Gentianidae

Escallonia macrantha, photographed by Forest & Kim Starr.


Belongs within: Asteridae.
Contains: Garryales, Gentianales, Solanales, Lamiales, Boraginaceae, Aquifoliales, Asterales, Dipsacales, Apiales.

The Gentianidae are the clade often informally known as the euasterids, defined by Cantino et al. (2007) as the least inclusive clade including Gentiana lutea and Campanula elatines. Possible synapomorphies include the possession of epipetalous stamens, equalling or less than the number of corolla lobes, two fused carpels, and unitegmic ovules (Cantino et al. 2007).

Gentianidae [Euasteridae, Gentianiflorae, Solaniflorae]
    |--Garryidae CD07
    |    |--Garryales K01
    |    `--Lamiidae [Gentiananae, Lamianae, Solananae] CD07
    |         |--+--Gentianales K01
    |         |  `--Solanales K01
    |         `--+--+--Lamiales K01
    |            |  `--Vahliaceae CD07
    |            |       |--Vahlia K01
    |            |       |    |--V. capensis (Linnaeus) Thunberg 1782 CD07
    |            |       |    `--V. digyna PP07
    |            |       `--Bistella T00
    |            `--Boraginineae [Boraginales] T00
    |                 |--Boraginaceae K01
    |                 |--Hoplestigma [Hoplestigmataceae] T00
    |                 `--Lennoaceae T00
    |                      |--Lennoa T00
    |                      `--Pholisma T00
    `--Campanulidae CD07
         |--Aquifoliales K03
         `--+--Paracryphiaceae K03
            |    |--Paracryphia K03
            |    |--Sphenostemon [Sphenostemonaceae] K03
            |    |    |--S. arfakensis H03
            |    |    `--S. lobosporus H03
            |    `--Quintinia K03
            |         |--Q. serrata R85
            |         `--Q. verdonii K03
            `--Apiidae CD07
                 |  i. s.: Columelliaceae CD07
                 |           |--Columellia CD07
                 |           `--Desfontainia [Desfontainiaceae, Desfontainieae] CD07
                 |                `--D. spinosa D03
                 |--Asterales K03
                 `--+--Aralianae T00
                    |    |--Dipsacales K03
                    |    `--Apiales K03
                    `--+--Bruniales T00
                       |    |--Grubbia [Grubbiaceae] T00
                       |    |--Myrothamnus [Myrothamnaceae] T00
                       |    |--Hydrostachys [Hydrostachyaceae] T00
                       |    `--Berzelia [Bruniaceae] K03
                       |         `--B. lanuginosa K03
                       `--Escalloniaceae K03
                            |  i. s.: Anopterus CD07
                            |         Eremosyne [Eremosynaceae] CD07
                            |         Polyosma CD07
                            |--Tribeles [Tribeloideae] T00
                            `--Escallonioideae T00
                                 |--Abrophyllum T00
                                 |--Carpodetus serratus T00, WH02
                                 |--Choristylis T00
                                 |--Cuttsia T00
                                 |--Forgesia T00
                                 |--Pottingeria [Pottingeriaceae] T00
                                 `--Escallonia K03
                                      |--E. coquimbensis K03
                                      |--E. macrantha D03
                                      |--E. macrostemma D03
                                      |--E. myrtilloides R96
                                      |--E. rubra K03
                                      |--E. serrata CL85
                                      `--E. stricta D03

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1-E44.

[CL85] Cokendolpher, J. C., & D. Lanfranco L. 1985. Opiliones from the Cape Horn Archipelago: New southern records for harvestmen. Journal of Arachnology 13: 311-319.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8 – Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: Vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311-449.

[K01] Kårehed, J. 2001. Multiple origin of the tropical forest tree family Icacinaceae. American Journal of Botany 88 (12): 2259-2274.

[K03] Kårehed, J. 2003. The family Pennantiaceae and its relationships to Apiales. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141: 1-24.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P. & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 15-78.

[R96] Righi, G. 1996. Colombian earthworms. Studies on Tropical Andean Ecosystems 4: 485-607.

[R85] Robertson, C. J. R. (ed.) 1985. Reader’s Digest Complete Book of New Zealand Birds. Reader’s Digest: Sydney.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: Dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441-647.

[WH02] Worthy, T. H., & R. N. Holdaway. 2002. The Lost World of the Moa: Prehistoric life of New Zealand. Indiana University Press: Bloomington (Indiana).

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="http://www.fieldofscience.com/">FoS</a> = FoS