediacaria Sprigg 1947 [incl. Beltanella Sprigg 1947, Protodipleurosoma Sprigg 1949] G79
    |--*E. flindersi Sprigg 1947 G79
    |--‘Beltanella’ gilesi EL11
    |--‘Protodipleurosoma’ rugulosum EL11
    `--‘Protodipleurosoma’ wardi EL11
  Lorenzinites Glaessner & Wade 1966 G79
    `--*L. rarus Glaessner & Wade 1966 G79
  Medusinites Glaessner & Wade 1966 G79
    |--*M. asteroides (Sprigg 1949) [=Medusina asteroides] G79
    |--M. paliji EL11
    `--M. patellaris EL11
  Planomedusites Sokolov 1972 G79
    `--*P. grandis Sokolov 1972 G79
  Pseudorhizostomites Sprigg 1949 [incl. Pseudorhopilema Sprigg 1949] G79
    `--*P. howchini Sprigg 1949 G79
  Cosmetira pilodella D56
  ‘Turris’ pileata D56
  Khmeria Mansay 1914 M65

Cyclomedusa Sprigg 1947 [incl. Madigania Sprigg 1949 non Whitley 1945, Spriggia Southcott 1958, Tateana Sprigg 1949] G79

Heliolites daintreei [incl. H. regularis var. humewoodensis Dun 1927, H. jackii Dun 1927, H. wellingtonensis Dun 1927 (n. n.), H. yassensis Dun 1927] F71

Phacellophyllum porteri (Etheridge 1890) [=Diphyphyllum porteri; incl. D. porteri var. mitchellensis Etheridge 1899] F71

Plasmopora heliolitoides [incl. Heliolites distans Dun 1927, H. distans var. humewoodensis Dun 1927, H. distans var. intermedia Dun 1927, H. distans var. minuta Dun 1927] F71

Tryplasma lonsdalei Etheridge 1890 [incl. T. lonsdalei var. minor Etheridge 1907, T. lonsdalei var. scalariformis Etheridge 1907] F71

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

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