Red maple Acer rubrum, photographed by Rowena Hopkins.

Belongs within: Sapindales.

The Sapindaceae are a family of woody plants with often spiral, pinnately-compound leaves with subopposite leaflets and a terminal rhachis tip (Angiosperm Phylogeny Website). The Aceroideae (containing the maples) and Hippocastanoideae (horse-chestnuts) have each been treated as separate families by some authors. Aceroideae have fruit that are samaras, with seeds contained with nutlets attached to a fibrous wing. Fruits of Hippocastanoideae are capsules that dehisce into three valves.

Synapomorphies (from Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Woody; quebrachitol, toxic saponins, cyclopropane amino acids present, ellagic acid usually absent; cork also outer cortical; latex of sorts not uncommon; petiole bundle with cortical or adaxial bundles; cuticle waxes absent; leaves spiral, odd pinnate, leaflets articulated, vernation also conduplicate-plicate, margins serrate, colleters common; inflorescence paniculate, the flowers often in clusters, imperfect; pedicels articulated; flowers 5-merous, corolla clawed; nectary extrastaminal; anthers 8, hairy; tapetal cells 1-3-nucleate; stigma strongly 3-lobed or not, dry or wet; ovules variously curved, sessile, often apotropous, outer integument thicker than the inner integument, parietal tissue 4-15 cells across; fruit a loculicidal capsule; seed often pachychalazal; testa multiplicative, testa vascularized, exotesta usually palisade, unlignified, tegmen limited to radicular pocket; endosperm absent, starchy, embryo curved, radicle in pocket formed by testa.

    |--Koelreuteria CD07 [Koelreuterioideae T00]
    |    `--K. paniculata Laxm. 1753 CD07
    |--Sapindus F71 [Sapindoideae T00]
    |    |--S. drummondii DD06
    |    |--S. gossei Ettingshausen 1886 F71
    |    `--S. mukorossi LO98
    |--Hippocastanoideae [Hippocastanaceae] T00
    |    |--Billia columbiana T00, R96
    |    `--Aesculus T00
    |         |--A. carnea D37
    |         |--A. hippocastanum D37
    |         |--A. pavia D37
    |         `--A. turbinata LO98
    |--Dodonaea Linnaeus 1753 A61 [Dodonaeoideae T00]
    |    |--D. bursariifolia KM08
    |    |--D. ceratocarpa G04b
    |    |--D. divaricata G04a
    |    |--D. glandulosa G04b
    |    |--D. hispidula B12
    |    |--D. humifusa OS04
    |    |--D. lanceolata EF04
    |    |--D. lobulata G04a
    |    |--D. pinifolia OS04
    |    |--D. ptarmicaefolia G04b
    |    |--D. rigida G04a
    |    |--D. stenozyga G04b
    |    `--D. viscosa Jacquin 1760 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |         |--D. v. ssp. viscosa KM08
    |         `--D. v. ssp. angustissima KM08
    `--Aceroideae [Aceraceae] T00
         |--Dipteronia sinensis D01
         `--Acer T00
              |--A. buergerianum [incl. A. trifidum] LO98
              |--A. campestre ZB01
              |--A. caudatum O88
              |--A. cissifolium LO98
              |--A. mono T03
              |--A. monspessulanum H91
              |--A. negundo O01
              |--A. palmatum LO98
              |--A. platanoides RB05
              |--A. pseudoplatanus D01
              |--A. rubrum ZB01
              |--A. rufinerve LO98
              |--A. saccharinum O01
              |--A. saccharum O01
              |--A. sempervirens SL06
              |--A. subintegrilobum Ettingshausen 1886 F71
              `--A. subproductum Ettingshausen 1886 F71

Sapindaceae incertae sedis:
  Cardiospermum D01
    |--C. grandiflorum H06
    `--C. halicacabum H06
  Serjania polyphylla D01, SWK87
  Diploglottis diphyllostegia W01
  Sapindopsis alpina GT02
  Lepisanthes fruticosa K03
  Crossonephelis palawanicus H03
  Lepidopetalum H03
  Nephelium K03
    |--N. lappaceum K03
    `--N. ramboutan-ake K03
  Distichostemon YY22
  Cupania J87
    |--C. americana J87
    |--C. triquetra SWK87
    `--C. vernalis B04
  Filicium decipiens T00, SR07
  Tina Schultes in Roemer & Schultes 1819 A-R03
    `--*T. thouarsiana (Camb.) Capuron 1969 [=Cupania thouarsiana] A-R03
  Gelonium Gaertner 1791 (n. d.) A-R03
    `--*G. cupanioides Gaertner 1791 (n. d.) [=Molinaea cupanioides, Tina gelonium] A-R03
  Molinaea laevis Willdenow 1799 A-R03
  Allophyllus MM96
    |--A. cobbe MS06
    |--A. crassinervis J87
    |--A. occidentalis MM96
    `--A. rigidus J87
  Harpullia arborea MS06
  Cupaniopsis anacardioides WM09
  Alectryon Gertn. 1788 A61
    |--A. excelsus Gaertn. 1788 A61
    |--A. grandis Cheesem. 1912 [=A. excelsus var. grandis Cheesem. 1892] A61
    `--A. oleifolius KM08

Dodonaea viscosa Jacquin 1760 [incl. D. viscosa var. angustifolia Bentham 1863, D. spathulata Smith 1809, D. viscosa var. vulgaris Bentham 1863] A61

*Type species of generic name indicated


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