Skeleton of Palaeosinopa from the Eocene Green River Formation of Wyoming, from Didier Descouens.

Belongs within: Asioryctitheria.

The Cimolesta is an assemblage of mostly Palaeogene eutherian mammals of uncertain relationships; though united by similarities in dentition, it is possible that these features are plesiomorphies for a broader group of eutherians. The Cretaceous to Palaeocene Cimolestidae have been placed by phylogenetic analysis outside the placental crown group (Wible et al. 2007) but other potential cimolestans have not yet been analysed phylogenetically. These include the Pantolestidae, a Palaeogene group of mammals that have been suggested to be semi-aquatic, possibly feeding on snails and other mollusks.

    |--Cimolestidae WR07
    |    |--+--Batodon tenuis WR07
    |    |  `--Maelestes Wible, Rougier et al. 2007 WR07
    |    |       `--*M. gobiensis Wible, Rougier et al. 2007 WR07
    |    `--Cimolestes Marsh 1889 WR07, FN03
    |         |--*C. incisus Marsh 1889 V66
    |         |--C. cerberoides Lillegraven 1969 FN03
    |         |--C. cuspulus Gheerbrant 1992 GI06
    |         |--C. magnus Clemens & Russell 1965 FN03
    |         |--C. propalaeoryctes WR07
    |         |--C. simpsoni WR07
    |         `--C. stirtoni WR07
    `--Pantolestidae [Pantolesta] CW07
         |  i. s.: Dypsterna V66
         |           |--D. helbingi Dal Piaz 1930 V66
         |           `--D. woodi V66
         |--Pentacodontinae [Pentacondontidae] S78
         |    |--Coriphagus montanus Douglass 1908 S78, S35
         |    |--Pentacodon inversus S35
         |    `--Aphronorus Simpson 1935 S78, S35
         |         `--*A. fraudator Simpson 1935 S35
         `--Pantolestinae S78
              |--Cryptopithecus Schlosser 1890 V66
              |    `--*C. sideroolithicus Schlosser 1890 V66
              |--Pantolestes Cope 1872 C76
              |    |--*P. longicaudus Cope 1872 C76
              |    `--P. chacensis Cope 1875 C76
              |--Bessoecetor Simpson 1966 V66, SFY02
              |    `--*B. septentrionalis (Russell 1929) (see below for synonymy) SFY02
              |--Palaeosinopa Matthew 1901 V66, SFY02
              |    |--P. lutreola V66
              |    |--P. osborni V66
              |    `--P. veterrima V66
              `--Propalaeosinopa Simpson 1927 (n. d.) V66, SFY02
                   `--*P. albertensis Simpson 1927 (n. d.) SFY02

*Bessoecetor septentrionalis (Russell 1929) [=Diacodon septentrionalis, Propalaeosinopa septentrionalis; incl. Palaeosinopa diluculi Simpson 1935, Bessoecetor diluculi, Propalaeosinopa diluculi, B. thomsoni Simpson 1936, Pr. thomsoni] SFY02

*Type species of generic name indicated


[C76] Cope, E. D. 1876. Report upon the extinct Vertebrata obtained in New Mexico by parties of the expedition of 1874. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4(2): i-iv, 1-370.

[CW07] Cote, S., L. Werdelin, E. R. Seiffert & J. C. Barry. 2007. Additional material of the enigmatic Early Miocene mammal Kelba and its relationship to the order Ptolemaiida. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 104 (13): 5510-5515.

[FN03] Fox, R. C., & B. G. Naylor. 2003. A Late Cretaceous taeniodont (Eutheria, Mammalia) from Alberta, Canada. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie – Abhandlungen 229 (3): 393-420.

[GI06] Gheerbrant, E., M. Iarochene, M. Amaghzaz & B. Bouya. 2006. Early African hyaenodontid mammals and their bearing on the origin of the Creodonta. Geological Magazine 143 (4): 475-489.

[SFY02] Scott, C. S., R. C. Fox & G. P. Youzwyshyn. 2002. New earliest Tiffanian (late Paleocene) mammals from Cochrane 2, southwestern Alberta, Canada. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 47: 691-704.

[S35] Simpson, G. G. 1935. New Paleocene mammals from the Fort Union of Montana. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 83 (2981): 221-244.

[V66] Van Valen, L. 1966. Deltatheridia, a new order of mammals. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 132 (1): 1-126.

[WR07] Wible, J. R., G. W. Rougier, M. J. Novacek & R. J. Asher. 2007. Cretaceous eutherians and Laurasian origin for placental mammals near the K/T boundary. Nature 447: 1003-1006.

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