Geraniaceae

Cut-leaved cranesbill Geranium dissectum, copyright Fornax.


Belongs within: Malvidae.

The Geraniaceae is a family of mostly herbaceous plants. Species of the genus Geranium are known as cranesbills for their elongate capsular fruits; members of the genus Erodium are conversely known as heron's bills or storksbills. Garden geraniums are mostly species of the genus Pelargonium.

Characters (from Xu & Aedo): Herbs, annual or perennial (rarely shrublets or shrubs). Stipules present. Leaves alternate or opposite, palmately or pinnately divided, petiolate. Flowers in cymes, pseudoumbels, rarely flowers solitary, usually bisexual, actinomorphic, or ± zygomorphic. Sepals 5, usually distinct, imbricate. Petals usually 5, distinct. Fertile stamens 5 or 10, usually in 2 whorls, sometimes a whorl reduced to staminodes; filaments basally connate or distinct; anthers 2-locular, longitudinally dehiscent. Ovary superior; carpels 5, connate; ovules 1 or 2 per locule, pendulous, anatropous. Fruit a schizocarp with 5 1-seeded awned mericarps which separate elastically from a central beak. Seeds usually with little or no endosperm; embryo folded.

<==Geraniaceae
    |--Hypseocharis bilobata WM09
    |--Sarcocaulon CV06
    |    |--S. inerme CV06
    |    |--S. marlothii CV06
    |    `--S. peniculinum CV06
    |--Monsonia PP07
    |    |--M. deserticola CV06
    |    |--M. drudeana CV06
    |    |--M. ignorata CV06
    |    |--M. senegalensis PP07
    |    `--M. trilobata CV06
    |--Erodium KM08
    |    |--E. aureum KM08
    |    |--E. botrys OS04
    |    |--E. ciconium H91
    |    |--E. cicutarium KM08
    |    |--E. cygnorum KM08
    |    |--E. gruinum PT98
    |    |--E. laciniatum AGF98
    |    |--E. malacoides PT98
    |    |--E. moschatum GK00
    |    `--E. stephanianum O88
    |--Pelargonium L’Hér. 1787 A61
    |    |--P. alchemilloides CM09
    |    |--P. capitatum SM06
    |    |--P. cortusifolium CV06
    |    |--P. graveolens J87
    |    |--P. × hortorum WM09
    |    |--P. havlasae OS04
    |    |--P. inodorum Willd. 1809 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |    |--P. littorale GK00
    |    |--P. mirabile CV06
    |    |--P. otaviense CV06
    |    |--P. paniculatum CV06
    |    `--P. zonale MH98
    `--Geranium Linnaeus 1753 A61
         |  i. s.: G. aconitifolium C55a
         |         G. carolinianum [=G. dissectum var. carolinianum] A61
         |         G. columbinum PT98
         |         G. donianum O88
         |         G. himalayense O88
         |         G. lambertii O88
         |         G. macrorrhizum H09
         |         G. magellanicum D03
         |         G. molle PT98
         |         G. nakaoanum O88
         |         G. nepalense O88
         |         G. phaeum C55b
         |         G. polyanthes O88
         |         G. pratense C55b
         |         G. purpureum H91
         |         G. pusillum C55b
         |         G. pyrenaicum C55b
         |         G. refractum O88
         |         G. robertianum PT98
         |           |--G. r. ssp. robertianum PT98
         |           `--G. r. ssp. purpureum PT98
         |         G. rotundifolium PT98
         |         G. sanguineum Z02
         |         G. solanderi GK00
         |         G. sylvaticum H09
         |           |--G. s. ssp. sylvaticum H09
         |           `--G. s. ssp. caeruleatum H09
         |         G. wallichianum O88
         |--G. (sect. Andina) sessiliflorum Cav. 1787 A61
         |    |--G. s. var. sessiliflorum A61
         |    |--G. s. var. arenarium Simpson & Thomson 1943 (see below for synonymy) A61
         |    |--G. s. var. glabrum Knuth 1906 A61
         |    |--G. s. var. maculatum Simpson & Thomson 1943 A61
         |    `--G. s. var. novae-zelandiae V09
         |--G. sect. Australiensia A61
         |    |--G. microphyllum Hook. f. 1844 (see below for synonymy) A61
         |    |    |--G. m. var. microphyllum A61
         |    |    |--G. m. var. discolor Simpson & Thomson 1943 A61
         |    |    `--G. m. var. obtusatum Simpson & Thomson 1943 A61
         |    `--G. traversii Hook. f. 1867 A61
         |         |--G. t. var. traversii A61
         |         `--G. t. var. elegans Ckn. 1902 A61
         |--G. (sect. Chilensia) pilosum Sol. ex Willd. 1800 (see below for synonymy) A61
         `--G. sect. Columbina A61
              |--G. australe Nees in Lehm. 1844-1845 A61 (see below for synonymy)
              `--G. dissectum A61

Geranium australe Nees in Lehm. 1844-1845 A61 [=G. dissectum var. australe A27; incl. G. dissectum var. glabratum Hook. f. 1852 A61]

Geranium microphyllum Hook. f. 1844 [incl. G. potentilloides Hook. f. 1852 non L’Hér. ex DC. 1824, G. retrorsum Cunn. 1839 non L’Hér. ex DC. 1824] A61

Geranium pilosum Sol. ex Willd. 1800 [=G. dissectum var. pilosum; incl. G. dissectum var. grandiflorum Knuth 1912, G. patagonicum, G. dissectum var. patulum Hooker 1864, G. retrorsum L’Hér. ex DC. 1824] A61

Geranium sessiliflorum var. arenarium Simpson & Thomson 1943 [incl. G. brevicaule Hook. 1834, G. sessiliflorum var. sericea ms] A61

Pelargonium inodorum Willd. 1809 [=Geranium inodorum Poir. 1812; incl. P. clandestinum L’Hér. ex DC. 1824, P. erodioides Hook. 1834, P. australe var. erodioides Benth. 1863] A61

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AGF98] Abd El-Ghani, M. M., & A. G. Fahmy. 1998. Composition of and changes in the spontaneous flora of Feiran Oasis, S Sinai, Egypt, in the last 60 years. Willdenowia 28: 123-134.

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[A27] Andersen, J. C. 1927. Popular names of New Zealand plants. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 905-977.

[CM09] Callan, S. K. & J. D. Majer. 2009. Impacts of an incursion of African big-headed ants, Pheidole megacephala (Fabricius), in urban bushland in Perth, Western Australia. Pacific Conservation Biology 15: 102-115.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175-189.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8—Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323-402.

[H09] Heltmann, H. 2009. Der Königstein (Piatra Craiului), die Perle der Burzenländer Gebirge. Mauritiana 20 (3): 515-527.

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255-260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11-19.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180-190.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19-28.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P. & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 15-78.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: Flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95-116.

[SM06] Semeniuk, C. A., L. A. Milne, P. Ladd & V. Semeniuk. 2006. Pollen in the surface sediments of wetlands in the Becher Point area, southwestern Australia: a baseline for use in interpreting Holocene sequences. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (1): 27-43.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183-194.

[WM09] Wang, H., M. J. Moore, P. S. Soltis, C. D. Bell, S. F. Brockington, R. Alexandre, C. C. Davis, M. Latvis, S. R. Manchester & D. E. Soltis. 2009. Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (10): 3853-3858.

[Z02] Zschokke, S. 2002. Ultraviolet reflectance of spiders and their webs. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 246-254.

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