Brachycera

Smart-banded hunchback fly Ogcodes gibbosus, photographed by Linda Smith.


Belongs within: Neoneura.
Contains: Empidoidea, Cyclorrhapha, Tabanomorpha, Nemestrinidae, Asiloidea.

The Brachycera are a well-supported clade of flies distinguished by, among other features, their compacted antennae with distal flagellomeres modified into a slender style or hairlike arista. Within the Brachycera, Wiegmann et al. (2011) supported two basal clades. The Orthorrhapha are mostly large flies with flower-feeding adults and predatory larvae. The Eremoneura include the Cyclorrhapha and the long-legged empidoids; eremoneurans are united by the possession of three larval instars, larval mandibles with a single article, and adults with ocellar setae, one-segmented maxillary palps, and the cell cup in the wing closed apically or absent (Grimaldi & Engel 2005).

Synapomorphies (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Antennae compacted, with eight or fewer flagellomeres, apical flagellomeres reduced to slender style or hairlike arista; maxillary palps reduced to two segments, labellum modified into broad pad with radiating gutters of pseudotracheae leading to oral cavity; wing with veins A and CuA converging closely or meeting before wing margin; larva with posterior portion of head capsule extended into thorax; larval thorax desclerotised except several rodlike apodemes; larval mouthparts held parallel to each other, working in a vertical plane.

<==Brachycera [Asilomorpha, Nemestrinoidea]
    |  i. s.: Kovalevisargidae BLM02
    |         Trypaneoides ellipticus Hong 1981 BLM02
    |         Eophlebomyiidae BLM02
    |         Lithohypoderma S02
    |         Notodacus xanthodes B88
    |--Eremoneura WT11
    |    |--Empidoidea GE05
    |    `--+--Cyclorrhapha GE05
    |       `--Apystomyia [Apystomyiidae] WT11
    |            `--A. elinguis WT11
    `--Orthorrhapha [Bombylioidea] WT11
         |  i. s.: Calosargus [Archisargidae, Archisargoidea] BLM02
         |           `--C. tatianae BLM02
         |--+--Tabanomorpha WT11
         |  `--+--Nemestrinidae WT11
         |     `--+--Heterostominae BLM02 [Rhagionemestriidae GE05]
         |        `--Xylophagidae [Xylophagoidea, Xylophagomorpha] WT11
         |             |--Ganeopteromyia calypso GE05
         |             |--Exeretonevra angustifrons WT11
         |             |--Xylophaga abdominalis WT11
         |             `--Coenomyia T90 [Coenomyiinae BLM02]
         |                  `--C. ferruginea T90
         `--+--Asiloidea WT11
            `--+--+--Hilarimorphidae WT11
               |  |    |--Apystomima zaitzevi GE05
               |  |    |--Hilarimorphites yeatsi GE05
               |  |    `--Hilarimorpha mentata WT11
               |  `--+--Eremochaetidae GE05
               |     |    |  i. s.: Alleremonomus GE05
               |     |    |         Dissup GE05
               |     |    |         Eremochaetosoma GE05
               |     |    |         Pareremochaetus GE05
               |     |    |--Eremochaetinae BLM02
               |     |    `--Eremomukhinae BLM02
               |     `--Acroceridae [Cyrtidae] WT11
               |          |--Acrocera globulus A71
               |          |--Pterodontia flavipes A71
               |          |--Archocyrtus gibbosus GE05
               |          |--Eulonchus GE05
               |          `--Ogcodes WT11
               |               |--O. basalis WT11
               |               |--O. eugonatus M90
               |               `--O. gibbosus A71
               `--Stratiomyomorpha [Stratiomyoidea] WT11
                    |--Oligophryne WT11 [Oligophrynidae GE05]
                    `--+--Cratomyia macrorrhyncha GE05
                       |--Pantophthalmus WT11 [Pantophthalmidae GE05]
                       `--+--Xylomyidae [Solvidae] GE05
                          |    |--Archisolva cupressa GE05
                          |    `--Xylomya WT11
                          |         |--X. parens WT11
                          |         `--X. shcherbakovi GE05
                          `--Stratiomyidae GE05
                               |  i. s.: Inopus rubriceps (Macquart 1847) H82
                               |         Barbiellinia Bezzi 1922 K03
                               |           `--*B. hirta Bezzi 1922 K03
                               |         Cretaceogaster pygmaeus GE05
                               |         Montsecia martinezdelclosi GE05
                               |         Aermetia illucens WT11
                               |         Actina viridis WT11
                               |         Stratiomys M90
                               |           |--S. badia M90
                               |           `--S. barbata M90
                               |         Anoplodonta nigrirostris M90
                               |         Microchrysa polita T90
                               |         Syndipnomyia ZS10
                               |         Hermetia illucens ZS10
                               |         Antissa cuprea ZS10
                               |--Beris F02 [Beridinae BLM02]
                               `--Parhadrestiinae BLM02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BLM02] Blagoderov, V. A., E. D. Lukashevich & M. B. Mostovski. 2002. Order Diptera Linné, 1758. The true flies (=Muscida Laicharting, 1781). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 227-240. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[F02] Foord, M. 2002. Entomological Society conference field trip 2002. Weta 24: 37-38.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H82] Helmore, D. W. 1982. Drawings of New Zealand insects. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of New Zealand 8: 1-52.

[K03] Kury, A. B. 2003. Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, volumen especial monográfico 1: 1-337.

[M90] McAlpine, J. F. 1990. Insecta: Diptera adults. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1211-1252. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[S02] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002. Ecological history of the aquatic insects. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 388-426. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[T90] Teskey, H. J. 1990. Insecta: Diptera larvae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1253-1276. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690-5695.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P. & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

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