Rhynchosporeae

Black bog-rush Schoenus nigricans, photographed by Bas Kers.


Belongs within: Cyperaceae.

The Rhynchosporeae is a tribe of sedges possessing both hermaphroditic and unisexual flowers, with only one or two glumes (rarely more) in the middle of a spike producing flowers. Members of the genus Carpha have a distinctive perianth of plumose setae; in other genera the perianth may be composed of hypogynous scales (as in the genera Lepidosperma or Oreobolus), of non-plumose setae, or absent (Moore & Edgar 1970).

Rhynchosporeae
    |--Vincentia Gaud. 1829 ME70
    |    `--*V. angustifolia ME70
    |--Morelotia Gaud. 1829 ME70
    |    |--*M. gahniaeformis [=Gahnia gahniaeformis] ME70
    |    `--M. affinis (Brong.) Blake 1969 (see below for synonymy) ME70
    |--Carpha Br. 1810 ME70
    |    |--*C. alpina Br. 1810 ME70
    |    `--C. schoenoides ME70 [=C. alpina var. shoenoides CL85]
    |--Tetraria Beauv. 1816 ME70
    |    |--T. capillaris (Muell.) Black 1934 (see below for synonymy) ME70
    |    `--T. octandra RL05
    |--Machaerina Vahl 1806 ME70
    |    |--*M. restioides ME70
    |    `--M. sinclairii (Hook. f.) Koyama 1956 (see below for synonymy) ME70
    |--Baumea Gaud. 1829 ME70
    |    |--*B. glomerata ME70
    |    |--B. arthrophylla GK00
    |    |--B. articulata (Br.) Blake 1969 [=Cladium articulatum Br. 1810, Machaerina articulata (Br.) Koyama 1956] ME70
    |    |--B. complanata (Bergg.) Blake 1969 (see below for synonymy) ME70
    |    |--B. huttonii (Kirk) Blake 1969 [=Cladium huttonii Kirk 1877, Machaerina huttonii (Kirk) Koyama 1956] ME70
    |    |--B. juncea (Br.) Palla 1909 (see below for synonymy) ME70
    |    |--B. rubiginosa (Spreng.) Boeck. 1874 (see below for synonymy) ME70
    |    |--B. tenax (Hook. f.) Blake 1969 (see below for synonymy) ME70
    |    |--B. teretifolia (Br.) Palla 1902 (see below for synonymy) ME70
    |    |--‘Lepidosperma’ tetragonum Labill. 1805 ME70
    |    `--B. vaginalis GK00
    |--Rhynchospora J87
    |    |--R. affinis LK14
    |    |--R. alba CS77
    |    |--R. aristata J87
    |    |--R. aurea C55
    |    |--R. elongata J87
    |    |    |--R. e. var. elongata J87
    |    |    `--R. e. var. ekmanii J87
    |    |--R. exserta LK14
    |    |--R. gracillima LK14
    |    |--R. heterochaeta LK14
    |    |--R. pterochaeta LK14
    |    |--R. rubra LK14
    |    |--R. submarginata LK14
    |    |--R. subtenuifolia LK14
    |    `--R. tracyi M83
    |--Oreobolus Br. 1810 ME70
    |    |--O. clemensiae LC95
    |    |--*O. pumilio ME70, LC95
    |    `--+--+--O. impar Edgar 1964 LC95, ME70
    |       |  `--+--O. brownii LC95
    |       |     `--O. oxycarpus LC95
    |       `--+--+--O. acutifolius LC95
    |          |  |--+--O. pectinatus Hook. f. 1844 LC95, ME70 (see below for synonymy)
    |          |  |  `--O. strictus Bergg. 1878 LC95, ME70 (see below for synonymy)
    |          |  `--+--O. ambiguus LC95
    |          |     `--+--O. furcatus LC95
    |          |        `--O. kuekenthalii LC95
    |          `--+--O. ecuadorensis LC95
    |             `--+--O. venezuelensis LC95
    |                `--+--+--O. distichus LC95
    |                   |  `--O. goeppingeri LC95
    |                   `--+--O. obtusangulus LC95
    |                      `--O. unispicus LC95
    |--Lepidosperma Labill. 1804 ME70
    |    |--L. angustatum RL05
    |    |--L. australe (Rich.) Hook. f. 1853 (see below for synonymy) ME70
    |    |--L. brunonianum OS04
    |    |--L. carphoides NC91
    |    |--L. concavum B00
    |    |--L. costale OS04
    |    |--L. drummondii S95
