Sapindaceae

Red maple Acer rubrum, photographed by Rowena Hopkins.


Belongs within: Sapindales.

The Sapindaceae are a family of woody plants with often spiral, pinnately-compound leaves with subopposite leaflets and a terminal rhachis tip (Angiosperm Phylogeny Website). The Aceroideae (containing the maples) and Hippocastanoideae (horse-chestnuts) have each been treated as separate families by some authors. Aceroideae have fruit that are samaras, with seeds contained with nutlets attached to a fibrous wing. Fruits of Hippocastanoideae are capsules that dehisce into three valves.

Synapomorphies (from Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Woody; quebrachitol, toxic saponins, cyclopropane amino acids present, ellagic acid usually absent; cork also outer cortical; latex of sorts not uncommon; petiole bundle with cortical or adaxial bundles; cuticle waxes absent; leaves spiral, odd pinnate, leaflets articulated, vernation also conduplicate-plicate, margins serrate, colleters common; inflorescence paniculate, the flowers often in clusters, imperfect; pedicels articulated; flowers 5-merous, corolla clawed; nectary extrastaminal; anthers 8, hairy; tapetal cells 1-3-nucleate; stigma strongly 3-lobed or not, dry or wet; ovules variously curved, sessile, often apotropous, outer integument thicker than the inner integument, parietal tissue 4-15 cells across; fruit a loculicidal capsule; seed often pachychalazal; testa multiplicative, testa vascularized, exotesta usually palisade, unlignified, tegmen limited to radicular pocket; endosperm absent, starchy, embryo curved, radicle in pocket formed by testa.

Sapindaceae
    |--Koelreuteria CD07 [Koelreuterioideae T00]
    |    `--K. paniculata Laxm. 1753 CD07
    |--Sapindus F71 [Sapindoideae T00]
    |    |--S. drummondii DD06
    |    |--S. gossei Ettingshausen 1886 F71
    |    `--S. mukorossi LO98
    |--Hippocastanoideae [Hippocastanaceae] T00
    |    |--Billia columbiana T00, R96
    |    `--Aesculus T00
    |         |--A. carnea D37
    |         |--A. hippocastanum D37
    |         |--A. pavia D37
    |         `--A. turbinata LO98
    |--Dodonaea Linnaeus 1753 A61 [Dodonaeoideae T00]
    |    |--D. bursariifolia KM08
    |    |--D. ceratocarpa G04b
    |    |--D. divaricata G04a
    |    |--D. glandulosa G04b
    |    |--D. hispidula B12
    |    |--D. humifusa OS04
    |    |--D. lanceolata EF04
    |    |--D. lobulata G04a
    |    |--D. pinifolia OS04
    |    |--D. ptarmicaefolia G04b
    |    |--D. rigida G04a
    |    |--D. stenozyga G04b
    |    `--D. viscosa Jacquin 1760 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |         |--D. v. ssp. viscosa KM08
    |         `--D. v. ssp. angustissima KM08
    `--Aceroideae [Aceraceae] T00
         |--Dipteronia sinensis D01
         `--Acer T00
              |--A. buergerianum [incl. A. trifidum] LO98
              |--A. campestre ZB01
              |--A. caudatum O88
              |--A. cissifolium LO98
              |--A. mono T03
              |--A. monspessulanum H91
              |--A. negundo O01
              |--A. palmatum LO98
              |--A. platanoides RB05
              |--A. pseudoplatanus D01
              |--A. rubrum ZB01
              |--A. rufinerve LO98
              |--A. saccharinum O01
              |--A. saccharum O01
              |--A. sempervirens SL06
              |--A. subintegrilobum Ettingshausen 1886 F71
              `--A. subproductum Ettingshausen 1886 F71

Sapindaceae incertae sedis:
  Cardiospermum D01
    |--C. grandiflorum H06
    `--C. halicacabum H06
  Serjania polyphylla D01, SWK87
  Diploglottis diphyllostegia W01
  Sapindopsis alpina GT02
  Lepisanthes fruticosa K03
  Crossonephelis palawanicus H03
  Lepidopetalum H03
  Nephelium K03
    |--N. lappaceum K03
    `--N. ramboutan-ake K03
  Distichostemon YY22
  Cupania J87
    |--C. americana J87
    |--C. triquetra SWK87
    `--C. vernalis B04
  Filicium decipiens T00, SR07
  Tina Schultes in Roemer & Schultes 1819 A-R03
    `--*T. thouarsiana (Camb.) Capuron 1969 [=Cupania thouarsiana] A-R03
  Gelonium Gaertner 1791 (n. d.) A-R03
    `--*G. cupanioides Gaertner 1791 (n. d.) [=Molinaea cupanioides, Tina gelonium] A-R03
  Molinaea laevis Willdenow 1799 A-R03
  Allophyllus MM96
    |--A. cobbe MS06
    |--A. crassinervis J87
    |--A. occidentalis MM96
    `--A. rigidus J87
  Harpullia arborea MS06
  Cupaniopsis anacardioides WM09
  Alectryon Gertn. 1788 A61
    |--A. excelsus Gaertn. 1788 A61
    |--A. grandis Cheesem. 1912 [=A. excelsus var. grandis Cheesem. 1892] A61
    `--A. oleifolius KM08

Dodonaea viscosa Jacquin 1760 [incl. D. viscosa var. angustifolia Bentham 1863, D. spathulata Smith 1809, D. viscosa var. vulgaris Bentham 1863] A61

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

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[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

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[GT02] Gomez, B., F. Thévenard, M. Fantin & L. Guisberti. 2002. Late Cretaceous plants from the Bonarelli Level of the Venetian Alps, northeastern Italy. Cretaceous Research 23: 671-685.

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[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11-19.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81-98.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263-276.

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[MS06] Muellner, A. N., V. Savolainen, R. Samuel & M. W. Chase. 2006. The mahogany family "out-of-Africa": divergence time estimation, global biogeographic patterns inferred from plastid rbcL DNA sequences, extant, and fossil distribution of diversity. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40 (1): 236-250.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19-28.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[O01] Ozman, S. K. 2001. The life history and population development of Rhyncaphytoptus negundivagrans Farkas (Acari: Diptilomiopidae). In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 352-354. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

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[SR07] Sankar, R. V., K. Ravikumar, N. M. Ganesh Babu & D. K. Ved. 2007. Botany of Anapady MPCA, Palghat district, Kerala with special emphasis on species of conservation concern. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 165-172.

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[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

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[ZB01] Zhang, N., & M. Blackwell. 2001. Molecular phylogeny of dogwood anthracnose fungus (Discula destructiva) and the Diaporthales. Mycologia 93 (2): 355-365.

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