Common stonewort Chara vulgaris, photographed by Malcolm Storey.

Belongs within: Corticata.
Contains: Umbellinaceae, Porocharaceae, Conjugophyceae, Embryophyta.

The Charophyta are a group of green algae, many species of which are filamentous, that are now also recognised as phylogenetically including the land plants (Embryophyta). Members of the Coleochaetales, Characeae and Embryophyta are united by the presence of branching growth, oogamous sexual reproduction and phragmoplastic cell division. Conversely, at least some molecular analyses suggest that the basalmost member of the charophyte lineage may be the unicellular scaly alga Mesostigma viride (Karol et al. 2001).

    |--Mesostigma [Mesostigmatales] KM01
    |    `--M. viride KM01
    `--Streptophyta [Eophyceae, Phragmophytina, Rudophytae, Stichophycidae, Streptobionta, Zygnemobiotes] L-BC03
         |--Chlorokybus [Chlorokybales, Chlorokybophyceae, Chlorokybophyta] KM01
         |    `--C. atmophyticus SG99
         `--+--+--Entransia Hughes 1943 KM01, MK00
            |  |    `--E. fimbriata KM01
            |  `--Klebsormidium [Klebsormidiales, Klebsormidiobiotes, Klebsormidiophyceae, Klebsormidiophyta] KM01
            |       |--K. flaccidum KM01
            |       `--+--K. nitens KM01
            |          `--K. subtilissimum KM01
            `--+--Conjugophyceae KM01
               `--+--Coleochaetales [Chaetophycidae] KM01
                  |    |--Chaetosphaeridium (see below for synonymy) KM01
                  |    |    |--C. globosum KM01
                  |    |    `--C. ovalis KM01
                  |    `--Coleochaete [Coleochaetobiotes, Coleochaetophyceae, Coleochaetophyta] KM01
                  |         |  i. s.: C. scutata SG99
                  |         |--+--C. irregularis KM01
                  |         |  `--C. sieminskiana KM01
                  |         `--+--C. orbicularis KM01
                  |            `--C. soluta KM01
                  `--+--Embryophyta KM01
                     `--Characeae [Charales, Charobiotes, Charophyceae, Charophytae] KM01
                          |  i. s.: Septorella ultima APS03
                          |--+--Nitella [Nitelloideae] KM01
                          |  |    |--N. flagellifera SG05
                          |  |    |--N. flexilis B-BC03
                          |  |    |--N. hookerii W96
                          |  |    `--N. translucens MK00
                          |  `--Tolypella KM01
                          |       |--T. nidifica MK00
                          |       |    |--T. n. var. nidifica SG99
                          |       |    `--T. n. var. porteri SG99
                          |       `--T. prolifera MK00
                          `--+--+--Lychnothamnus barbatus KM01, MK00
                             |  `--Nitellopsis obtusa KM01, MK00
                             `--+--Lamprothamnium KM01
                                |    |--L. macropogon MK00
                                |    `--L. papulosum D30
                                `--Chara [Charoideae] KM01
                                     |--C. brachypus SG05
                                     |--C. braunii C96
                                     |--C. connivens MK00
                                     |--C. foetida L-BC03
                                     |--C. fragilis D03
                                     |--C. meriani Papp 1951 WH78
                                     |--C. vulgaris D03
                                     `--C. zeylanica SG05

Charophyta incertae sedis:
  Sycidiaceae [Sycidiales, Sycidiphyceae] E03
    |--Chovanella Reitlinger & Jarzewa 1958 E03
    |    |--*C. kovalevei Reitlinger & Jarzewa 1958 E03
    |    `--C. maslovi Jarzewa in Reitlinger & Jarzewa 1958 E03
    `--Sycidium Sandberger 1849 E03
         |--*S. reticulatum Sandberger 1849 E03
         |--S. foveatum E03
         |--S. melo E03
         |--S. minor [=S. panderi f. minor Karpinsky 1906] E03
         |--S. panderi Karpinsky 1906 E03
         |--S. pskowensis [=S. melo var. pskowensis] E03
         `--S. volborthi Karpinsky 1906 E03
              |--S. v. ssp. volborthi E03
              `--S. v. ssp. eifelicum Langer 1976 E03
  Umbellinaceae E03
  Columbella ningbingensis E03
  *Trochiliscus panderi [=Miliola panderi Ehrenberg 1859] E03
  Porocharaceae WH78
  Clavator [Clavatoraceae] WH78
    `--C. reidi Harris 1939 WH78
  Praechara Birina 1948 WH78
  Raskyella sahariana Mebrouk 1993 GH99

Chaetosphaeridium [Chaetosphaeridiobiotes, Chaetosphaeridiophyceae, Chaetosphaeridiophyta] KM01

*Type species of generic name indicated


[APS03] Allain, R., & X. Pereda Suberbiola. 2003. Dinosaurs of France. Comptes Rendus Palevol 2 (1): 27-44.

[C96] Campbell, N. A. 1996. Biology (4th ed.) The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc.: Menlo Park (California).

[D30] Druce, G. C. 1930. Account of a botanical tour in Cyprus. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London 141: 50-52.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. Patagonian and Fuegian mosses. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 63-126. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[E03] Edgell, H. S. 2003. Upper Devonian Charophyta of Western Australia. Micropaleontology 49 (4): 359-374.

[GH99] Gheerbrant, E. & J.-L. Hartenberger. 1999. Nouveau mammifère insectivore (?Lipotyphla, ?Erinaceomorpha) de l’Eocène inférieur de Chambi (Tunisie). Paläontologische Zeitschrift 73 (1-2): 143-156.

[KM01] Karol, K. G., R. M. McCourt, M. T. Cimino & C. F. Delwiche. 2001. The closest living relatives of land plants. Science 294: 2351-2353.

[L-BC03] López-Bautista, J. M., & R. L. Chapman. 2003. Phylogenetic affinities of the Trentepohliales inferred from small-subunit rDNA. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 2099-2106.

[MK00] McCourt, R. M., K. G. Karol, J. Bell, K. M. Helm-Bychowski, A. Grajewska, M. F. Wojciechowski & R. W. Hoshaw. 2000. Phylogeny of the conjugating green algae (Zygnemophyceae) based on rbcL sequences. Journal of Phycology 36: 747-758.

[SG05] Sau, A. & R. K. Gupta. 2005. Algal flora of Indian Botanic Garden, Howrah, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47 (1-4): 63-86.

[SG99] Sluiman, H. J., & C. Guihal. 1999. Phylogenetic position of Chaetosphaeridium (Chlorophyta), a basal lineage in the Charophyceae inferred from 18S rDNA sequences. Journal of Phycology 35: 395-402.

[W96] Wallace, J. W., Jr. 1996. Chemotaxonomy of the Hymenophyllaceae. II. C-glycosylflavones and flavone-O-glycosides of Trichomanes s.l. American Journal of Botany 83: 1304-1308.

[WH78] Wang Z. & Huang R.-J. 1978. Triassic charophytes of Shaanxi. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 17 (3): 267-276.

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