    |    |--L. filiforme Labill. 1805 ME70
    |    |    |--L. f. var. filiforme ME70
    |    |    `--L. f. var. neozelandicum Kükenthal in Fedde 1941 ME70
    |    |--L. gladiatum SM06
    |    |--L. gracile GK00
    |    |--L. laterale Br. 1810 ME70
    |    |--L. leptostachyum OS04
    |    |--L. longitudinale K72
    |    |--L. pauperum ME70
    |    |--L. perplanum ME70
    |    |--L. scabrum RL05
    |    |--L. squamatum SM06
    |    |--L. tenue RL05
    |    |--L. tetraquetrum ASD05
    |    |--L. tuberculatum K72
    |    `--L. viscidum K72
    |--Gahnia Forster & Forster 1776 ME70
    |    |--*G. procera Forster & Forster 1776 ME70
    |    |--G. ancistrophylla GK00
    |    |--G. aristata GK00
    |    |--G. aspera B00
    |    |--G. clarkei NS04
    |    |--G. decomposita B00
    |    |--G. deusta K72
    |    |--G. drummondii GK00
    |    |--G. erythrocarpa B00
    |    |--G. filifolia B00
    |    |--G. filum NS04
    |    |--G. gaudichaudii A27
    |    |--G. grandis B00
    |    |--G. lacera (Rich.) Steud. 1855 [=Lampocarya lacera Rich. 1832] ME70
    |    |--G. lanigera B00
    |    |--G. melanocarpa B00
    |    |--G. microstachya B00
    |    |--G. pauciflora Kirk 1875 (see below for synonymy) ME70
    |    |--G. radula B00
    |    |--G. rigida Kirk 1877 [incl. G. robusta Kirk 1894, G. rigida var. robusta (Kirk) Benl 1940] ME70
    |    |--G. setifolia (Rich.) Hook. f. 1853 [=Lampocarya setifolia Rich. 1832] ME70
    |    |--G. sieberiana NS04
    |    |--G. subaequiglumis B00
    |    |--G. tetragonocarpa K72
    |    |--G. trifida GK00
    |    `--G. xanthocarpa (Hook. f.) Hook. f. 1864 (see below for synonymy) ME70
    `--Schoenus Linnaeus 1753 ME70
         |--S. andinus CL85
         |--S. antarcticus CL85
         |--S. apogon Roem. & Schult. 1817 (see below for synonymy) ME70
         |    |--S. a. var. apogon ME70
         |    `--S. a. var. caespitans (Petrie) Edgar in Moore & Edgar 1970 [=S. caespitans Petrie 1926] ME70
         |--S. armeria OS04
         |--S. asperocarpus GK00
         |--S. benthamii GK00
         |--S. bifidus GK00
         |--S. brevifolius Br. 1810 (see below for synonymy) ME70
         |--S. brevisetis OS04
         |--S. capillifolius GK00
         |--S. carsei Cheesem. 1906 ME70
         |--S. curvifolius GK00
         |--S. cyperacea RL05
         |--S. efoliatus GK00
         |--S. elegans GK00
         |--S. ericetorum M87
         |--S. falcatus LK14
         |--S. fluitans C27
         |--S. grandiflorus SM06
         |--S. humilis GK00
         |--S. laevigatus GK00
         |--S. loliaceus GK00
         |--S. maschalinus Roem. & Schult. 1817 (see below for synonymy) ME70
         |--S. minutulus OS04
         |--S. nanus G04
         |--S. natans GK00
         |--S. nigricans DH98
         |--S. nitens (Br.) Hook. f. 1864 [=Chaetospora nitens Br. 1810, Scirpus nitens (Br.) Boeck. 1870] ME70
         |    |--S. n. var. nitens ME70
         |    `--S. n. var. concinnus (Hook. f.) Cheesem. 1906 (see below for synonymy) ME70
         |--S. obtusifolius GK00
         |--S. odontocarpus GK00
         |--S. pauciflorus (Hook. f.) Hook. f. 1864 [=Chaetospora pauciflora Hook. f. 1853] ME70
         |--S. plumosus GK00
         |--S. punctatus LK14
         |--S. rigens GK00
         |--S. sculptus GK00
         |--S. subbulbosus GK00
         |--S. subflavus OS04
         |--S. sublateralis GK00
         |--S. submicrostachyus GK00
         |--S. tendo (Hook. f.) Hook. f. 1864 [=Chaetospora tendo Banks & Sol. ex Hook. f. 1853] ME70
         |--S. tenellus GK00
         `--S. unispiculatus GK00

Baumea complanata (Bergg.) Blake 1969 [=Cladium complanatum Bergg. 1878, Machaerina complanata (Bergg.) Koyama 1956] ME70

Baumea juncea (Br.) Palla 1909 [=Cladium junceum Br. 1810, Machaerina juncea (Br.) Koyama 1956; incl. Lepidosperma colensoi Boeck. 1874, Cladium junceum var. elatior Carse 1916] ME70

Baumea rubiginosa (Spreng.) Boeck. 1874 [=Fuirena rubiginosa Spreng. 1870, Cladium rubiginosum (Spreng.) Domin 1915, Machaerina rubiginosa (Spreng.) Koyama 1961; incl. C. glomeratum Br. 1810, C. glomeratum f. major Kük. ex Carse 1916] ME70

Baumea tenax (Hook. f.) Blake 1969 [=Lampocarya tenax Hook. f. 1853, Cladium tenax (Hook. f.) Druce 1917, Machaerina tenax (Hook. f.) Koyama 1956] ME70

Baumea teretifolia (Br.) Palla 1902 [=Cladium teretifolium Br. 1810, Machaerina teretifolia (Br.) Koyama 1956] ME70

Gahnia pauciflora Kirk 1875 [incl. G. exigua Col. 1886, G. hectori Kirk 1877, G. multiglumis Col. 1886, G. parviflora Col. 1886, G. scaberula Col. 1886] ME70

Gahnia xanthocarpa (Hook. f.) Hook. f. 1864 [=Lampocarya xanthocarpa Hook. f. 1853, Cladium xanthocarpum (Hook. f.) Muell. 1875, Gahnia setifolia var. xanthocarpa (Hook. f.) Kük. in Fedde 1943; incl. G. ebenocarpa Hook. f. ex Kirk 1875] ME70

Lepidosperma australe
(Rich.) Hook. f. 1853 [=Vauthiera australis Rich. 1832, Cladium australe (Rich.) Druce 1917, Machaerina australis (Rich.) Koyama 1956; incl. Cladium vauthiera Clarke ex Cheesem. 1906] ME70

Machaerina sinclairii (Hook. f.) Koyama 1956 [=Cladium sinclairii Hook. f. 1864, Vincentia sinclairii (Hook. f.) Hamlin 1956; incl. V. anceps Hook. f. non (Poir.) Kunth 1837, Cladium gahnoides Col. 1884] ME70

Morelotia affinis (Brong.) Blake 1969 [=Lampocarya affinis Brong. 1829, Gahnia affinis (Brong.) Steud. 1855, Machaerina affinis (Brong.) Kern 1962, Mariscus affinis (Brong.) Kuntze 1891, Gahnia arenaria Hook. f. 1864; incl. Morelotia gahniaeformis var. minor Rich. 1832] ME70

Oreobolus pectinatus Hook. f. 1844 LC95, ME70 [=O. pumilio var. pectinatus (Hook. f.) Clarke in Cheesem. 1906 ME70, incl. O. serrulatus Col. 1890 ME70]

Oreobolus strictus Bergg. 1878 LC95, ME70 [=O. pumilio var. strictus (Bergg.) Pfeiff. in Fedde 1927 ME70]

Schoenus apogon Roem. & Schult. 1817 [incl. S. brownii Hook. f. 1864, Chaetospora imberbis Br. 1810, S. imberbis (Br.) Poir. 1811 non Br. 1810, S. laxiflorus Steud. 1855, S. apogon var. laxiflorus (Steud.) Clarke in Cheesem. 1906, S. vacillans Kirk 1878] ME70

Schoenus brevifolius Br. 1810 [incl. Chaetospora tenax Hook. f. 1853, S. brevifolius ssp. tenax (Hook. f.) Kük. in Fedde 1938, S. brevifolius var. tenax (Hook. f.) Koyama 1961, S. tenax (Hook. f.) Hook. f. 1864] ME70

Schoenus maschalinus Roem. & Schult. 1817 [incl. Chaetospora axillaris Br. 1810, Sch. axillaris (Br.) Poir. 1811 non Lam. 1791, Scirpus foliatus Hook. f. 1844, Sch. foliatus (Hook. f.) Blake 1940, Sch. subaxillaris Kük. in Fedde 1938] ME70

Schoenus nitens var. concinnus (Hook. f.) Cheesem. 1906 [=Chaetospora concinna Hook. f. 1853, S. concinnus (Hook. f.) Hook. f. 1864; incl. S. moorei Kirk 1881 non Benth. 1878] ME70

Tetraria capillaris (Muell.) Black 1934 [=Chaetospora capillaris Muell 1875; incl. C. capillacea Hook. f. 1858 non Nees 1834, Cladium capillaceum (Hook. f.) Clarke in Cheesem. 1906, Machaerina capillacea (Hook. f.) Koyama 1956, Schoenus tenuis Kirk 1875 (n. n.)] ME70

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A27] Andersen, J. C. 1927. Popular names of New Zealand plants. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 905–977.

[ASD05] Armstrong, K. N., A. W. Storey & P. M. Davies. 2005. Effects of catchment clearing and sedimentation on macroinvertebrate communities of cobble habitat in freshwater streams of southwestern Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (1): 1–11.

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 1. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C27] Carse, H. 1927. Botanical notes, with descriptions of new species. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 89–93.

[CL85] Cokendolpher, J. C., & D. Lanfranco L. 1985. Opiliones from the Cape Horn Archipelago: new southern records for harvestmen. Journal of Arachnology 13: 311–319.

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[DH98] Danin, A., & I. C. Hedge. 1998. Contributions to the flora of Jordan 2. A new species of Satureja (Labiatae) and some new records. Willdenowia 28: 135–142.

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49–62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

Healy, A. J., & E. Edgar. 1980. Flora of New Zealand vol. 3. Adventive cyperaceous, petalous and spathaceous monocotyledons. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[K72] Key, K. H. L. 1972. A revision of the Psednurini (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae). Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series 14: 1–72.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[ME70] Moore, L. B., & E. Edgar. 1970. Flora of New Zealand vol. 2. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Monocotyledones except Gramineae. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[M87] Mueller, F. von. 1887. Some hitherto undescribed plants of New South Wales. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1105–1110.

[M83] Myers, R. L. 1983. Site susceptibility to invasion by the exotic tree Melaleuca quinquenervia in southern Florida. Journal of Applied Ecology 20: 645–658.

[NS04] New, T. R., & D. P. A. Sands. 2004. Management of threatened insect species in Australia, with particular reference to butterflies. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 258–270.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19–28.

[RL05] Rafferty, C., & B. B. Lamont. 2005. Selective feeding by macropods on vegetation regenerating following fire. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 155–165.

[SM06] Semeniuk, C. A., L. A. Milne, P. Ladd & V. Semeniuk. 2006. Pollen in the surface sediments of wetlands in the Becher Point area, southwestern Australia: a baseline for use in interpreting Holocene sequences. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (1): 27–43.

[S95] Smith, G. T. 1995. Species richness, habitat and conservation of scorpions in the Western Australian wheatbelt. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 52: 55–66.

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